212 kuliah 01   pengenalan pemrograman berorientasi objek (java)
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212 kuliah 01 pengenalan pemrograman berorientasi objek (java)

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212 kuliah 01   pengenalan pemrograman berorientasi objek (java) 212 kuliah 01 pengenalan pemrograman berorientasi objek (java) Presentation Transcript

  • IF307 – PEM ROGRAM AN B ERORIENTASI OB JEK (JAVA) N I K O I B R A H I M , M I T E R I C K C O S T A N I O , S . K O M F A K U L T A S T E K N O L O G I I N F O R M A S I U N I V E R S I T A S K R I S T E N M A R A N A T H A © 2 0 1 0 Kuliah 01 Pengenalan PBO Berbasis Java
  • Class Attendance  Lectures schedule:  Class A: Monday, 08.00 – 10.00  Class B: Monday, 10.30 – 13.00  Practical work schedule:  Class A: Wednesday, 08.00 – 10.00  Class B: Wednesday, 10:00 – 12:00  All students must meet 75% of lecture‟s attendances to be eligible for the exams.
  • On Time  Students are expected to come on time for both lectures and practicals sessions.  More than 10 minutes means „no proof of attendace‟
  • Books & References  You may use any books you like most  However, for your guidelines:  Object of Java (BlueJ Edition)  Core Java 2 Volume 1 Fundamental 8th Edition  Other References  Java 6 API Documentation (Java Doc)  BlueJ Tutorials  BlueJ Reference Manual
  • Practical Works There are several practical works  Checkpoint system (1-5 stage for each pracs)  Checkpoint 1 - basic concepts (everyone)  Checkpoint 2 - understand and describe (nearly everyone)  Checkpoint 3 - apply to new contexts (most)  Checkpoint 4 - compare, synthesize (only top 40%)  Checkpoint 5 - generalize, hypothesize, analyze (only top 20%)  Try your best, do not copy other‟s work  No late submission, no excuse  No cheating, no copying, no sharing  Work independently, ask for help
  • Softwares and Tools  JDK 1.6 + Java API Documentation  Editors:  BlueJ (www.bluej.org): java editor + OOP concept  JGrasp (www.jgrasp.org): Java editor  NetBeans 6.9 (Java IDE)  Others:  Text Editor: Notepad, EditPlus, TextPad, UltraEdit, dll  Java Editor: JCreator, DrJava  IDE: Eclipse, IntelliJ IDEA
  • Silabus Perkuliahan Pertemuan Perkuliahan Praktikum Materi Tanggal Minggu 1 Perkuliahan ditiadakan 09 Agt - Minggu 2 Pengenalan Pemrograman Berorientasi Objek (Java) 16 Agt P1 – Java Lang 1 Minggu 3 Mengenal lebih dalam Java API dan Java Documentation 23 Agt P2 – Java Lang 2 Minggu 4 Konsep Pemrograman Berorientasi Objek: Class, Object 30 Agt P3 – Java Sun Rise Minggu 5 Method, Attributes, Encapsulation, & Overloading 06 Sep P4 – Smiley Face Minggu 6 Libur Hari Raya Idul Fitri 13 Sep P5 – Java Clock Minggu 7 Konsep Inheritance, Overriding, & Polymorphism 20 Sep P6 – Color Matcher Minggu 8 Review Materi 27 Sep Ujian Praktikum UTS Ujian Teori 4-6 Okt - Minggu 9 Abstract Class dan Interface 18 Okt P7 Minggu 10 OOP Advanced Features & Exception Handling 25 Okt P8 Minggu 11 Java Collections Framework 01 Nov P9 Minggu 12 Java Graphical User Interface (GUI) Bagian 1 08 Nov P10 Minggu 13 Java Graphical User Interface (GUI) Bagian 2 15 Nov P11 Minggu 14 Java Input/Output (Java IO) 22 Nov P12 Minggu 15 Review Materi 29 Nov Ujian Praktikum UAS Ujian Teori 6-18 Des -
  • What Java?  1991: project “Oak” by James Gosling  Berorientasi objek, berdasarkan bahasa C++  Dirancang untuk memprogram “home applicances” seperti TV sets, freezers, dll  Perlu berjalan di berbagai platform/processor dan harus murah  1994: HotJava (browser yang mampu menjalankan aplikasi java)  1995: implementasi publik yang pertama kali  Semua browsers dapat menjalankan aplikasi java di web (java applet)  1998: The advent of Java 2: J2EE, J2ME, & J2SE  2002: Microsoft memperkenalkan bahasa baru yang memiliki sintaks yang mirip Java yaitu C# sebagai bagian dari platform .NET, sekaligus menghilangkan Java dari Windows (harus install manual)  2006: Sun released parts of Java as Free/Open Source Software!  Versi saat ini: Java Development Kit (JDK) versi 1.6, biasa disebut JDK 6  In 2009, Sun Microsystem (the creator of Java) was acquired by Oracle (2nd largest software company in the world)
  • Why Java?  cheap – almost all tools/softwares/components are available for free!  simple - partially modeled on C & C++ but greatly simplified and improved (eliminates pointers, simplifies multiple inheritance, etc.)  object-oriented programming language  any conceptual component in your problem can be represented as an object in your program  portable  Java programs are compiled (translated) into the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) code called bytecode  bytecode is machine-independent and run on any machine with a Java interpreter  the Java interpreter (part of JVM) further translates the bytecode into the machine language of the target machine  once compiled programs can run on any platform (with JVM installed) without being recompiled
  • Why Java? (cont.)  robust (reliable) - well developed exception handling mechanisms, early checking for errors, etc.  secure - several built-in security mechanisms  multithreaded - can perform several tasks simultaneously
  • Where Java?  Desktop applications  Web applications  Ebay, Amazon, AirAsia, klikBCA  Mobile Devices: mobile phone, smartphone, Blackberry, PDA  Smart Card: Simcard, Credit Card, RFID Card (Contoh: E-Tol)  Enterprise Applications  SAP, JD Edward, PeopleSoft, Oracle Business Suite  All machines & OS: windows, linux, mac, solaris
  • Java Platform http://download.oracle.com/javase/6/docs/  The following conceptual diagram illustrates all the component technologies in Java SE platform and how they fit together.
  • Typical Java Development Environment  Ada 5 tahapan pengembangan aplikasi menggunakan Java:  Tahap 1: Creating a program  Tahap 2: Compiling the program into bytecodes  Tahap 3: Loading the program into memory  Tahap 4: Byte verification  Tahap 5: Execution
  • Tahap 1: Creating a program  Pada tahap ini, kita membutuhkan suatu editor untuk menulis kode program.  Kode program disimpan pada file berekstensi “.java”  Editor yang dapat digunakan:  Editor teks sederhana: notepad, editPlus, Textpad, UltraEdit  Editor teks berbasis Java: JGrasp, JCreator, DoctorJava  Editor teks + diagram sederhana: BlueJ  Integrated Development Environment (IDE):  Free: NetBeans, Eclipse, Oracle JDeveloper  Commercial: IntelliJ IDEA, IBM, BEA, Borland JBuilder
  • Tahap 2: Compiling  Pada tahap ini, kita compile kode program menjadi bytecodes dengan menggunakan perintah “javac”  Contoh:  Kita membuat program dengan nama “Welcome.java”  Perintah compile: javac Welcome.java  Apabila proses compile berhasil, maka compiler akan menghasilkan sebuah file dengan ekstensi “.class” yaitu “Welcome.class”  File “.class” bukan bahasa mesin, melainkan merupakan Bytecodes yang dapat dimengerti oleh Java Virtual Machine (JVM)  JVM inilah yang akan mengeksekusi bytecodes ke dalam bahasa mesin  JVM inilah yang menyebabkan Java begitu powerful, secure, scalable dan multi-platform/portable  Bytecode ini dapat dieksekusi di mesin/platform apapun asalkan telah diinstal JVM yang dapat mengerti versi Java tempat bytecode tersebut dicompile sebelumnya  Untuk menjalankan JVM dan mengeksekusi program, kita gunakan perintah “java”  Misalnya: java Welcome
  • Tahap 3-5  Phase 3: Loading a Program into Memory  In Phase 3, the program must be placed in memory before it can execute a process known as loading.  The class loader takes the .class files containing the program's bytecodes and transfers them to primary memory.  The class loader also loads any of the .class files provided by Java that our program uses.  Phase 4: Bytecode Verification  In Phase 4, as the classes are loaded, the bytecode verifier examines their bytecodes to ensure that they are valid and do not violate Java's security restrictions.  Phase 5: Execution  In Phase 5, the JVM executes the program's bytecodes, thus performing the actions specified by the program.
  • Latihan 1: HelloMe.java  Berdasarkan program “HelloWorld.java”, buatlah sebuah program baru bernama HelloMe.java  Pada saat di-run, program harus menampilkan pesan sbb: Hello World, Niko!  Note:  Ganti dengan nama Anda sendiri…  Biasakan beri NRP dan Nama anda (dalam bentuk comment)  Pertanyaan: apa perbedaan antara print dan println ?
  • Pembahasan Program 0: // Exercise 1: HelloMe.java 1: // NIK: 730015, NAMA: Niko Ibrahim 2: public class HelloMe { 3: public static void main (String args[ ]) { 4: System.out.println("Hello World, Niko!"); 5: } 6: } Line 0: Komentar program, judul program, keterangan penting. Line 1: Selalu tuliskan identitas penulis program. Line 2: - Nama kelas. Setiap program Java minimal memiliki 1 deklarasi kelas. - Kelas diawali huruf kapital untuk setiap kata. - Untuk men-save public class ke file, harus diberi nama sesuai dengan nama kelas tsb dan diakhiri dengan ekstensi .java. Tentang public akan dibahas nanti. Line 3: main method  the starting point of every Java application Line 4: instruksi pada komputer untuk menulis suatu String (kata-kata)
  • Compile & Run menggunakan command window  Kita dapat menggunakan command window untuk melakukan compile dan run program Java.  Jalankan command window:  Start menu  run  ketik cmd  Masuk ke direktori tempat Anda menyimpan file HelloMe.java  PERINTAH COMPILE : javac HelloMe.java  PERINTAH RUN : java HelloMe Note: JAVA PATH harus di-set terlebih dahulu di sistem operasi
  • print, println,dan printf  Untuk menuliskan sesuatu, Java memberikan 3 pilihan methods:  print  posisi akhir kursor berada di garis yang sama  Contoh: System.out.print ("Hello World");  println  posisi akhir kursor berada di garis yang baru (seolah menekan enter)  Contoh: System.out.println("Hello World");  printf  print dalam bentuk format tertentu (f = formatted)  Contoh: System.out.printf("%sn %sn", "Hello", "World");
  • Karakter Khusus  Kita juga dapat memasukan karakter khusus ke dalam String.  Untuk itu kita perlu menggunakan tanda “escape”, sbb:  Contoh: Sequence Character n New line t Tab r Return ” Quotation Mark Backslash String Result "Code: JSPSnPrice: $50.25" Code: JSPS Price: $50.25 "NikotIbrahimrMaranathatUniversity" Niko Ibrahim Maranatha University "Type "x" to exit" Type "x" to exit "C:javafiles" C:javafiles
  • Tipe Data Primitif  Java memiliki 8 tipe data primitif Type Bits Bytes Minimum Range Maximum Range byte 8 1 -128 or -27 127 or 27-1 short 16 2 -32,768 or -215 32,767 or 215-1 int 32 4 -2,147,483,648 or -231 2,147,483,647 or 231-1 long 64 8 -263 263-1 float 32 4 -3.4E38 3.4E38 double 64 8 -1.7E308 1.7E308 char 16 2 n/a n/a boolean 8 1 n/a n/a float  7 significant digits double  16 significant digits
  • Variabel & Assignment  Java merupakan bahasa pemrograman yang bersifat static, artinya kita harus mendeklarasikan nama variabel sebelum meng-assign suatu nilai  Sintaks: tipeData namaVariabel  Contoh:  int counter;  counter = 1;  Kita juga dapat secara langsung meng-assign suatu nilai kepada variabel:  int counter = 1;  boolean valid = false;  char letter = ‘A’;  char letter = 65;  double distance = 3.65e+9;  Untuk menginisialisai suatu konstanta, kita gunakan keyword “final”:  final int DAYS_IN_NOVEMBER = 30;  final double SALEX_TAX = 0.75
  • String di Java  String dapat berisi huruf, angka, dan karakter khusus  String bukan merupakan tipe data primitif melainkan tipe data reference  Untuk menyambung (concat) dua/lebih string, gunakan operator +  Syntax: String variableName = value;  Examples: String message1 = "Invalid data entry"; String message2 = " "; String message3 = null; String firstName = "Niko"; String lastName = "Ibrahim"; String name = firstName + " " + lastName;
  • Operator Aritmatika  Program seringkali membutuhkan berbagai operasi aritmatika. Java menyediakan berbagai operasi aritmatika untuk melakukan:  Penjumlahan, Pengurangan,  Pembagian, Perkalian,  Sisa Pembagian
  • Parentheses  ( )  Kita dapat menggunakan tanda kurung dalam melakukan operasi aritmatika.  Contoh: a dikalikan dengan hasil penjumlahan antara b dengan c  Yang manakah yang benar? 1) a * b + c 2) a * (b + c) 3) (a * (b + c))  Note: operasi di dalam kurung akan diproses pertama kali!
  • Precedence dari operator aritmatika  Berikut ini adalah urutan pengerjaan operasi aritmatika (precedence)  Contoh urutan pengerjaan:
  • More: Operator Aritmatika Operator Name # Operands Description + Addition 2 Add two operands - Subtraction 2 Subtract the right operand from the left * Multiplication 2 Multiplies the right operand and left operand / Division 2 Divides the right operand into the left operand % Modulus 2 Returns the value that is left over after dividing the right operand into the left operand ++ Increment 1 Adds 1 to the operand (x = x + 1) -- Decrement 1 Subtracts 1 from the operand (x = x -1) + Positive Sign 1 Promotes byte, short, and char types to the int type - Negative Sign 1 Changes a positive value to negative, and vice versa Secara keseluruhan Java memiliki 9 operator aritmatika:
  • Contoh-contoh operasi aritmatika Integer Arithmetic: int x = 14; int y = 8; Double Arithmetic: double a = 8.5; double b = 3.4; Operations Results Operations Results int result1 = x + y; int result2 = x – y; int result3 = x * y; int result4 = x / y; int result5 = x % y; int result6 = -y + x; int result7 = --y; int result8 = ++x; result1 = 22 result2 = 6 result3 = 112 result4 = 1 result5 = 6 result6 = 6 result7 = 7 result8 = 15, x = 15 double result9 = a + b; double result10 = a – b; double result11 = a * b; double result12 = a / b; double result13 = a % b; double result14 = -a + b; double result15 = --a; double result16 = ++b; result9 = 11.9 result10 = 5.1 result11 = 28.90 result12 = 2.5 result13 = 1.7 result14 = -5.1 result15 = 7.5 result16 = 4.4 Character Arithmetic: char letter1 = ‘C’; // letter1 = ‘C’ Unicode integer is 67 char letter2 = ++letter1; // letter2 = ‘D’ Unicode integer is 68
  • Shorcut Assignment Operators Java memiliki 6 shortcut assignment operators: Operator Name Description = Assignment Assigns a new value to the variable += Addition Adds the operand to the starting variable value of the variable and assigns the result to the variable -= Subtraction Subtracts the operand from the starting value of the variable and assigns the result to the variable *= Multiplication Multiplies the operand by the starting value of the variable and assigns the result to the variable /= Division Divides the operand by the starting value of the variable and assigns the result to the variable %= Modulus Derives the value that is left over after dividing the right operand by the value in the variable, and then assigns this value to the variable
  • Contoh shortcut assignment operator  count += 1; // count is increased by 1  count -= 1; // count is decreased by 1  total += 100.0; // total is increased by 100.0  total -= 100.0; // total is decreased by 100.0  price *= .8; // price is multiplied by 0.8  sum += nextNumber;// sum is increased by the value of nextNumber
  • Using Console for Input & Output  Mulai Java versi 5, cara paling mudah untuk mendapatkan input dari console adalah dengan menggunakan Scanner class  Untuk menampilkan output ke console adalah menggunakan method (fungsi) System.out.println  Sebelum menggunakan Scanner class, kita harus melakukan proses import sbb: import java.util.Scanner;  Untuk membaca input dari console, kita buat objek scanner dengan cara menuliskannya sbb: Scanner sc = new Scanner(System.in);  Ada 4 buah methods dari objek Scanner (yaitu sc) yang dapat kita gunakan sesuai kebutuhan: Method Description next() or nextLine() Reads a String value from the user nextInt() Reads an integer value from the user nextDouble() Reads a double value from the user nextBoolean() Reads a boolean value from the user
  • Latihan 2: Operasi Penambahan Integer // Addition program that displays the sum of two numbers. import java.util.Scanner; // program uses class Scanner public class Addition { // main method begins execution of Java application public static void main( String args[] ) { // create Scanner to obtain input from command window Scanner input = new Scanner( System.in ); int number1; // first number to add int number2; // second number to add int sum; // sum of number1 and number2 System.out.print( "Enter first integer: " ); // prompt number1 = input.nextInt(); // read first number from user System.out.print( "Enter second integer: " ); // prompt number2 = input.nextInt(); // read second number from user sum = number1 + number2; // add numbers System.out.print( "Sum is " + sum ); // display sum } // end method main } // end class Addition
  • Variabel dan Konsep Memori  Nama variable seperti number1, number2, dan sum sebenarnya berkorenpondensi dengan lokasi di memori komputer.  Setiap variabel memiliki nama, tipe, ukuran, dan nilai  Kode dari contoh 2: number1 = input.nextInt(); // read first number from user  Pada saat kode tsb dieksekusi, nomor yang diketik oleh user akan disimpan ke suatu lokasi dimemori yang telah diberikan kepada number1 oleh compiler.  Misal, user memasukkan angka 45, maka komputer akan menyimpan nilai integer ke lokasi number1 sbb:
  • Variabel dan Konsep Memori (cont.)  number2 = input.nextInt(); // read second number from user  Memory locations after storing values for number1 and number2.  sum = number1 + number2; // add numbers  Memory locations after calculating and storing the sum of number1 and number2.
  • Latihan 3: InvoiceApp.java // Latihan 3: InvoiceApp.java import java.util.Scanner; public class InvoiceApp { public static void main (String args[]) { // create a Scanner object Scanner sc = new Scanner(System.in); // read a string System.out.print("Enter product code: "); String productCode = sc.next(); // read a double value System.out.print("Enter price: "); double price = sc.nextDouble(); // read an int value System.out.print("Enter quantity: "); int quantity = sc.nextInt(); // perform a calculation and display the result double total = price * quantity; System.out.println(); System.out.println(quantity + " " + productCode + " @ " + price + " = " + total); } }
  • Ekspresi Boolean  Ekpresi Boolean biasanya digunakan untuk mengatur control statements.  Ekpresi Boolean menghasilkan nilai true atau false.  Ada 6 operator relational yang membandingkan operand bertipe data primitif dan menghasilkan nilai boolean.  Dalam suatu ekpresi boolean, suatu operand dapat berupa literal, ekpresi aritmatika, maupun keyword true atau false. Operator Name Description == Equality Returns a true value if both operands are equals != Inequality Returns a true value if the left and right operands are not equal > Greater Than Returns a true value if the left operand is greater than the right operand < Less Than Return a true value if the left operand is less than the right operand >= Greater Than Or Equal Returns a true value if the left operand is greater than or equal to the right operand <= Less Than or Equal Return a true value if the left operand is less than or equal to the right operand
  • Contoh ekpresi boolean  discountPercent == 2.3 // equal to a numeric literal  letter == ‘y’ // equal to a char literal  isValid == false // equal to the false value  subtotal != 0 // not equal to a numeric literal  years > 0 // greater than a numeric literal  i < months // less than a variable  subtotal >= 500 // greater than or equal to a numeric literal  quantity <= reorderPoint // less than or equal to a variable  Kita juga dapat menggabungkan beberapa nilai Boolean dengan menggunakan operator AND dan OR: Operator Name Example Description && AND a && b true if both a and b are true || OR a || b true if either a or b (or both) is true ^ XOR a ^ b true if only a or b is true ! NOT !a true if a is not true
  • String Comparison  Karena String adalah suatu objek, bukan tipe data primitif, kita tidak dapat menggunakan operator relational untuk membandingkannya.  Kita harus menggunakan method “equals” atau “equalgnoreCase” yang dimiliki oleh kelas String.  Contoh:  firstName.equals("Niko"); // equal to a string literal  firstName.equalsIgnoreCase("Niko"); // equal to a string literal  firstName.equals(""); // equal to an empty string  !lastName.equals("Ibrahim"); // not equal to a string literal  !code.equalsIgnoreCase(productCode); // not equal to another string variable  firstName == null // equal to a null value  firstName != null // not equal to a null value  Java 6 only: firstName.isEmpty() // check if firstName is an empty string
  • Next Week!  Struktur Control:  Looping  For Loop  For Each Loop  While Loop  Do While Loop  Branching  If Else  Switch Case  Konsep Arrays  Java Documentation