Planning_and_writing_a_scientific_manuscript_03012011

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Planning_and_writing_a_scientific_manuscript_03012011

  1. 1. Planning and writing a scientific manuscript:Get your paper accepted<br />Hiroshima University<br />Warren Raye, PhD<br />Senior Life Sciences Editor <br />Edanz Group Japan<br />March 1, 2011<br />
  2. 2. A little about me…<br />Author<br />Lecturer, researcher, teacher<br />Senior Life Sciences Editor<br />Edanz Group Japan | 2<br />
  3. 3. A little more about me…<br /><ul><li>Research: virology, arthritis, stem cells
  4. 4. Fields: Virology, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Immunology, Stem Cell Biology, Genomics, Proteomics</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 3<br />
  5. 5. Presentation<br /><ul><li>Section One: Scientific publishing
  6. 6. Section Two: Before you start…
  7. 7. Section Three: Structuring your manuscript
  8. 8. Section Four: Hints and tips</li></ul>EdanzGroup Japan | 4<br />
  9. 9. Why publish?<br />Nature is complex<br />EdanzGroup Japan | 5<br />
  10. 10. Why publish?<br />Nature is complex<br />Nature is complex<br />We use complex technologies<br />and methods to understand it…<br />Edanz Group Japan | 6<br />
  11. 11. Why publish?<br />…and the science is often necessarily complex<br />We use complex technologies<br />and methods to understand it…<br />Edanz Group Japan | 7<br />
  12. 12. Why publish? To exchange ideas globally<br />…and the science is often necessarily complex<br />Language clarity is therefore very important<br />Edanz Group Japan | 8<br />
  13. 13. Why publish?<br /><ul><li>The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society
  14. 14. Published since 1665</li></ul>“science can only move forward through a transparent and open exchange of ideas backed by experimental evidence.” – The Royal Society<br />Edanz Group Japan | 9<br />
  15. 15. Why publish in English?<br /><ul><li>The international language of science
  16. 16. Other scientists WANT to hear from you!
  17. 17. Allows you to become an effective scince communicator
  18. 18. Number of publications is linked to funding success
  19. 19. Your obligation/duty as a scientist!</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 10<br />
  20. 20. Publish or perish<br />Funding Bodies<br />Grant Writing<br />Researchers<br />Journal Publication<br />Edanz Group Japan | 11<br />
  21. 21. Increased competition<br /><ul><li>Relative growth from 100% baseline in 1990</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 12<br />
  22. 22. Publishing timeline<br /><ul><li>Submission to publication, 3–12 months</li></ul>Editor assigned rapid rejectionORpeer review<br />Reviewers evaluate accept, rejectORrevise<br />Manuscript submitted<br />Publication!<br />Revise manuscript<br />Editor sources reviewers<br />Edanz Group Japan | 13<br />
  23. 23. Section Two Before you begin…<br /><ul><li>Read
  24. 24. Hot topics
  25. 25. Experimental design
  26. 26. Journal selection
  27. 27. Ethics</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 14<br />
  28. 28. Read<br /><ul><li>Know the background material
  29. 29. Read broadly
  30. 30. Determine the key papers in your field
  31. 31. What is the current state of understanding?
  32. 32. Identify gaps in the knowledge</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 15<br />
  33. 33. Reading helps your writing<br /><ul><li>Both sides of the brain are essential and work in harmony</li></ul>Reading<br />Creativity<br />Logic<br />Reading<br />Writing<br /><ul><li>Similarly, reading and writing are connected </li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 16<br />
  34. 34. Reading improves your writing<br /><ul><li>Reading and writing are linked!
  35. 35. Read as often as possible
  36. 36. Discuss with your co-workers</li></ul>Reading<br /><ul><li>Assists you with journal selection
  37. 37. Provides ideas for your next manuscript</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 17<br />
  38. 38. Hot topics<br /><ul><li>Look for clues…
  39. 39. How?
  40. 40. Controversies
  41. 41. Unexplained findings
  42. 42. Editorials, commentaries, letters to the editor, </li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 18<br />
  43. 43. Hot topics<br /><ul><li>Literature searches
  44. 44. PubMed
  45. 45. Google Scholar
  46. 46. HighWire (highwire.stanford.edu)
  47. 47. Scirus (www.scirus.com)
  48. 48. Expand your reading
  49. 49. Similar and related fields</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 19<br />
  50. 50. Hot topics<br /><ul><li>Talk to other scientists!
  51. 51. Local society meetings
  52. 52. National conferences
  53. 53. International congresses</li></ul>These are the places where the very latest results are presented<br />Edanz Group Japan | 20<br />
  54. 54. Experimental design Get it right<br /><ul><li>CRITICAL</li></ul>What is your hypothesis or research question?<br />THE AIM(S) OF YOUR STUDY<br /><ul><li>What methods are appropriate?
  55. 55. Do you have the relevant resources?
  56. 56. Identify your controls</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 21<br />
  57. 57. Experimental design Get it right<br /><ul><li>Sample sizes (n) large enough?
  58. 58. Which statistical test(s)?</li></ul>When in doubt – talk to a statistician!<br /><ul><li>Does your study comply with ALL ethics requirements?</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 22<br />
  59. 59. Journal Selection<br />Edanz Group Japan | 23<br />
  60. 60. Journal Selection<br /><ul><li>What is the main focus of your work?
  61. 61. Who will be interested?
  62. 62. How significant are your results?
  63. 63. Where have similar articles been published?</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 24<br />
  64. 64. Journal Selection<br />Factors to consider:<br /><ul><li>Appropriate for your message
  65. 65. Publishing frequency
  66. 66. Impact factor
  67. 67. Target audience
  68. 68. Aims and scope
  69. 69. Open access or subscriber
  70. 70. Cost
  71. 71. Publication types</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 25<br />
  72. 72. Publication ethics<br />DO NOT…<br /><ul><li>Multiple submissions
  73. 73. Plagiarism
  74. 74. Data fabrication and falsification
  75. 75. Improper use of human subjects and animals
  76. 76. Improper author contribution</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 26<br />
  77. 77. Section Three Manuscript structure<br /><ul><li>You are telling a story Beginning  Middle  End
  78. 78. Expanded IMRaD model
  79. 79. Title
  80. 80. Abstract
  81. 81. Key words
  82. 82. Introduction
  83. 83. Methods
  84. 84. Results
  85. 85. Discussion
  86. 86. References
  87. 87. Acknowledgments</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 27<br />
  88. 88. The ‘write’ order<br />For maximum clarity and consistency, write your manuscript in this order:<br /><ul><li>Methods
  89. 89. Results
  90. 90. Introduction
  91. 91. Discussion
  92. 92. Title
  93. 93. Abstract</li></ul>Write duringthe research<br />Write afterselecting your target journal<br />Write last<br />Edanz Group Japan | 28<br />
  94. 94. The importance of your title<br />World Class<br />Physics Manuscript<br />A label for indexing<br />Grabs the reader’s attention<br />Introduces your manuscript to an editor<br /><ul><li>Convey the main topics of manuscript
  95. 95. Be specific and concise
  96. 96. Avoid jargon, abbreviations and acronyms</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 29<br />
  97. 97. A good title<br />Poor<br />Late Quaternary evolution of a loess landscape over glacial and interglacial cycles in a region of high tectonic vertical uplift and lateral strike-slip movement in the Charwell Basin located in the South Island of New Zealand<br />Better<br />Late Quaternary loess landscape evolution on an active tectonic margin, Charwell Basin, South Island, New Zealand<br />Too long<br />Shorter and easy to understand<br />Edanz Group Japan | 30<br />
  98. 98. Abstract<br /><ul><li>The majority of people will only read this section
  99. 99. It must be able to ‘stand alone’
  100. 100. Should give an accurate summary of your research and conclusions reached</li></ul>ALWAYS consult the Guide for Authors for specific requirements<br />Edanz Group Japan | 31<br />
  101. 101. A good Abstract should …<br /><ul><li>Be brief
  102. 102. State the objectives and scope of the study/investigation
  103. 103. Describe the methods employed
  104. 104. Summarize the results
  105. 105. State the principal conclusions
  106. 106. Avoid abbreviations AND references</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 32<br />
  107. 107. Introduction WHY?<br />What question (problem) was studied?<br />The answer to this question is contained within your Introduction<br />Beginning  Middle  End<br />Edanz Group Japan | 33<br />
  108. 108. IntroductionBeginning<br /><ul><li>Provide background information to put your work into context
  109. 109. DO NOT write a comprehensive literature review of the field
  110. 110. DO cite reviews that readers can refer to if they want more information</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 34<br />
  111. 111. IntroductionMiddle<br /><ul><li>What is the rationale/reason for your study?
  112. 112. Explain how you addressed the problem (1–2 sentences)
  113. 113. DO NOT state results from your study</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 35<br />
  114. 114. IntroductionEnd<br /><ul><li>Clearly state the aims of your study
  115. 115. State the methods you will use to carry out your aims
  116. 116. Ask yourself: are the citations balanced, current and relevant?</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 36<br />
  117. 117. Materials and methodsHOW?<br /><ul><li>Clear subheadings
  118. 118. Describe methods in the past tense
  119. 119. New methods must be described in sufficient detail for a capable researcher to reproduce the experiment
  120. 120. Established methods can be referenced
  121. 121. Describe statistical tests used</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 37<br />
  122. 122. Materials and methodsExample<br />Materials and methods<br />Materials.Culture media were obtained from Life Technologies (Gaithersburg, MD). Okadaic acid was purchased from Alexis Company (Läufelfingen,Switzerland). Antibodies to MEK1/2 and phosphorylated MAPK were purchased from New England Biolabs (Beverley, MA).<br />Materials described first Suppliers/locations given<br />Clear subheadings<br />Refs used to save space<br />Induction of cell death. Cell death was induced as described previously [15]. Briefly, cell death was induced by adding okadaic acid (0-300 nM, Alexis Co.) after washing slice cultures in serum-free medium.<br />Light and electron microscopy. Cultures were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde and 1% formaldehyde, treated with 1% OsO4 in 0.1M phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, dehydrated in a graded series of ethanoland propylene oxide, and flat-embedded in an epoxy resin (DurcupanACM, Fluka, Neu-Ulm, Germany). Semithin sections were stainedwith toluidine blue, and ultrathin sections were stained with1% uranyl acetate for 20 min and 1% lead citrate for 2 min.<br />Enough information to reproduce the experiment<br />Statistical test parameters provided<br />Statistics.For statistical analysis, 2-tailed Student’s t test was used to assess the significance of mean differences. Differences were considered significant at a P value of 0.05 or less.<br />Edanz Group Japan | 38<br />
  123. 123. ResultsWHAT?<br /><ul><li>Assemble your findings in a logical order to make a ‘story’ (Beginning  Middle  End)
  124. 124. Use subheadings
  125. 125. Use past tense to describe results
  126. 126. BUT refer to figures and tables in the present tense
  127. 127. Present the facts, DO NOT discuss your results
  128. 128. DO NOT duplicate data among figures, tables and text
  129. 129. Include results of statistical analyses in the text</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 39<br />
  130. 130. ResultsWhat did you find?<br />Results<br />Okadaic induces death of dentate gyrus neurons selectively.Hippocampal slice cultures treated with OA (1–300 nM) showed selective cell death of neurons in the dentate gyrus, but neurons in the CA1–3 regions were largely unaffected. Cell death occurred in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Propidium iodide staining of treated slides indicated….<br />Clear subheadings<br />Electron microscopy revealed a number of ultrastructural changes in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, particularly those in the CA3 region, in slices treated with 300 nM OA for 24 h (Fig 3). These changes included slight nuclear aggregations (arrow in Fig 3A), accumulation of mitochondria around nuclei (arrowheads in Fig 3B) and an increased amount of endoplasmic reticulum (Fig 3C). As shown in Figure 4, the nuclei of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 and CA3 regions…<br />Graphics used to save space<br />Involvement of MAPK signaling in the effect of OA.Compared with slices treated with medium only and treated slices at 0 h, slices treated with 300 nM OA showed increasing levels of phosphorylated MAPK at 4 h, 8 h, 16 h and 24 h, with no corresponding change in the levels of total MAPK. This increase was prevented in slices that were co-incubated with a protein kinase inhibitor. In addition, the levels of phosphorylated Tau were higher in OA-treated slices than in control slices…<br />Clear comparisons made<br />Edanz Group Japan | 40<br />
  131. 131. Display items Tables and figures<br /><ul><li>Figures and tables are VERY EFFECTIVE
  132. 132. Keep it simple — use separate panels if necessary
  133. 133. Avoid duplication with the text
  134. 134. Label all parts of your figures
  135. 135. Include trendlines, scale bars and statistical significance
  136. 136. Legends must be able to ‘stand alone’</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 41<br />
  137. 137. Display itemsFigures<br />Clear, ‘stand alone’ caption<br />Multi-panel: sets of related data shown in a single figure<br />Fig. 9. The fringe period decreases with increasing separation. (a) 0.5 nm separation with movie showing phase procession between the lasers (Media 1). We believe the non-sinusoidal shape of these peaks arises from soliton effect compression in the amplifier before the temporal imaging stage [31]. (b) 1.5 nm separation, and (c) 2.5 nm separation. (d) The phase slip between the two lasers, which are not phase-locked, washes out the fringes when averaged over multiple shots.<br />Complicated data separated into simpler components<br />Axes clearly labeled<br />Edanz Group Japan | 42<br />
  138. 138. Statistics<br /><ul><li>Statistical analysis is at the heart of scientific inquiry
  139. 139. Consider statistical analysis when you design your study. Before you start your research.</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 43<br />
  140. 140. Statistics Poor statistics<br />Poor statistics <br />Poor analysis<br />Poor interpretation<br />Poor study design<br />e.g., sample size is too small<br />Data are valid<br />Re-analysis or re-interpretation<br />Difficult to recover…<br />Revise manuscript<br />Edanz Group Japan | 44<br />
  141. 141. DiscussionSO WHAT?<br />What do these findings mean?<br />The answer to this question is in the Discussion<br />Beginning  Middle  End<br />Edanz Group Japan | 45<br />
  142. 142. Discussion Beginning<br /><ul><li>Answer the research question
  143. 143. ALWAYS provide the major/main result first
  144. 144. Give your conclusions, based on the results</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 46<br />
  145. 145. Discussion Middle<br /><ul><li>Interpret the results
  146. 146. Compare your results with those from other studies
  147. 147. Same or different?
  148. 148. Possible reasons why?
  149. 149. Briefly describe limitations
  150. 150. If you don’t, the reviewers will!</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 47<br />
  151. 151. Discussion End<br /><ul><li>State your conclusions again
  152. 152. In summary …
  153. 153. In conclusion …
  154. 154. Mention possible applications, implications and speculation, if appropriate
  155. 155. Suggest future work, if necessary</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 48<br />
  156. 156. References<br /><ul><li>ALWAYS format your references: check the Guide for Authors for the appropriate format
  157. 157. Use reference management software (Mendeley, Zotero, RefWorks, EndNote)
  158. 158. I highly recommend EndNote
  159. 159. http://www.endnote.com/</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 49<br />
  160. 160. Section Four Tips and hints<br /><ul><li>Peer Review
  161. 161. Language</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 50<br />
  162. 162. Peer Review<br /><ul><li>Only 1.5% of papers are immediately accepted without need for any revisions</li></ul>Complete rejection<br />Rejection with major revisions<br />Journal editor decision<br />Rejection with minor revisions<br />Acceptance<br />Edanz Group Japan | 51<br />
  163. 163. Peer ReviewRapid rejection<br /><ul><li>Failure to state a hypothesis
  164. 164. Not answering the hypothesis
  165. 165. Contradictions within the manuscript
  166. 166. Superficial or rambling discussion
  167. 167. Inconsistent use of terms
  168. 168. Conclusion that is not supported by the data</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 52<br />
  169. 169. Peer ReviewWhat do reviewers look for?<br /><ul><li>Is the manuscript sufficiently novel?
  170. 170. Is the manuscript of broad enough interest?</li></ul>Aims and Scope<br />Impact Factor<br />Novelty<br />Significance<br />Edanz Group Japan | 53<br />
  171. 171. Peer review Responding to comments<br /><ul><li>Politely respond to ALL the reviewers’ comments in a response letter
  172. 172. Make it easy to see the changes
  173. 173. Refer to line and page numbers
  174. 174. Different colour font
  175. 175. Highlight the text</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 54<br />
  176. 176. Peer review Responding to comments<br /><ul><li>Consider additional experiments if suggested
  177. 177. You can disagree with reviewers BUT provide evidence in your rebuttal (cite references)
  178. 178. Comply with deadlines</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 55<br />
  179. 179. Language Minimizing errors<br />Theinternet can help you<br /><ul><li>Google Scholar to check for word usage
  180. 180. Check your target journal’s home page for full instructions
  181. 181. US or UK spelling?
  182. 182. Ask a colleague to check your manuscript</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 56<br />
  183. 183. Language Minimizing errors<br /><ul><li>MicrosoftWord
  184. 184. Track changes function
  185. 185. Comment function
  186. 186. Find (and replace) to check for consistency
  187. 187. Word Count function
  188. 188. Spell Check (but be careful)
  189. 189. Custom Dictionaries (provided by some academic societies for specific fields)</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 57<br />
  190. 190. Summary Checklist for acceptance<br /><ul><li>Appropriate study design
  191. 191. Compliance with ethics guidelines
  192. 192. Novel and interesting results
  193. 193. Correct statistical tests employed
  194. 194. Significance of findings explained
  195. 195. Clear, concise, accurate writing
  196. 196. Appropriate choice of journal
  197. 197. Compliance with the Guide for Authors</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 58<br />
  198. 198. Thank youGood luck!<br />Edanz Group Japan | 59<br />
  199. 199. Appendix: useful set phrases Abstract<br /><ul><li>Here, we present…
  200. 200. Here, we show…
  201. 201. Here, we report…
  202. 202. In this work we introduce… </li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 60<br />
  203. 203. Appendix: useful set phrases Abstract<br /><ul><li>These results show…
  204. 204. To test whether (past tense), we performed....
  205. 205. To examine if (past tense) we (past tense)
  206. 206. We used XX to YY. Using this approach, we identified ZZ</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 61<br />
  207. 207. Appendix: useful set phrases Introduction<br /><ul><li>We demonstrated previously…
  208. 208. Previous studies have shown that…
  209. 209. We have previously shown that…
  210. 210. The topic of XX has recently been reviewed1. (insert reference)
  211. 211. To determine whether …
  212. 212. The purpose of this study was …</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 62<br />
  213. 213. Appendix: useful set phrases Introduction<br /><ul><li>Therefore, we tested the hypothesis …
  214. 214. This report describes experiments designed to determine whether …
  215. 215. Therefore, our first objective in these studies was to determine whether …
  216. 216. In this study, we sought to extend our observations and specifically test …</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 63<br />
  217. 217. Appendix: useful set phrases Methods<br /><ul><li>To test whether XX(past tense), we performed....
  218. 218. To examine if XX(paste tense) we performed…</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 64<br />
  219. 219. Appendix: useful set phrases Results<br /><ul><li> Among the cases we analyzed…
  220. 220. XX was/were observed….
  221. 221. The results are summarized in Table 1.
  222. 222. Figure 2a shows the effect of X on Y.
  223. 223. Group X showed higher/lower levels of Y than the control group.</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 65<br />
  224. 224. Appendix: useful set phrases Discussion<br /><ul><li>In the current study, we have shown…
  225. 225. In summary…
  226. 226. To conclude…
  227. 227. In conclusion…
  228. 228. In demonstrating XX, our findings show that/illustrate that…
  229. 229. Taken together these results suggest…</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 66<br />
  230. 230. Appendix: useful set phrases Discussion<br /><ul><li>The above data collectively show…
  231. 231. Our data supports the idea that XX
  232. 232. Our study supports the hypothesis that ZZ
  233. 233. Our study is limited by…
  234. 234. There were some limitations to the current study.</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 67<br />
  235. 235. Appendix: statistics<br /><ul><li>Consult an expert!
  236. 236. State the statistical tests used to analyze data
  237. 237. Provide the name, version and maker of the statistical package used
  238. 238. E.g. SPSS 11.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA
  239. 239. Only use the word “significant” when describing statistically significant differences</li></ul>Alternatives: notable, substantial, marked<br />Edanz Group Japan | 68<br />
  240. 240. Appendix: statisticsA few rules<br /><ul><li> Precision: Life expectancy of 22.085 years 22 years
  241. 241. Always give numerator and denominator e.g., 25% (740/2958)
  242. 242. Avoid using percentages to summarize small samples
  243. 243. Be very clear with percentages within subgroups:</li></ul>“Of the 1000 patients, 800 (80%) were women; (31%) had a BMI of…”<br />“Of the 1000 patients, 800 (80%) were women; of these, 250 (31%) had a BMI of…”<br />Edanz Group Japan | 69<br />
  244. 244. Language UK or US spelling<br />Be consistent<br /><ul><li>Check the journal’s Guide for Authors
  245. 245. Generally, American journals require US spelling and British journals require British spelling, but many accept either form as long as the spelling used is consistent</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 70<br />
  246. 246. Language Comparisons<br /><ul><li>Frequently made in the results sections of papers
  247. 247. Use with, not to</li></ul>The material from the river bank was compared with the landfill.<br />The material from the river bank was compared with that from the landfill.<br />Edanz Group Japan | 71<br />
  248. 248. Language Comparisons<br />Expression levels of p53 in smokers were compared with non-smokers<br />Expression levels of p53 in smokers were compared with p53 levels in non-smokers<br />Expression levels of p53 in smokers were compared with those in non-smokers<br />Edanz Group Japan | 72<br />
  249. 249. Language Comparisons<br /><ul><li>Relative terms, such as more, higher and greater, require a reference for comparison
  250. 250. Use “than” or “compared with”</li></ul>Reactions with the new machine were faster. than what?<br />Reactions with the new machine were faster than those with the old machine.<br />73<br />Edanz Group Japan | 73<br />
  251. 251. Language Between or among<br /><ul><li>Use between for comparisons of two groups</li></ul>…the only difference between the original molecule and the new molecule is... <br /><ul><li>Use among for comparisons of more than two groups</li></ul>..significant differences were observed in the H values among bio-, fully- and semi-synthetic…<br />Edanz Group Japan | 74<br />
  252. 252. Language Presenting numbers<br /><ul><li>Spell out numbers one through nine, numerals for 10 and up</li></ul>EXCEPT<br /><ul><li>Units of measurement, times, and dates: 2 mL; 1996
  253. 253. Beginning of a sentence</li></ul>Fifteen days previously…NOT: 15 days previously<br /><ul><li>A mixture of numbers in one sentence:</li></ul>The sample included 34 men with type A blood, 15 with type B and 3 with type AB.<br /><ul><li>Differentiating consecutive numbers:</li></ul>Five 50-kg women….NOT 5 50-kg women<br /><ul><li>Large numbers in general expressions:</li></ul>A hundred; several thousand….<br />Edanz Group Japan | 75<br />
  254. 254. Language Colon or semi-colon<br /><ul><li>The colon “:” is used to introduce a list or a clause that explains what precedes it
  255. 255. Semicolon “;” is used to separate the items in a list too long for commas or where commas could be ambiguous. Use ‘and’ before the last item in the list. </li></ul>There are a number of journals for surgery manuscripts: Surgery, produced by Elsevier; Journal of Surgery, produced by NMS; British Journal of Surgery… <br />Edanz Group Japan | 76<br />
  256. 256. Language Colon or semi-colon<br /><ul><li>Use a semicolon to join two sentences that are not independent</li></ul>In previous sediments of all salinities, MeHg production was highest at previous sediment depths just below the oxic/anoxic transition;that is, depths where microbial sulfate reduction was present, but where sulfide, which inhibits methylation, was relatively low.<br />One sentence is too long; but the two sentences must be connected<br />Edanz Group Japan | 77<br />

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