How to write a manuscript 11302010

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  • Circulation (250 words), JAMA (300 words), Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy (150-250), JCEM (250 words)
  • Background – rationale for study
    Methods and Results – brief presentation of methods and presentation of significant results; please include sample size
    Conclusions – succinct statement of data interpretation
    Abstracts for Reports of Original Data: Reports of original data should include an abstract of no more than 300 words using the following headings: Context, Objective, Design, Setting, Patients (or Participants), Interventions (include only if there are any), Main Outcome Measure(s), Results, and Conclusions. For brevity, parts of the abstract may be written as phrases rather than complete sentences. Each section should include the following content:

    Context: The abstract should begin with a sentence or 2 explaining the clinical (or other) importance of the study question.

    Objective: State the precise objective or study question addressed in the report (eg, “To determine whether…”). If more than 1 objective is addressed, the main objective should be indicated and only key secondary objectives stated. If an a priori hypothesis was tested, it should be stated.

    Design: Describe the basic design of the study. State the years of the study and the duration of follow-up. If applicable, include the name of the study (eg, the Framingham Heart Study). As relevant, indicate whether observers were blinded to patient groupings, particularly for subjective measurements.

    Setting: Describe the study setting to assist readers to determine the applicability of the report to other circumstances, for example, general community, a primary care or referral center, private or institutional practice, or ambulatory or hospitalized care.

    Patients or Other Participants: State the clinical disorders, important eligibility criteria, and key sociodemographic features of patients. The numbers of participants and how they were selected should be provided (see below), including the number of otherwise eligible individuals who were approached but refused. If matching is used for comparison groups, characteristics that are matched should be specified. In follow-up studies, the proportion of participants who completed the study must be indicated. In intervention studies, the number of patients withdrawn because of adverse effects should be given. For selection procedures, these terms should be used, if appropriate: random sample (where random refers to a formal, randomized selection in which all eligible individuals have a fixed and usually equal chance of selection); population-based sample; referred sample; consecutive sample; volunteer sample; convenience sample.

    Intervention(s): The essential features of any interventions should be described, including their method and duration of administration. The intervention should be named by its most common clinical name, and nonproprietary drug names should be used.

    Main Outcome Measure(s): Indicate the primary study outcome measurement(s) as planned before data collection began. If the manuscript does not report the main planned outcomes of a study, this fact should be stated and the reason indicated. State clearly if the hypothesis being tested was formulated during or after data collection. Explain outcomes or measurements unfamiliar to a general medical readership.

    Results: The main outcomes of the study should be reported and quantified, and must include measures of absolute risks (such as increase/decrease or absolute differences between groups), along with confidence intervals (for example, 95%) or P values. Approaches such as number needed to treat to achieve a unit of benefit may be included when appropriate. Measures of relative risk also may be reported (eg, relative risk, hazard ratios) and should include confidence intervals. Studies of screening and diagnostic tests should report sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio. If predictive value or accuracy is reported, prevalence or pretest likelihood should be given as well. All randomized controlled trials should include the results of intention-to-treat analysis, and all surveys should include response rates.

    Conclusions: Provide only conclusions of the study directly supported by the results, along with implications for clinical practice, avoiding speculation and overgeneralization. Indicate whether additional study is required before the information should be used in usual clinical settings. Give equal emphasis to positive and negative findings of equal scientific merit.

  • Use animated colours to show different sections?
  • Show different sections side-by-side structured and unstructured
  • Of course should follow all, but particularly important:

    Different requirements for different paper types, restrictions on total/abstract word count, order of sections, structured/unstructured abstracts, title page information,

    There are variations of course. Some journals call for a combined results and discussion, for example, or include materials and methods after the body of the paper. The well known journal Science does away with separate sections altogether, except for the abstract.
  • Of course should follow all, but particularly important:

    Different requirements for different paper types, restrictions on total/abstract word count, order of sections, structured/unstructured abstracts, title page information,

    There are variations of course. Some journals call for a combined results and discussion, for example, or include materials and methods after the body of the paper. The well known journal Science does away with separate sections altogether, except for the abstract.
  • Of course should follow all, but particularly important:

    Different requirements for different paper types, restrictions on total/abstract word count, order of sections, structured/unstructured abstracts, title page information,

    There are variations of course. Some journals call for a combined results and discussion, for example, or include materials and methods after the body of the paper. The well known journal Science does away with separate sections altogether, except for the abstract.
  • Same publisher but different requirements
  • Alphabetical or order of citation
  • Busy – not enough time to read all manuscripts
    Opportunity to make an impression
  • Even if C of I statement is in the MS, it should usually be in the CL as well
  • “Adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer is associated with severe adverse effects owing to the doses required to achieve efficacy (ref).”

    “Mental function is known to deteriorate with age.”1
  • How to write a manuscript 11302010

    1. 1. How to write a manuscript Get your paper accepted Special topics Christopher Norman, BA Quality Assurance Editor Edanz Group Japan Fukuoka University November 30, 2010
    2. 2. Structured or Unstructured? Edanz Group Japan | 2 CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) recommends Structured Abstract for RCT papers (randomized controlled trials). Many clinical and medical journals require structured abstracts. Advantages of structured abstracts Easy for authors to write Easy for readers to understand Good for computerized indexing
    3. 3. Edanz Group Japan | 3 Structured Abstracts Common section titles Background Context Purpose Objectives Aims Interventions Study Design Data Sources Setting Main Outcome Measures Materials and Methods Patients and Methods Participants Results Conclusions
    4. 4. Edanz Group Japan | 4 Structured Abstracts Background Methods Results Conclusion IMRaD: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion 2 sentences 2 sentences 5 sentences 1 sentence
    5. 5. Converting to a Structured Abstract Edanz Group Japan | 5 Abstract In this study we compared the effects of an angiotensin receptor blocker(ARB)-based regimen with a non-ARB based regimen on diastolic function and neurohormones in patients with hypertension and diastolic dysfunction. 97 patients with a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mmHg, a left ventricular ejection fraction >0.50, and echocardiographic evidence of diastolic dysfunction were randomly assignment to open-label treatment with eprosartan (with other anti-hypertensives; n = 47) or other anti-hypertensives alone (n = 50). Echocardiography, including tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), and neurohormones were done at baseline and after 6 months. Mean age was 65 (±10) years and 64% was female. During 6 months of treatment, SBP decreased from 157 ± 16 to 145 ± 18 mmHg in the eprosartan group and from 158 ± 17 to 141 ± 18 mmHg in the control group (both p < 0.001; p = ns between groups). Diastolic function was unaffected in both groups and there was no correlation between changes in SBP and changes in mean TDI (r = −0.06; p = 0.58). Aldosterone levels decreased in the eprosartan group, but other neurohormones remained largely unchanged. Change in SBP was however related to the change in NT-proBNP (r = 0.26; p = 0.019). Lowering blood pressure, either with eprosartan or other anti-hypertensives in hypertensive patients with diastolic dysfunction did not change diastolic function after 6 months of treatment, but was associated with a decrease of NT-proBNP. Adapted from Cardiovascular Drug and Therapy Abstract In this study we compared the effects of an angiotensin receptor blocker(ARB)-based regimen with a non-ARB based regimen on diastolic function and neurohormones in patients with hypertension and diastolic dysfunction. 97 patients with a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mmHg, a left ventricular ejection fraction >0.50, and echocardiographic evidence of diastolic dysfunction were randomly assignment to open-label treatment with eprosartan (with other anti-hypertensives; n = 47) or other anti-hypertensives alone (n = 50). Echocardiography, including tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), and neurohormones were done at baseline and after 6 months. Mean age was 65 (±10) years and 64% was female. During 6 months of treatment, SBP decreased from 157 ± 16 to 145 ± 18 mmHg in the eprosartan group and from 158 ± 17 to 141 ± 18 mmHg in the control group (both p < 0.001; p = ns between groups). Diastolic function was unaffected in both groups and there was no correlation between changes in SBP and changes in mean TDI (r = −0.06; p = 0.58). Aldosterone levels decreased in the eprosartan group, but other neurohormones remained largely unchanged. Change in SBP was however related to the change in NT-proBNP (r = 0.26; p = 0.019). Lowering blood pressure, either with eprosartan or other anti-hypertensives in hypertensive patients with diastolic dysfunction did not change diastolic function after 6 months of treatment, but was associated with a decrease of NT-proBNP. Abstract In this study we compared the effects of an angiotensin receptor blocker(ARB)-based regimen with a non-ARB based regimen on diastolic function and neurohormones in patients with hypertension and diastolic dysfunction. 97 patients with a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mmHg, a left ventricular ejection fraction >0.50, and echocardiographic evidence of diastolic dysfunction were randomly assignment to open-label treatment with eprosartan (with other anti-hypertensives; n = 47) or other anti-hypertensives alone (n = 50). Echocardiography, including tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), and neurohormones were done at baseline and after 6 months. Mean age was 65 (±10) years and 64% was female. During 6 months of treatment, SBP decreased from 157 ± 16 to 145 ± 18 mmHg in the eprosartan group and from 158 ± 17 to 141 ± 18 mmHg in the control group (both p < 0.001; p = ns between groups). Diastolic function was unaffected in both groups and there was no correlation between changes in SBP and changes in mean TDI (r = −0.06; p = 0.58). Aldosterone levels decreased in the eprosartan group, but other neurohormones remained largely unchanged. Change in SBP was however related to the change in NT-proBNP (r = 0.26; p = 0.019). Lowering blood pressure, either with eprosartan or other anti-hypertensives in hypertensive patients with diastolic dysfunction did not change diastolic function after 6 months of treatment, but was associated with a decrease of NT-proBNP. Abstract In this study we compared the effects of an angiotensin receptor blocker(ARB)-based regimen with a non-ARB based regimen on diastolic function and neurohormones in patients with hypertension and diastolic dysfunction. 97 patients with a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mmHg, a left ventricular ejection fraction >0.50, and echocardiographic evidence of diastolic dysfunction were randomly assignment to open-label treatment with eprosartan (with other anti-hypertensives; n = 47) or other anti-hypertensives alone (n = 50). Echocardiography, including tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), and neurohormones were done at baseline and after 6 months. Mean age was 65 (±10) years and 64% was female. During 6 months of treatment, SBP decreased from 157 ± 16 to 145 ± 18 mmHg in the eprosartan group and from 158 ± 17 to 141 ± 18 mmHg in the control group (both p < 0.001; p = ns between groups). Diastolic function was unaffected in both groups and there was no correlation between changes in SBP and changes in mean TDI (r = −0.06; p = 0.58). Aldosterone levels decreased in the eprosartan group, but other neurohormones remained largely unchanged. Change in SBP was however related to the change in NT-proBNP (r = 0.26; p = 0.019). Lowering blood pressure, either with eprosartan or other anti-hypertensives in hypertensive patients with diastolic dysfunction did not change diastolic function after 6 months of treatment, but was associated with a decrease of NT-proBNP. Abstract In this study we compared the effects of an angiotensin receptor blocker(ARB)-based regimen with a non-ARB based regimen on diastolic function and neurohormones in patients with hypertension and diastolic dysfunction. 97 patients with a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mmHg, a left ventricular ejection fraction >0.50, and echocardiographic evidence of diastolic dysfunction were randomly assignment to open-label treatment with eprosartan (with other anti-hypertensives; n = 47) or other anti-hypertensives alone (n = 50). Echocardiography, including tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), and neurohormones were done at baseline and after 6 months. Mean age was 65 (±10) years and 64% was female. During 6 months of treatment, SBP decreased from 157 ± 16 to 145 ± 18 mmHg in the eprosartan group and from 158 ± 17 to 141 ± 18 mmHg in the control group (both p < 0.001; p = ns between groups). Diastolic function was unaffected in both groups and there was no correlation between changes in SBP and changes in mean TDI (r = −0.06; p = 0.58). Aldosterone levels decreased in the eprosartan group, but other neurohormones remained largely unchanged. Change in SBP was however related to the change in NT-proBNP (r = 0.26; p = 0.019). Lowering blood pressure, either with eprosartan or other anti-hypertensives in hypertensive patients with diastolic dysfunction did not change diastolic function after 6 months of treatment, but was associated with a decrease of NT-proBNP.
    6. 6. Edanz Group Japan | 6 Objective To compare the effects of an angiotensin receptor blocker(ARB)-based regimen versus a non-ARB based regimen on diastolic function and neurohormones in patients with hypertension and diastolic dysfunction. Methods 97 patients with a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mmHg, a left ventricular ejection fraction >0.50, and echocardiographic evidence of diastolic dysfunction were randomly assignment to open-label treatment with eprosartan (with other anti-hypertensives; n = 47) or other anti-hypertensives alone (n = 50). Echocardiography, including tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), and neurohormones were done at baseline and after 6 months. Results Mean age was 65 (±10) years and 64% was female. During 6 months of treatment, SBP decreased from 157 ± 16 to 145 ± 18 mmHg in the eprosartan group and from 158 ± 17 to 141 ± 18 mmHg in the control group (both p < 0.001; p = ns between groups). Diastolic function was unaffected in both groups and there was no correlation between changes in SBP and changes in mean TDI (r = −0.06; p = 0.58). Aldosterone levels decreased in the eprosartan group, but other neurohormones remained largely unchanged. Change in SBP was however related to the change in NT-proBNP (r = 0.26; p = 0.019). Conclusion Lowering blood pressure, either with eprosartan or other anti-hypertensives in hypertensive patients with diastolic dysfunction did not change diastolic function after 6 months of treatment, but was associated with a decrease of NT-proBNP. As published in Cardiovascular Drug and Therapy Converting to a Structured Abstract
    7. 7. Converting to a Structured Abstract Edanz Group Japan | 7 In this study we compared the effects of an angiotensin receptor blocker(ARB)- based regimen with a non-ARB based regimen on diastolic function and neurohormones in patients with hypertension and diastolic dysfunction. Objective To compare the effects of an angiotensin receptor blocker(ARB)-based regimen versus a non-ARB based regimen on diastolic function and neurohormones in patients with hypertension and diastolic dysfunction.
    8. 8. Journal guidelines Edanz Group Japan | 8
    9. 9. What to look for?  Types of paper  Original Article, Review, Case Report, Letter to the Editor, Technical Note  Word and display item limits  Order of sections  IMRaD: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion  Heading format  US or UK spelling  Acceptable file types Edanz Group Japan | 9
    10. 10. What to look for?  Title page  Title: length, unacceptable words, running title  Authors: full names, correspondence  Affiliations: format, full or partial address  Word counts, acknowledgments, conflict of interest statement, keywords  Abstract  Structured or unstructured  Most journals do not allow references Edanz Group Japan | 10
    11. 11. What to look for?  Key words  Number, order, restrictions, MeSH  Abbreviations  Avoid abbreviations in titles, abstracts and keywords  Some journals require a list of abbreviations  Define at first use  Some common abbreviations may not need to be defined  Define again in figure or table captions  Only capitalize proper nouns, e.g. tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) Edanz Group Japan | 11
    12. 12. Example journal guidelines Neuroradiology Springer Impact factor: 2.616 (2009) Edanz Group Japan | 12
    13. 13. Neuroradiology  Title page  Title, Author’s name(s), affiliations, corresponding author details  Abstract  Structured: Purpose, Methods, Results, Conclusions  150 to 250 words  4 to 6 key words Edanz Group Japan | 13
    14. 14. Neuroradiology  Main text  Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion  Conflicts of Interest statement before Acknowledgments  Reference format:  Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329  .docx files not acceptable Edanz Group Japan | 14
    15. 15. References Edanz Group Japan | 15 Pay attention to reference style in the text: Insect hunting is an ideal way to study predatory behavior (Suzuki et al., 2005). Insect hunting is an ideal way to study predatory behavior (Tanaka and Honda). Insect hunting is an ideal way to study predatory behavior [1]. Insect hunting is an ideal way to study predatory behavior (1). Insect hunting is an ideal way to study predatory behavior. [1,2] Insect hunting is an ideal way to study predatory behavior [1–3]. Insect hunting is an ideal way to study predatory behavior.¹ Tanaka reported that insect hunting was an ideal way to study predatory behavior (2005).
    16. 16. References Edanz Group Japan | 16 If you need to abbreviate, use Index Medicus journal abbreviations list: Title: Advances in drug research Abbreviation: Adv Drug Res Title: Medicine and science in sports Abbreviation: Med Sci Sports  Some journals limit the number of references: check your target journal’s Guide for Authors  Check a sample paper if you are not sure of the style  There are many reference styles: Chicago, Vancouver, APA and Harvard are often used  If possible, use a reference manager such as EndNote
    17. 17. Morgan, U. M., and R.C. A. Thompson. 1998. PCR Detection of Cryptosporidium - The Way Forward. Parasitology Today 14 (6): 241-245. Chicago style Vancouver style Harvard style APA Style Ku, G. (2008). Learning to de-escalate: The effects of regret in escalation of commitment. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 105(2), 221-232. Muller, V. (1994) ‘Trapped in the body: Transsexualism, the law, sexual identity’, The Australian Feminist Law Journal, vol. 3, August, pp. 103-107. References Common reference styles Edanz Group Japan | 17 Thomas MC. Diuretics, ACE inhibitors and NSAIDs – the triple whammy. Med J Aust. 2000;172:184–185.
    18. 18. Competition for publication space and for editors’ attention is very high It is not enough to send a manuscript to a journal editor like this: Cover letters Edanz Group Japan | 18 Dear Editor-in-Chief, I am sending you our manuscript entitled “Large Scale Analysis of Cell Cycle Regulators in bladder cancer” by A. Honda, K. Tanaka, J. Suzuki, and myself. We would like to have the manuscript considered for publication in Pathobiology. Please let me know of your decision at your earliest convenience. With my best regards, Sincerely yours, Shinsuke Izumi, PhD
    19. 19. General rules for cover letters: Address to the editor personally. Begin by giving your manuscript title and publication type Give a brief background, rationale and description of results  Explain why your findings are important and why they would be of interest to the journal’s target audience  Consult the journal’s Guide for Authors for cover letter requirements (e.g., disclosures, statements, potential reviewers) Give corresponding author details Cover letters Edanz Group Japan | 19 Find out his/her name. Full details, including fax number…
    20. 20. Cover letters Format Edanz Group Japan | 20 Name Title Journal Name Date Dear Dr… Yours sincerely, Your name, degree Michael S. Kappy, MD, PhD Editor-in-Chief Advances in Pediatrics October 21, 2010 Dear Dr. Kappy, example example example example example example example example example example example example example example example Yours sincerely, Shizuo Suzuki, PhD
    21. 21. Dear Dr Lisberger, Please find enclosed our manuscript entitled “Amyloid-like inclusions in the brains of Huntington’s disease patients”, by McGowan et al., which we would like to submit for publication as a Research Paper inNeuroscience. Recent immunohistochemical studies have revealed the presence of neuronal inclusions containing an N-terminal portion of the mutant huntingtin protein and ubiquitin in the brain tissues of Huntington’s disease (HD) patients; however, the role of these inclusions in the disease process has remained unclear. One suspected disease-causing mechanism in Huntington’s disease and other polyglutamine disorders is the potential for the mutant protein to undergo a conformational change to a more stable anti-parallel β-sheet structure… To confirm if the immunohistochemically observed huntingtin- and ubiquitin-containing inclusions display amyloid features, we performed Congo red staining and both polarizing and confocal microscopy on post-mortem human brain tissues obtained from five HD patients, two AD patients, and two normal controls. Congo red staining revealed a small number of amyloid-like inclusions showing green birefringence by polarized microscopy, in a variety of cortical regions.... ….detected inclusions observed in parallel sections, suggesting that only a relatively small proportion of inclusions in HD adopt an amyloid-like structure. We believe our findings would appeal to a broad audience, such as the readership ofNeuroscience. As a wide-reaching journal publishing original research on all aspects of neuroscience… We confirm that this manuscript has not been published elsewhere and is not under consideration by another journal. All authors have approved the manuscript and agree with submission toNeuroscience. We have read and have abided by the statement of ethical standards for manuscripts submitted to Neuroscience. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. Please address all correspondence to…. Give the background to the research Explain what was done and what was found Explain why this is interesting to the journal’s readership Conforms to the journal’s requirements Cover letters Edanz Group Japan | 21
    22. 22. Cover letters Common phrases Edanz Group Japan | 22 Please find enclosed our manuscript entitled (title) by (First Author) et al., which we would like to submit for publication as a (Publication Type) in (Journal name). To our knowledge, this is the first report showing… We believe our findings would appeal to the readership of (Journal name). Please address all correspondence to: We shall look forward to hearing from you at your earliest convenience.
    23. 23. Cover letters Statements Edanz Group Japan | 23 We confirm that this manuscript has not been published elsewhere and is not under consideration by another journal. All authors have approved the manuscript and agree with submission to (Journal Name). All cover letters should contain these sentences:
    24. 24. Cover Letter Statements Edanz Group Japan | 24 We have read and have abided by the statement of ethical standards for manuscripts submitted to (Journal Name). The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. Most medical research cover letters should contain these or similar sentences: Or…briefly give information describing any conflicts…
    25. 25. Response Letter Edanz Group Japan | 25 Also called a “point by point response letter” Michael S. Kappy, MD, PhD Editor-in-Chief Advances in Pediatrics October 21, 2010 Dear Dr. Kappy, RE: Manuscript Reference Number: 0123456789 example example example example example example example example example example example example example example example Yours sincerely, Shizuo Suzuki, PhD
    26. 26. Edanz Group Japan | 26 Response Letter Common phrases Please find enclosed our revised manuscript entitled (title) by (First Author) et al., which we would like to resubmit for publication as a (Publication Type) in (Journal name). Your comments and those of the reviewers were very helpful. In the following pages are our point-by-point responses to each of the comments of the reviewers.
    27. 27. Edanz Group Japan | 27 Response Letter Common phrases Explain any big structural changes: Clearly indicate, which reviewer and which point you are responding to: Add page and line numbers to make it easy to locate changes: Clearly differentiate between Comments and Responses: E.g., “We removed table 1 and replaced Figure 3” E.g., Reviewer 1, comment 3: example example… Response: example example… Reviewer comment Response Reviewer comment Response Deletions in strike through font Additions in fonthighlighted E.g., “Please see page 4, line 19–21”
    28. 28. Edanz Group Japan | 28 Response Letter Common phrases Important: Say “thank you” to each reviewer Be polite If you disagree, why? Provide scientific reasons with your rebuttal Respond to every comment If a reviewer makes subjective comments about language style, just change it to make him/her happy…. Return within deadline, or it will become a new submission
    29. 29. Edanz Group Japan | 29 We have previously shown that… Previous studies have shown that… XX is known to… There is a need for new therapies that… It remains unclear whether… We hypothesized that… We performed a double-blind, randomized study of… Using XX, we investigated… Useful set phrases Introduction
    30. 30. Edanz Group Japan | 30 To test whether XX we performed.... Patients were recruited from among… XX was done using the method described by Uematsu et al.1 XX (supplier, location) was used. Descriptive statistics are means ± standard error (SE) Results were analyzed using the Student’s t test A p value <0.05 was considered significant. X and Y were obtained from… Useful set phrases Methods
    31. 31. Edanz Group Japan | 31  Among the cases we analyzed…  XX were observed….  The results are summarized in Table 1. Figure 2a shows the effect of X on Y. Group A showed higher levels of B than the control group. As shown in Figure 1… Compared with group X, group Y… Levels of X in Group A were lower than those in group Y Useful set phrases Results
    32. 32. Edanz Group Japan | 32 In the current study, we have shown… In summary… In conclusion… We found that… Our findings suggest that Our data support the hypothesis that ZZ There were some limitations to the current study. The main limitation of our study is… Future work should… Useful set phrases Discussion

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