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  1. 1. How to Write for and GetPublished in Scientific Journals Daniel McGowan, PhD Science Director Edanz Group March 2012
  2. 2. A little about me… Edanz Group | 2
  3. 3. Presentation Section One: Scientific publishing Section Two: Before you start… Section Three: Structuring your manuscript Section Four: Hints and tips Edanz Group | 3
  4. 4. Section One Scientific publishing Why publish? Publishing in English The publishing timeline Peer review Edanz Group | 4
  5. 5. Why publish? Nature is complex Edanz Group | 5
  6. 6. Why publish? We use complex technologies and methods to understand it… Edanz Group | 6
  7. 7. Why publish? …and the science is often necessarily complex Edanz Group | 7
  8. 8. Why publish? To exchange ideas globally! Your research is not complete until it has been published Edanz Group | 8
  9. 9. Why publish? New findings of New validated relevance published method published Hypothesis Draw Design conclusions research Perform research Edanz Group | 9
  10. 10. Why publish in English?English is the international language of scienceOther scientists want to hear from Brazilianresearchers!Allows you to become an effective sciencecommunicatorInternational reputation enabling collaborationsand work opportunities Edanz Group | 10
  11. 11. Increased competition 1400 1200 1000 800 Journal numbers% Journal submissions 600 400 200 0 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 Year Relative growth from 100% baseline in 1990 Edanz Group | 11
  12. 12. Peer reviewExists to ensure that your paper isas scientifically robust ANDcomplete as possible before joiningthe ‘collective knowledge’ as partof the literatureAn opportunity to improve yourcontributionSo discoveries get correctaccrediting Edanz Group | 12
  13. 13. Peer review improves your manuscript Rejection Acceptance Minor revision Major revision Few papers are accepted without revision Rejection and revision are integral to the peer review process Edanz Group | 13
  14. 14. What do journal editors and reviewers want? Is the manuscript sufficiently novel? Is the manuscript of broad enough interest? Novelty Aims and Scope Significance Impact Factor Edanz Group | 14
  15. 15. What do journal editors want? Good quality science! Will stand up to peer review Original research that advances a field in some way Interesting to the journal’s readership Active research areas Clear and concise English Edanz Group | 15
  16. 16. Section Two Before you start … Read Study design Select an appropriate journal Ethical issues Edanz Group | 16
  17. 17. Reading helps your writing Both sides of the brain are essential and work in harmony Reading Logic Creativity Reading Writing Similarly, reading and writing are connected Edanz Group | 17
  18. 18. Read Know the background material Read broadly Determine the key papers in your field What is the current state of understanding? Identify gaps in the knowledge Edanz Group | 18
  19. 19. The importance of readingEnsures the most appropriate researchquestions are askedEnsures the most appropriate methods are usedEnsures results are interpreted in theappropriate contextEnsures the most relevant studies are citedHelps with identification of suitable targetjournals Edanz Group | 19
  20. 20. Reading improves your writing Read as often as possible Discuss with your colleagues Assists you with journal selection Provides ideas for your next manuscript Edanz Group | 20
  21. 21. Strategies for reading Read Title and Abstract first Self-assess knowledge of topic Read Results or the relevant parts of the Results Read Discussion for interpretation Refer to Introduction and Methods only if necessary Edanz Group | 21
  22. 22. Experimental design Get it right CRITICAL What is your hypothesis or research question? THE AIM(S) OF YOUR STUDY What methods are appropriate? Do you have the relevant resources? Identify your controls Edanz Group | 22
  23. 23. Experimental design Get it right Sample sizes (n) large enough? Which statistical test(s)? When in doubt – talk to a statistician! Does your study comply with ALL ethics requirements? Edanz Group | 23
  24. 24. Journal Selection Edanz Group | 24
  25. 25. Choosing a target journal: timingThe target journal should be chosen: After the results to be published have been obtained (with no new ones coming) After a decision has been made on how high to aim—high, medium or low impact Before writing the manuscript Edanz Group | 25
  26. 26. Choosing a target journal Journal selection should be based on an honest evaluation of the manuscript Compare with the stated aims and scope and impact factor of potential target journals Novelty Aims and Scope Significance Impact Factor Edanz Group | 26
  27. 27. Match your manuscript with the journalWhat is the message?Who will be interested?How significant are your results?Where have similar articles been published? Edanz Group | 27
  28. 28. Factors to consider Aims and scope Open access or subscriber Publishing frequency Prestige Impact factor Cost Target audience Publication type Which factor is most important to you? Edanz Group | 28
  29. 29. Evaluating significance: importance Specific interest only or of interest to many Affect many (e.g. new tool) Support for (or contradiction of) an existing theory Substantially improve our understanding of a phenomenon or provide a new technology or disease treatment? Edanz Group | 29
  30. 30. Evaluating significance: novelty How new are my results compared with those already published? New findings Incremental Conceptual advances advances Low to medium Medium to high impact factor impact factor Edanz Group | 30
  31. 31. Evaluating significance: relevance Are my findings of relevance only to a specific geographical region or ethnic population or do they have implications for other regions and populations? High impact factor journals may consider specific findings if they are the first of their kind or of international significance. Edanz Group | 31
  32. 32. Evaluating significance: appeal Is my work in an area of ‘popular appeal’? E.g. is it likely to be reported in mainstream or lay scientific media Examples: Optogenetics Higgs boson Epigenetics Global warming Stem cells Clean tech Edanz Group | 32
  33. 33. Publication ethicsDO NOT… Multiple submissions Plagiarism Improper author contribution Data fabrication and falsification Improper use of human subjects and animals Conflicts of interest Edanz Group | 33
  34. 34. Conflicts of Interest Actual OR perceived “Authors MUST disclose interests that might APPEAR to affect their ability to present or review data objectively” Guidelines Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) European Association of Science Editors (EASE) Council of Science Editors (CSE) International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Good publication practice for communicating company sponsored medical research: the GPP2 Guidelines (BMJ 2009, 339:b4330) Edanz Group | 34
  35. 35. Conflicts of Interest Acknowledge ALL financial support Financial or personal connections to your work Stocks, patents, consultancies, direct relationships “The Clinical Trial Service Unit has a staff policy of not accepting honoraria or other payments from the pharmaceutical industry, except for the reimbursement of costs to participate in scientific meetings. Coordinating centre members of the writing committee (R Collins, J Armitage, S Parish, R Peto) have, therefore, only had such costs reimbursed. P Sleight has received honoraria and costs for participating in meetings.” – Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group, The Lancet (2002) 360:7 Edanz Group | 35
  36. 36. Section Three Structuring your manuscript You are telling a story Beginning → Middle → End (Introduction) (Body) (Conclusion) MUST be easy to read AND easy to understand Edanz Group | 36
  37. 37. ‘Tell them three times’Introduction/Beginning Assertion ‘tell them what you are going to tell them,’Body/Middle Evidence ‘tell them,’Conclusion/End Affirmation ‘tell them again what you told them’. Edanz Group | 37
  38. 38. Basic manuscript structure Expanded IMRaD model Abstract Introduction Assertion Methods Results Evidence and Discussion Affirmation References Edanz Group | 38
  39. 39. The ‘write’ order For maximum clarity and consistency, write your manuscript in this order: Methods Write during the research Results Introduction Write after selecting your Discussion target journal Title Write last Abstract Edanz Group | 39
  40. 40. The importance of your title World Class Physics ManuscriptGrabs the reader’s Introduces your manuscript A label for indexing attention to an editor Convey the main topics of manuscript Be specific and concise AVOID jargon, abbreviations and acronyms Edanz Group | 40
  41. 41. Abstract Summarizes your workConcise (100–300 words)1–4 sentences – describe problem(s) addressed1–4 sentences –objectives/hypotheses1–2 sentences – techniques; AVOID details1–3 sentences – most important resultsFinal sentence – concluding statementThe majority of people will only read this section, it must be able to ‘stand alone’ Edanz Group | 41
  42. 42. Introduction Why?What question (problem) was studied? The answer to this question is contained within your Introduction Beginning → Middle → End Edanz Group | 42
  43. 43. Introduction Beginning Sufficient background information Puts your work into context Start with a broad background General Specific Comprehensive literature review Cite reviews Edanz Group | 43
  44. 44. Introduction Middle Rationale The reason(s) for doing this work? Why is it important? Justify your work Explain how you tried to address the problem (1–2 sentences) DO NOT state results from your study Edanz Group | 44
  45. 45. Introduction End State the methods you plan to use Clearly and explicitly state 1–3 specific hypotheses or objectives of your study Edanz Group | 45
  46. 46. Methods How did you carry out your work? Subheadings Easier to read Past tense New methods must be described in sufficient detail that they can be reproduced Established methods can be referenced Save time and effort Edanz Group | 46
  47. 47. Methods Common headings & order Materials/Reagents Patients/Subjects Ethics declarations Animals Study design Clinical trial registration number Treatments Specific methodologies … Statistics Edanz Group | 47
  48. 48. Materials and methods ExampleMaterials and methodsMaterials. Culture media were obtained from Life Technologies(Gaithersburg, MD). Okadaic acid was purchased from Alexis Company Materials described first(Läufelfingen, Switzerland). Antibodies to MEK1/2 and phosphorylatedMAPK were purchased from New England Biolabs (Beverley, MA). Suppliers/locations givenInduction of cell death. Cell death was induced as described previously [15]. Clear subheadingsBriefly, cell death was induced by adding okadaic acid (0-300 nM, Alexis Co.)after washing slice cultures in serum-free medium. References used to save spaceLight and electron microscopy. Cultures were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehydeand 1% formaldehyde, treated with 1% OsO4 in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH7.4, dehydrated in a graded series of ethanol and propylene oxide, and flat- Enough information toembedded in an epoxy resin (Durcupan ACM, Fluka, Neu-Ulm, Germany).Semi-thin sections were stained with toluidine blue, and ultra-thin sections reproduce the experimentwere stained with 1% uranyl acetate for 20 min and 1% lead citrate for2 min.Statistics. For statistical analysis, 2-tailed Student’s t-test was used to assess Statistical test parametersthe significance of mean differences. Differences were considered significantat a P-value of 0.05 or less. provided Edanz Group | 48
  49. 49. Results What did you find? Accurate, brief, clear Use subheadings Use past tense to describe your results When referring to figures and tables, use present tense DO NOT explain your results DO NOT duplicate data among figures, tables and text Edanz Group | 49
  50. 50. Results ExampleResultsOkadaic acid induces death of dentate gyrus neurons selectively.Hippocampal slice cultures treated with OA (1–300 nM) showed selective Clear subheadingscell death of neurons in the dentate gyrus, but neurons in the CA1–3 regionswere largely unaffected. Cell death occurred in a time- and dose-dependentmanner. Propidium iodide staining of treated slides indicated….Electron microscopy revealed a number of ultrastructural changes inhippocampal pyramidal neurons, particularly those in the CA3 region, inslices treated with 300 nM OA for 24 h (Fig 3). These changes included slight Graphics used to savenuclear aggregations (arrow in Fig 3A), accumulation of mitochondriaaround nuclei (arrowheads in Fig 3B) and an increased amount of spaceendoplasmic reticulum (Fig 3C). As shown in Figure 4, the nuclei ofpyramidal neurons in the CA1 and CA3 regions…Involvement of MAPK signaling in the effect of OA. Compared with slicestreated with medium only and treated slices at 0 h, slices treated with 300nM OA showed increasing levels of phosphorylated MAPK at 4 h, 8 h, 16 hand 24 h, with no corresponding change in the levels of total MAPK. This Clear comparisons madeincrease was prevented in slices that were co-incubated with a proteinkinase inhibitor. In addition, the levels of phosphorylated Tau were higher inOA-treated slices than in control slices… Edanz Group | 50
  51. 51. Display items Tables and figuresPresent a large amount of data quickly andefficientlyPresent most significant result as a figure ortableKeep it simple — use separate panels if necessaryAVOID duplication with the textLabel all parts of your figuresLegends must be able to ‘stand alone’ Edanz Group | 51
  52. 52. Display items Tables Clear concise legend/captionData dividedinto )categoriesfor clarity Abbreviations defined Edanz Group | 52
  53. 53. Display items Figures Complicated data separatedMultiple panels: sets of related into smallerdata are shown in a single figure and simpler components Axes clearly labeled Edanz Group | 53
  54. 54. Discussion So what? What do these findings mean? The answer to this question is in the Discussion Beginning → Middle → End Edanz Group | 54
  55. 55. Discussion Beginning AVOID repeating the results section Answer the research question(s) posed Emphasize the major finding(s) first What is your major conclusion, based on the results you have presented? Edanz Group | 55
  56. 56. Discussion Middle Interpret your results … Compare with other studies Same or different? Possible reasons why? Unexpected results Briefly describe any limitations Samples sizes Complementary tests How could experiments be improved? Edanz Group | 56
  57. 57. Discussion End Restate major conclusion(s) In summary … OR In conclusion … Possible real world applications and implications Suggest future work“Clinical and research priorities include furthering our understanding of the pathogenesis of M. pneumoniae-associated CNS disease, development of more reliable serologic assays, and defining the role of quantitative PCR in distinguishing acute infection from asymptomatic carriage and prolonged post-infection shedding” – Bitun & Richardson Curr Infect Dis Rep 2010, 12:282-290 Edanz Group | 57
  58. 58. References ALWAYS format your references Formatting is required in text for citations and for your references section Use reference management software Edanz Group | 58
  59. 59. Section Four Hints and tips Clear communication Language Cover letters Responding to reviewer comments Edanz Group | 59
  60. 60. ExpectationsInformation is easier tointerpret and more uniformwhen placed where mostreaders expect to find itGood writers are aware ofthese expectationsReadability Edanz Group | 60
  61. 61. Verb placementReaders expect verbs to closely follow subjects syntactic resolution Subject Sentence Verb Verb . Subject and verb far apart = poor readability Edanz Group | 61
  62. 62. Avoid reader confusion Readers can be confused if subject and verb are separated by too much contentThe smallest of the URFs (URFA6L), a 207-nucleotide (nt) reading frame overlapping out ofphase the [NH2]-terminal portion of theadenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) subunit 6 gene,has been identified as the animal equivalent of therecently discovered yeast H-ATPase subunit 8 gene. Edanz Group | 62
  63. 63. Avoid reader confusionThe smallest of the URFs is URFA6L, a 207-nucleotide (nt) reading frameoverlapping out of phase the [NH2]-terminal portion of theadenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) subunit 6 gene; it has been identified as theanimal equivalent of the recently discovered yeast H-ATPase subunit 8 gene.The smallest of the URFs (URFA6L) has been identifiedas the animal equivalent of the recently discovered yeastH-ATPase subunit 8 gene; URFA6L is a 207-nucleotide (nt)reading frame overlapping out of phase the [NH2]-terminal portion of the adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase)subunit 6 gene.We identified the smallest of the URFs (URFA6L) as theanimal equivalent of the recently discovered yeast H-ATPase subunit 8 gene. URFA6L is a … . Edanz Group | 63
  64. 64. Which voice? Active vs. passive Use the active voice unless your target journal states otherwiseBlood samples were collected from 256 patients.We collected blood from 256 patients. Edanz Group | 64
  65. 65. Active voice Subject Verb Active Sentences written in the active voice are: SIMPLE DIRECT CLEAR EASY TO READ Edanz Group | 65
  66. 66. Stress position Readers focus on information at the end of a sentence. Subject Verb take-home information . “Save the best until last” Edanz Group | 66
  67. 67. Stress positionThe dog sat when her mistress offered a treat.The dog sat when a treat was offered by hermistress.When the mistress offered her a treat, the dog sat. Readers, without thinking, concentrate on the end of a sentence. Edanz Group | 67
  68. 68. Topic position Readers expect a sentence/phrase to be a story about whoever shows up first Subject Topic position Verb Stress position . Edanz Group | 68
  69. 69. Topic position sentence idea idea idea idea Topic link Linkage and context The family went into the courtyard to see the new puppy. The dog sat when her owner offered a treat. Everyone was so excited they broke into applause. However, as the courtyard was situated right next to my bedroom, the sound woke me from my sleep. Edanz Group | 69
  70. 70. Topic sentences Easier to read Indicates to the reader the main idea of a paragraph Provides the writer with a focus Should be the first sentence of a paragraph Then discuss/explain the topic Summarize with a concluding sentence Beginning → Middle → End Edanz Group | 70
  71. 71. Topic sentences ExampleIN HIS STUDIES OF THE CONDITIONED REFLEX,PAVLOV WORKED ALMOST ENTIRELY WITH DOGSAND WITH THE SALIVARY REFLEX. Implicit in all ofhis work is the notion that everything the dog learnsfrom puppyhood on is a result of the association ofcertain events (which happen to occur at the same time)with the biologically adequate stimulus to some nativeresponse such as withdrawing, struggling, eating, sexbehavior, or the like. What the dog can learn…Henry Garrett, “Great Experiments in Psychology” Edanz Group | 71
  72. 72. Readability“only 4% of readers understand a 27-word sentence first time” Reader objectives Only need to read once Do not have to read slowly Can understand author logic immediately Edanz Group | 72
  73. 73. Sentence length Keep it short & simpleWe examined numerous peer-reviewed journalsEasy to read articles had an average sentencelength of around 17 wordsSentences that are 15−20 wordsLong sentences and repetition One sentence: one idea Edanz Group | 73
  74. 74. Goals to aim for … Maximum 25–30 words per sentence Not more than four 30-word sentences in the whole manuscript Use punctuation to your advantage periods (.) and commas (,) Think about ‘reader expectation’ and match the expectation with the contents Edanz Group | 74
  75. 75. Simple is best Simple language IS best Makes YOUR science more relevant Minimizes confusion – maximizes understanding Science is often complex Use simple language to help more people understand your work Edanz Group | 75
  76. 76. Simple words Examples PREFERRED AVOID more additional enough adequate clear apparent try attempt show demonstrate try endeavor very exceedingly Edanz Group | 76
  77. 77. Unnecessary words Write simply In order to…In order to determine the fractalkine expression in the aorta ofApoE −/− mice and the effect of high-dose aspirin intervention onfractalkine expression and atherosclerotic lesion formation, westudied …To determine the fractalkine expression in the aorta of ApoE −/−mice and the effect of high-dose aspirin intervention onfractalkine expression and atherosclerotic lesion formation, westudied … Edanz Group | 77
  78. 78. Unnecessary words Further examples PREFERRED AVOID Because For the reason that First In the first place Soon In the not too distant future Four Four in number Green Green color After Subsequent to Before Prior to Usually Except in a very few instances Edanz Group | 78
  79. 79. Common mistakes Comparisons Frequently made in the Results section Compare “like” with “like” Avoid ambiguity Use with, NOT toThe tumor excised from the pancreas was compared with theliver.The tumor excised from the pancreas was compared withthat from the liver. Edanz Group | 79
  80. 80. Avoiding ambiguity ComparisonsRelative terms, such as more, higher and greater,require a reference for comparisonUse than or compared with Reactions with the new thermal cycler were faster. Faster than what? Reactions with the new thermal cycler were faster than those with the old cycler. Edanz Group | 80
  81. 81. Cover letters Competition for publication space and for editors’ attention is very high It may not be enough to send a cover letter to a journal editor like this:Dear Editor-in-Chief,I am sending you our manuscript entitled “Techniques to detect circoviruses in Indianbird species” by Raye et al. We would like to have the manuscript considered forpublication in Virology Methods Online.Please let me know of your decision at your earliest convenience.Sincerely yours,Warren Raye, PhD Edanz Group | 81
  82. 82. Your cover letter General rules Address to the editor personally State your manuscript title and publication type Give a brief background, rationale and description of your results Explain the importance of your findings and why they would be of interest to the journal’s target audience Provide corresponding author details Edanz Group | 82
  83. 83. Cover letters ExampleDear Dr Lisberger,Please find enclosed our manuscript entitled “Amyloid-like inclusions in the brains of Huntington’s disease patients”, byMcGowan et al., which we would like to submit for publication as a Research Paper in Neuroscience.Recent immunohistochemical studies have revealed the presence of neuronal inclusions containing an N-terminal portion of Give thethe mutant huntingtin protein and ubiquitin in the brain tissues of Huntington’s disease (HD) patients; however, the role of background tothese inclusions in the disease process has remained unclear. One suspected disease-causing mechanism in Huntington’sdisease and other polyglutamine disorders is the potential for the mutant protein to undergo a conformational change to a the researchmore stable anti-parallel β-sheet structure…To confirm if the immunohistochemically observed huntingtin- and ubiquitin-containing inclusions display amyloid features, we What was doneperformed Congo red staining and both polarizing and confocal microscopy on post-mortem human brain tissues obtainedfrom five HD patients, two AD patients, and two normal controls. Congo red staining revealed a small number of amyloid-like and what wasinclusions showing green birefringence by polarized microscopy, in a variety of cortical regions.... ….detected inclusions foundobserved in parallel sections, suggesting that only a relatively small proportion of inclusions in HD adopt an amyloid-likestructure.We believe our findings would appeal to a broad audience, such as the readership of Neuroscience. As a wide-reaching journal Interest topublishing original research on all aspects of neuroscience… journal’s readersWe confirm that this manuscript has not been published elsewhere and is not under consideration by another journal. All Conforms toauthors have approved the manuscript and agree with submission to Neuroscience. We have read and have abided by the journalstatement of ethical standards for manuscripts submitted to Neuroscience. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. requirementsPlease address all correspondence to…. Edanz Group | 83
  84. 84. Recommending reviewers“… the contact details (including email addresses) of at least four potential peerreviewers for your paper. These should be experts in your field of study, who will be ableto provide an objective assessment of the manuscripts quality. Any peer reviewers yousuggest should not have recently published with any of the authors of your manuscriptand should not be members of the same research institution.” Who ARE these experts? Read as much as possible! Know your competitors Provide a reason for recommending/excluding areviewer Editors have the final decision on reviewer choice Edanz Group | 84
  85. 85. Potential reviewers From your reading and references Groups doing similar work, producing similar results Possible collaborators Networking Meetings, conferences and congresses People that comment positively Aim for younger and mid-level scientists Scientists new to a field Edanz Group | 85
  86. 86. Peer review Very few papers are Rejection Acceptance Minor immediately accepted Major revision without need for any revision revisions Complete rejection Journal editor Major revisions decision Minor revisions Acceptance Edanz Group | 86
  87. 87. Reasons for rejection: the science Methods Validations Research question Statistics Data versus conclusions Edanz Group | 87
  88. 88. Reasons for rejection: the manuscript Methods detail Citations Rationale and aims Results format Limitations Edanz Group | 88
  89. 89. Reasons for rejection: other Inappropriate journal Inappropriate selected: scope, timing: too early or impact, audience late Edanz Group | 89
  90. 90. Revision How to respond Politely respond to ALL the reviewers’ comments in a response letter Make it easy to see the changes Refer to line and page numbers Different color font Highlight the text Edanz Group | 90
  91. 91. Revision How to respond Conduct the additional experiments suggested If this is impossible, you MUST explain why You can disagree with reviewers BUT provide evidence (cite references) Comply with deadlines Edanz Group | 91
  92. 92. Post-referee revisions The responseDear Dr. _____________: [address the editor byname]Thank you for your consideration of our manuscriptentitled _____________ [insert manuscript titlehere]. We have reviewed the comments of thereviewers and have thoroughly revised themanuscript. We found the comments helpful, andbelieve our revised manuscript represents asignificant improvement over our initial submission.In response to the reviewers’ suggestions we have[summarize the key changes here] Edanz Group | 92
  93. 93. Post-referee revisions Point-by-point[After the introduction to the response, address allreviewer points individually]Reviewer Comment: In your analysis of the data you have chosen touse a somewhat obscure fitting function (regression). In my opinion,a simple Gaussian function would have sufficed. Moreover, theresults would be more instructive and easier to compare to previousresults.Response: We agree with the reviewer’s assessment of the analysis.Our tailored function makes it impossible to fully interpret the datain terms of the prevailing theories. In addition, in its current form itwould be difficult to tell that this measurement constitutes asignificant improvement over previously reported values. We haveredone the analysis using a Gaussian fitting function. Edanz Group | 93
  94. 94. Post-referee revisions Disagreement[Sometimes you will disagree with the reviewer. Keepyour response polite and professional]Reviewer Comment: In your analysis of the data you have chosento use a somewhat obscure fitting function (regression). In myopinion, a simple Gaussian function would have sufficed. Moreover,the results would be more instructive and easier to compare toprevious results.Response: We agree with the reviewer that a simple Gaussian fitwould facilitate comparison with the results of other studies.However, our tailored function allows for the analysis of the data interms of the Smith model [Smith et al, 1998]. We have added twosentences to the paper (page 3 paragraph 2) to explain the use ofthis function and Smith’s model. Edanz Group | 94
  95. 95. Understanding reviewer comments “The English needs to be improved” “Your writing is difficult to understand”GrammarLong, complex sentences and paragraphsNon-native expressionsGaps in the logicPoor organization of the manuscriptFlowToo much information Edanz Group | 95
  96. 96. Understanding reviewer comments“The authors hypothesized to look for the pharmacokinetics ofthe insulin using this 4 mm needle; However they didnt dobioequivalence analyses for glucose pharmacodynamics. That isone of my concerns about this methodology.” Questions from reviewers may not always beapparent Cosmetic changes Edanz Group | 96
  97. 97. Help your readers understand“If you can’t explain something simply,you don’t understand it well.” – Albert Einstein Write to express NOT impressConsider your audience – their native languagemay not be English Edanz Group | 97
  98. 98. Online resources Paradigm Online Writing Assistanthttp://www.powa.org/ Springer Exemplarhttp://www.springerexemplar.com/ Google Scholarhttp://scholar.google.com/ Purdue Online Writing Labhttp://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/ Edanz Group | 98
  99. 99. Free resource Edanz Group | 99
  100. 100. Edanz Journal Advisorsimplifying publication success featuring Journal Selector Edanz Group | 100
  101. 101. How to use it1. Insert English sample text author’s abstract, short description, key phrases or abstract from similar paper Edanz Group | 101
  102. 102. 2. Filter and refine revise sample text to refine results Impact Factor publication frequency Edanz Group | 102
  103. 103. 3. Narrow your options match analysis basic journal information matched previous publications Edanz Group | 103
  104. 104. 4. Visit journal websitesto make final decision Edanz Group | 104
  105. 105. coming soon at edanzediting.com/JSTfollow us on twitter @JournalAdvisor Edanz Group | 105
  106. 106. Thank youGood luck! Edanz Group | 106
  107. 107. Any questions?If you have queries about writing:read2write@edanzgroup.com Edanz Group | 107
  108. 108. English editing for scientists, by scientistsExpert scientific editorsServices to raise your chances of acceptanceEnsuring clear communication of your scienceRapid completion Edanz Group | 108
  109. 109. ServicesServices for acceptance Language Editing Journal Selection Expert Scientific Review Abstract Writing Cover Letter Writing Point-by-Point Response Check Edanz Group | 109
  110. 110. Expert editors in all scientific fields Dr Stephen Cooke 2006 – PhD Immunology, King’s College, UK Worked as a post-doctoral fellow for both the Arthritis and Rheumatism Council (ARC) and Cancer Research UK (CRUK)Dr Conan Fee 1989 – PhD Chemical & Process Engineering, University of Canterbury, NZDirector of Biomolecular Interactions Centre at the University of Canterbury; has published over 160 journal articles, bookchapters, conference papers, and patents Dr Jennifer Smith 1999 – PhD Botany, University of Otago, NZ Experienced peer reviewer for functional plant biology, and enzyme and microbial technology Dr Alison Sherwin 1992 – PhD Biochemistry, University of Kent at Canterbury, UK Has edited over 3,000 manuscripts in the Health and Life Sciences for Japanese and Chinese authors Dr Kristen Demarest Dr Andrew Gorman 2000 – PhD Neurobiology and Behavior, SUNY, USA 2001 – PhD Geophysics, University of British Columbia, CA Currently staff scientist at Scripps Research Institute Lecturer at the Geology Department, University of Otago Dr Natasha Lundin Dr Brett Kraabel 2007 – PhD Chemistry, University of Otago, NZ 1995 – PhD Physics, University of California Santa Barbara, USA Cover article author in Angewandte Chemie Specialist in condensed matter physics, optics and materials science Edanz Group | 110
  111. 111. English editing for scientists, by scientists www.edanzediting.com Edanz Group | 111
  112. 112. Edanz Group | 112