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121129 edanz seminar_session3 121129 edanz seminar_session3 Presentation Transcript

  • Writing exercises
  • Practice Exercises - Comparisons1. When compared ___ that of the crystalline layer, the structure of the amorphous layer is significantly more disorganized.2. There were three types of products; metal, non-metal, and hybrid.3. We performed X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier- transform interferometry, etc. on the samples.4. When compared with the output of the pump laser, the signal laser is much weaker.
  • Practice Exercises - Comparisons1. When compared with that of the crystalline layer, the structure of the amorphous layer is significantly more disorganized.2. There were three types of products; metal, non-metal, and hybrid.3. We performed X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier- transform interferometry, etc. on the samples.4. When compared with the output of the pump laser, the signal laser is much weaker.
  • Practice Exercises - Respectively5. The highest and second highest peaks correspond to the ground state and first excited state, ____.6. The velocity of the first particle was 202 m/s, and the velocity of the second particle was 428 m/s ____.
  • Practice Exercises - Respectively5. The highest and second highest peaks correspond to the ground state and first excited state, respectively.6. The velocity of the first particle was 202 m/s, and the velocity of the second particle was 428 m/s.
  • Practice Exercises – Active & Passive Voice7. Confocal microscopy was performed to analyze the nuclear localization of p53. We performed confocal microscopy to analyze the nuclear localization of p53.8. The mRNA expression decreased after treatment with the inhibitor. Active voice.9. The mRNA expression was decreased by the inhibitor. The inhibitor decreased the mRNA expression.
  • a majority of of a majority rapidlyrapidlya number of of a number many, several,many, several, some someat a rapid ratebecause of rate at a rapid because ofas a consequence of as a consequence ofbased on based onon the basis ofmost the basis of on most
  • a majority point in time at this of althoughrapidlya number on the fact that based of tomany, several, someat a rapid rate completely filledbecause of currentlyas a consequence ofbased on the fact that despite filledon the basis ofmost order to in because
  • Randomized groups of mice were subjected to differenttreatments based on age and sex to evaluate the effects ofspecific antagonists on their nervous systems and then fedorganic chow and water ad libitum until the next treatmentregimen commenced. ?Randomized groups of mice were subjected to differenttreatments based on age and sex to evaluate the effects ofspecific antagonists on their nervous systems.They were then fed organic chow and water ad libitum untilthe next treatment regimen commenced. Point: Think about “reader anticipation”. Match expectation with contents!
  • The findings could be explained by the specific properties ofgold, silver and platinum as well as by the conditions inwhich these metals were found, for example silver wasfound in…The findings could be explained by the specific properties ofgold, silver and platinum. Another explanation could be theconditions in which these metals were found, for examplesilver was found in…Point: “as well as” can replace “and”, but can make sentences verylong. Do not start a sentence with “as well as”. Repeat part of theprevious sentence.
  • The treatments are often technically difficult and expensive,and their effectiveness depends on the physical andchemical characteristics of the compounds used, and ontheir ability to…The treatments are often technically difficult and expensive.Their effectiveness depends on the physical and chemicalcharacteristics of the compounds used. Also important istheir ability to…Point: After breaking a sentence, remind the reader of the concept. Here, “effectiveness” is important.
  • Readability summaryReader objectives: Only need to read once Do not have to read slowly Can understand author logic immediatelyWriting style: Maximum words in a sentence 25–30 Average should be around 17 Not more than four 30-word sentences in the whole paper Use lots of periods (.) and some commas (,)
  • Statin Use, Bone Mineral Density, and Fracture Risk: Geelong OsteoporosisStudyJulie A. Pasco, PhD; Mark A. Kotowicz, MBBS, FRACP; Margaret J. Henry, PhD; Kerrie M. Sanders,MNutr, PhD; Geoffrey C. Nicholson, MBBS, PhD, FRACP, FRCPArch Intern Med.2002;162:537-540.Osteoporosis is a serious health condition among women. Recent data suggest that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) decrease the risk of fracture and increasebone mineral density (BMD). This cross-sectional study is set in southeastern Australia. In order toevaluate statin efficacy against osteoporosis, we evaluated the association between statin use,fracture risk, and bone mineral density in 1375 women (573 with incident fractures and 802 withoutincident fracture, all drawn from the same community). Fractures were identified radiologically. Useof medication and lifestyle factors were documented by questionnaire. Unadjusted odds ratio forfracture associated with statin use was 0.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.71). Adjusting forBMD at the femoral neck, spine, and whole body increased the odds ratio to 0.45 (95% CI, 0.25-0.80), 0.42 (95% CI, 0.24-0.75), and 0.43 (95% CI, 0.24-0.78), respectively. Adjusting for age, weight,concurrent medications, and lifestyle factors had no substantial effect on the odds ratio for fracture.Statin use was associated with a 3% greater adjusted bone mineral density at the femoral neck (P =.08), and BMD tended to be greater at the spine and whole body but did not achieve statisticalsignificance. The substantial 60% reduction in risk of fracture associated with statin use is greaterthan would be expected from increases in BMD alone.
  • Statin Use, Bone Mineral Density, and Fracture Risk: Geelong OsteoporosisStudyJulie A. Pasco, PhD; Mark A. Kotowicz, MBBS, FRACP; Margaret J. Henry, PhD; Kerrie M. Sanders,MNutr, PhD; Geoffrey C. Nicholson, MBBS, PhD, FRACP, FRCPArch Intern Med.2002;162:537-540. Medication use (1)Not necessary (16)Osteoporosis is a serious health condition among women. Recent data suggest that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) decrease the risk of fracture and increasebone mineral density (BMD). This cross-sectional study is set in southeastern Australia. In order toevaluate statin efficacy against osteoporosis, we evaluated the association between statin use,fracture risk, and bone mineral density in 1375 women (573 with incident fractures and 802 withoutincident fracture, all drawn from the same community). Fractures were identified radiologically. Useof medication and lifestyle factors were documented by questionnaire. Unadjusted odds ratio forfracture associated with statin use was 0.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.71). Adjusting forBMD at the femoral neck, spine, and whole body increased the odds ratio to 0.45 (95% CI, 0.25-0.80), 0.42 (95% CI, 0.24-0.75), and 0.43 (95% CI, 0.24-0.78), respectively. Adjusting for age, weight,concurrent medications, and lifestyle factors had no substantial effect on the odds ratio for fracture.Statin use was associated with a 3% greater adjusted bone mineral density at the femoral neck (P =.08), and BMD tended to be greater at the spine and whole body but did not achieve statisticalsignificance. The substantial 60% reduction in risk of fracture associated with statin use is greaterthan would be expected from increases in BMD alone. BMD (4) fracture risk (2) Can save 23 words!
  • Statin Use, Bone Mineral Density, and Fracture Risk: Geelong OsteoporosisStudy Julie A. Pasco, PhD; Mark A. Kotowicz, MBBS, FRACP; Margaret J. Henry, PhD; Kerrie M. Sanders, MNutr, PhD; Geoffrey C. Nicholson, MBBS, PhD, FRACP, FRCP Arch Intern Med.2002;162:537-540.Background Methods Recent data suggest that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) decrease the fracture risk and increase bone mineral density (BMD). This cross-sectional study is set in southeastern Australia. We evaluated the association between statin use, fracture risk, and BMD in 1375 women (573 with incident fractures and 802 without incident fracture, all drawn from the same community). Fractures were identified radiologically. Medication use and lifestyle factors were documented by questionnaire. Unadjusted odds ratio for fracture associated with statin use was 0.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.71). Adjusting for BMD at the femoral neck, spine, and whole body increased the odds ratio to 0.45 (95% CI, 0.25-0.80), 0.42 (95% CI, 0.24-0.75), and 0.43 (95% CI, 0.24-0.78), respectively. Adjusting for age, weight, concurrent medications, and lifestyle factors had no substantial effect on the odds ratio for fracture. Statin use was associated with a 3% greater adjusted BMD at the femoral neck (P = .08), and BMD tended to be greater at the spine and whole body but did not achieve statistical significance. The substantial 60% reduction in fracture risk associated with statin use is greater than would be expected from increases in BMD alone. Conclusion Results
  • Statin Use, Bone Mineral Density, and Fracture Risk: Geelong Osteoporosis StudyJulie A. Pasco, PhD; Mark A. Kotowicz, MBBS, FRACP; Margaret J. Henry, PhD; Kerrie M. Sanders,MNutr, PhD; Geoffrey C. Nicholson, MBBS, PhD, FRACP, FRCPArch Intern Med.2002;162:537-540.Background Recent data suggest that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors(statins) decrease fracture risk and increase bone mineral density (BMD).Methods This cross-sectional study is set in southeastern Australia. We evaluated the associationbetween statin use, fracture risk, and BMD in 1375 women (573 with incident fractures and 802without incident fracture, all drawn from the same community). Fractures were identifiedradiologically. Medication use and lifestyle factors were documented by questionnaire.Results Unadjusted odds ratio for fracture associated with statin use was 0.40 (95% confidenceinterval [CI], 0.23-0.71). Adjusting for BMD at the femoral neck, spine, and whole body increased theodds ratio to 0.45 (95% CI, 0.25-0.80), 0.42 (95% CI, 0.24-0.75), and 0.43 (95% CI, 0.24-0.78),respectively. Adjusting for age, weight, concurrent medications, and lifestyle factors had nosubstantial effect on the odds ratio for fracture. Statin use was associated with a 3% greater adjustedBMD at the femoral neck (P = .08), and BMD tended to be greater at the spine and whole body butdid not achieve statistical significance.Conclusion The substantial 60% reduction in fracture risk associated with statin use is greater thanwould be expected from increases in BMD alone.
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