How to Write and GiveEffective PresentationsKyushu UniversityJeff Robens, PhDSenior EditorEdanz Group Japan27 Septemeber 2012
Today’s presentation …How to prepare and write goodpresentationsHow to give good presentations
WritingPresentations Getting started Most important thing you can do… Preparation Preparation Preparation
Writing Keep your audiencePresentations in mindWhat do they want What do you want to know? to tell them? Keep it simple! What will be What will keep theirinteresting for them? attention?
WritingPresentations Similarities Manuscript Presentation Telling a story Telling a story Beginning: Introduction Beginning: Introduction Middle: Results/figures Middle: Results/figures End: Discussion End: Conclusion
Writing Introduction –Presentations Beginning Information about you Main topic of presentation Sections of the presentation
Writing Develop your story –Presentations Middle Most of your slides Make sure flows smoothly Emphasize key points appropriately Mini-summaries at the end of each section
Writing Conclusion -Presentations End Take home message from each section Acknowledgements Thank the audience
WritingPresentations Differences Limited time Limited space: be selective, discuss main points Limited attention span: Keep focus with graphics and examples
WritingPresentations Differences Increase your Share your audience’s interest excitement! Increase their focus and attention Audience can’t Control flow “skip” sections of information Control flow of logic
WritingPresentations Font styles Use sans-serif fonts (Arial, Calibri, etc.) Easier to read from far away Use 40 font for titles Use 30+ font for text (this is 32 pt) Use 24+ pt font for minor points This is 24 pt font
Writing Slide layout –Presentations avoid this! This is an example of a poorly prepared slide. I am using 18 pt font, which is too small to be clearly read by people in the back of the room. I am wasting valuable space by writing complete sentences. I could make this information much clearer by only using the main point of each topic. This is also a serif font, Times New Roman, which is commonly used in manuscripts. However it is not suitable for slides since it can be difficult to read from a distance. What do you think? Lastly, there are so many lines of text on this slide that it is difficult for the audience to read clearly. Many lines of text are fine for papers, but not for presentations. This is why you want to always avoid slides like this in a presentation. Now, I hope you did not waste your valuable time actually reading all the text on this slide!
WritingPresentations Proper slide layout Limit to only 6 lines of text This is an example of a poorly prepared slide. I am using 18 pt font, which is too small to be clearly read by people in the back of the room. Use points, not sentences I am wasting valuable space by writing complete sentences. I could make this information much clearer by only using the main point of each topic. Don’t make the font size smaller to fit onto This is also a serif font, Times New Roman, which is commonly used in manuscripts. However it is not suitable for slides since it can be difficult to read one slide from a distance. What do you think? Lastly, there are so many lines of text on this slide that it is difficult for the Better to have 2 clear slides than 1 unclear audience to read clearly. Many lines of text are fine for papers, but not for presentations. one This is why you want to always avoid slides like this in a presentation. Now, I hope you did not waste your valuable time actually reading all the text on this slide!
Writing Slide layout –Presentations contrast is important Light background with dark text = easy to read Dark background with light text = easy to read Light background with light text = difficult to read Dark background with dark text = difficult to read
WritingPresentations Bullet points Useful, better than plain text Often best way to list information But, can be boring Lose your audience attention Bullet points can suggest hierarchy One large block of text more difficult to read
WritingPresentations Graphics Useful way to list Can be boring for information audience Bullet points May suggest One large block of hierarchy text difficult to read
WritingPresentations Graphics Simple and Contrasting colors, organized easy to read Lack of contrast = difficult to read Distracting Graphics For information, For pictures, use not decoration compressed images
WritingPresentations Avoid slang Simple and clear or jargon Word Choice spelling Use words you can Check speling and pronounce grammar
WritingPresentations Transitions Default: just PowerPoint offers disappear and appear many choices Moving slide to slide Some subtle ones: Others distracting: Fade or push Most of them Be careful with your choice of transitions I would only recommend none or fade
Writing Keeping yourPresentations audience’s attention Focus the attention of Audience cannot your audience read ahead Animation Keep it simple: Do not distract from appear, fade, wipe your information!
WritingPresentations Animations Good animation: Good animation: Fade Wipe Distracting animation: Distracting animation: Swivel Bounce
WritingPresentations Simple and clear Emphasize main Preparation points Summary Only use subtleAvoid too much text animations Use graphics and examples
GivingPresentations Before you present… Most important thing you can do… Practice Learn your presentation, Don’t memorize, don’t read it these are your ideas Practice alone and with others, record yourself
GivingPresentations Before you present… Most important thing you can do… Practice Learn your presentation, Don’t memorize, don’t read it these are your ideas Practice builds and with Practice alone confidence! others, record yourself
GivingPresentations Getting ready Arrive early Make sure everything is working Have a backup (extra USB) Have water available Take a deep breath and relax Remember, you are having a conversation with the audience
GivingPresentations Start positive Thank the organizers I would like to thank [organizer] for kindly inviting me here today.Introduction Opening comments I’m very happy to be able to speak to you today. Start your presentation Never apologize Today, I would like to talk about... for your English
GivingPresentations Develop your story Introduce the sections As you can see, my presentation is divided into four sections. Body of Starting the sectionspresentation First, I would like to discuss... Summarize each section I’d like to summarize the main findings from this section.
GivingPresentations Figures – Guide the audience Introduce the figures Now, I’d like to show you data from our recent experiments. Describing Talking about the data data/figures Here, you can see... Focus on important information I’d like to draw your attention to...
Giving Finishing yourPresentations presentation Main conclusions In conclusion, the main findings of this study are... Thank the audience Conclusions Thank you for your attention today. Acknowledgments I’d like to thank the people who were involved in this project. Invite questions I’d now be happy to answer any questions that you may have.
Giving Make sure youPresentations understand the question Ask them to repeat Would you mind repeating your question, please? Handling Ask for clarification questions Excuse me, I don’t understand your question. Are you asking about…? Repeat the question Okay, so this question is about...
Giving How to answerPresentations difficult questions Tentative answers I’m afraid I cannot give you a definite answer, but I think that… Unanswerable Handling Unfortunately we don’t have an answer at this time, but probably... questions Unrelated questions I’m sorry, but we didn’t look at that in this study. Checking your answers Does that answer your question?
Giving Presentation tips –Presentations appear confident Make eyeAlways face your contact Stand upright audience Non-verbalDon’t be stiff, Smile!move naturally Use hand gestures
Giving Presentation tips –Presentations Speaking style Pause for emphasis Vary tone Speak slowly and pitch Verbal Don’t talk to theShow enthusiasm Avoid “filler” screen or podium words (ummm)
Giving Additional tips –Presentations time management Stay within your time limits Use a clock to time yourself, not a watch Rushing or skipping over slides makes you look unorganized
GivingPresentations Additional tips “That’s a good question…” is a great way to organize your thoughts for an answer “B” key makes screen go black “W” key makes screen go white Never apologize for being nervous, the audience probably can’t notice Enjoy yourself!
GivingPresentations Arrive early and be prepared Guide the Practice audience SummaryAppear confident Enjoy yourself Speak slowly and clearly