How to Write for and GetPublished in Scientific Journals: Part I 文発表ガイド 論文発表ガイド The Graduate School of Human and Environmental Sciences Kyoto University Warren Raye, PhD Senior Life Sciences Editor Edanz Group 7 July 2012
A little about me…Author ResearcherVirology, Stem Cell Biology, Arthritis, Immunology & Molecular Biology Lecturer & teacher Senior Life Sciences Editor
Today’s presentation …Section One: Scientific publishingSection Two: Before you start …Section Three: Structuring your manuscriptSection Four: Hints and tips
Scientific publishing Section One Why publish? Publishing in English What do journal editors and peer reviewers want? Peer review Ethics
Scientific publishing Why publish? Nature is complex
Scientific publishing Why publish? We use complex technologies and methods to understand it…
Scientific publishing Why publish? …and the science is often necessarily complex
Scientific publishing Section One English is the international language of science 英語は研究社会の国際語 Other scientists want to hear from Japanese researchers! Become an effective science communicator International reputation
Scientific publishing Peer review improves your manuscript Rejection Acceptance Minor revision 査読は論文の質 Major revision を高める Few papers are accepted without revision Rejection and revision are integral to the peer review process Peer review is a positive process
Scientific publishing What do editors and reviewers want? Is the manuscript sufficiently novel? Is the manuscript of broad enough interest? Novelty Aims and Scope Significance Impact Factor
Scientific publishing What do editors want? High quality research Stands up to peer review Original & novel advances a field Interesting to the journal’s readership Active research areas Clear and concise Englishジャーナル編集長はできるだけ質の高い論文を求めている
Scientific publishing Perceptions “I would like to know how native English speakers feel when they read manuscripts written in English by Japanese researchers. I am sometimes afraid that native English speakers may stop reading papers of which English is a little strange to them.” – a Japanese researcher from Kyoto University
Before you start … Section Two Read Study design Select an appropriate journal Evaluate significance Ethics
Before you start … Reading Both sides of the brain are essential and work in harmony Logic Creativity Reading Writing Similarly, reading and writing are connected
Before you start … Reading improves your writing Read as often as possible Discuss with your colleagues Assists you with journal selection Provides ideas for your next manuscript 論文の読み方が上達すれば執筆力も向上
Before you start … Hot topics Look for clues… How? Controversies Unexplained findings Editorials, commentaries, letters
Before you start … Hot topics Literature searches SpringerLink Google Scholar PubMed Expand your reading Similar and related fields
Before you start … Hot topics Talk to other scientists! Local society meetings National conferences International congresses These are the places where the very latest results are presented
Before you start … Strategies for reading Read Title and Abstract first Self-assess knowledge of topic Read Results or the relevant parts of the Results (Figures and Tables) Read Discussion for interpretation Refer to Introduction and Methods only if necessary
Before you start … Experimental design CriticalWhat is your hypothesis or research question? The aim(s) of your study What methods are appropriate? Do you have the relevant resources? Identify your controls
Before you start … Experimental design Sample sizes (n) large enough? Which statistical test(s)? When in doubt – talk to a statistician! Does your study comply with all ethics requirements?
Before you start … Choosing a target journal Journal selection must be based on an honest evaluation of your manuscript Novelty Aims and Scope Significance Impact Factor
Before you start … Choosing a target journal: timing The target journal should be chosen: After the results to be published have been obtained (with no new ones coming) After a decision has been made on how high to aim—high, medium or low impact Before writing the Abstract, Introduction, and Discussion sections
Before you start … Match your manuscript with the journal What is your message? Who will be interested? How significant are your results? Where have similar articles been published?
Before you start … Factors to consider Aims and scope Open access or Publishing frequency subscriber Impact factor Prestige Target audience Cost Indexing status Publication type Which factor is most important to you?
Before you start … Evaluating significance: novelty How new are my results compared with those already published? New findings Incremental Conceptual advances advances Low to medium Medium to high impact factor impact factor
Before you start … Evaluating significance: relevance Are my findings of relevance only to a specific geographical region or ethnic population, or do they have implications for other regions and populations? High impact factor journals may consider specific findings if they are the first of their kind or of international significance.
Before you start … Evaluating significance: appeal Is my work in an area of ‘popular appeal’ Examples: Optogenetics Higgs boson H5N1 Global warming Stem cells Organic electronics
Before you start … Publication ethics Multiple submissions Plagiarism Improper author contribution Data fabrication and falsification Improper use of human subjects and animals Conflicts of interest 非倫理的行為は不正行為
Structuring your manuscript Question from a researcher “There are many difference between Science papers and Arts papers in Japanese language, like format, contents order, etc. Is there any difference between science and arts also in English? If so, is there any way to transmit research that everybody in any fields can easily understand?”
Structuring your manuscript Section ThreeYou are telling a story Beginning → Middle → EndMust be easy to read and easy to understand 読者にとって理解しやすくする
Structuring your manuscript ‘Tell them three times’ Introduction = Beginning Assertion ‘tell them what you are going to tell them,’ Body = Middle Evidence ‘tell them,’ Conclusion = End Affirmation ‘tell them again what you told them’.
Structuring your manuscript IMRaD Abstract Introduction Assertion Methods Results Evidence and Discussion Affirmation
Structuring your manuscript The ‘write’ order For maximum clarity and consistency: Methods Results During your research Introduction Discussion After selecting target journal Title Abstract Write last 論文に記載される順番と同じ順序で執筆しないこと