120629_edanz_kaist_korea_author_academy

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  • 1. This presentation available for download NOW from: edanzediting.com/korea_2012 If you have queries about writing: read2write@edanzgroup.com Edanz Group | 1
  • 2. How to Write for and GetPublished in Scientific Journals 세계적 수준의 영문 저널과 도서를 위한 글쓰기 Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology Warren Raye, PhD Senior Life Sciences Editor Edanz Group 29 June 2012
  • 3. A little about me…Author ResearcherVirology, Stem Cell Biology, Arthritis, Immunology & Molecular Biology Lecturer & teacher Senior Life Sciences Editor Edanz Group | 3
  • 4. Presentation Section One: Scientific publishing Section Two: Before you start… Section Three: Structuring your manuscript Section Four: Hints and tips Edanz Group | 4
  • 5. Section One Scientific publishing Why publish? Publishing in English The publishing timeline Peer review Edanz Group | 5
  • 6. Why publish? Nature is complex Edanz Group | 6
  • 7. Why publish? We use complex technologies and methods to understand it… Edanz Group | 7
  • 8. Why publish? …and the science is often necessarily complex Edanz Group | 8
  • 9. Why publish? To exchange ideas globally! 자신의 아이디어를 국제적으로 널리 알리기 위해서는 무엇보다도 명료한 언어를 사용하는 것이 중요합니다. 출판이 되기 전까지는 연구가 완료된 것이 아닙니다. Edanz Group | 9
  • 10. Why publish in English?English is the international language of science과학계에서 국제적으로 통용되는 언어는 영어입니다.Other scientists want to hear from Turkishresearchers!Allows you to become an effective sciencecommunicatorInternational reputation enabling collaborationsand work opportunities Edanz Group | 10
  • 11. Peer review improves your manuscript심사과정을 통해 논문의 질을 향상시킬 수 있습니다. Rejection Acceptance Minor revision Major revision Few papers are accepted without revision Rejection and revision are integral to the peer review process Edanz Group | 11
  • 12. What do journal editors and reviewers want? Is the manuscript sufficiently novel? Is the manuscript of broad enough interest? Novelty Aims and Scope Significance Impact Factor Edanz Group | 12
  • 13. What do journal editors want? 저널 편집자들은 양질의 논문을 원합니다. Will stand up to peer review Original research that advances a field in some way Interesting to the journal’s readership Active research areas Clear and concise English Edanz Group | 13
  • 14. Section Two Before you start … Read Study design Select an appropriate journal Ethical issues Edanz Group | 14
  • 15. Reading helps your writing Both sides of the brain are essential and work in harmony Reading Logic Creativity Reading Writing Similarly, reading and writing are connected Edanz Group | 15
  • 16. Reading improves your writing Read as often as possible Discuss with your colleagues Assists you with journal selection Provides ideas for your next manuscript 좋은 독자가 되는 것은 좋은 글을 쓰는 데에도 도움이 됩니다. Edanz Group | 16
  • 17. Strategies for reading Read Title and Abstract first Self-assess knowledge of topic Read Results or the relevant parts of the Results Read Discussion for interpretation Refer to Introduction and Methods only if necessary Edanz Group | 17
  • 18. Experimental design Get it right CRITICAL What is your hypothesis or research question? THE AIM(S) OF YOUR STUDY What methods are appropriate? Do you have the relevant resources? Identify your controls Edanz Group | 18
  • 19. Experimental design Get it right Sample sizes (n) large enough? Which statistical test(s)? When in doubt – talk to a statistician! Does your study comply with ALL ethics requirements? Edanz Group | 19
  • 20. Journal Selection Edanz Group | 20
  • 21. Choosing a target journal: timingThe target journal should be chosen: After the results to be published have been obtained (with no new ones coming) After a decision has been made on how high to aim—high, medium or low impact Before writing the manuscript Edanz Group | 21
  • 22. Match your manuscript with the journalWhat is the message?Who will be interested?How significant are your results?Where have similar articles been published? Edanz Group | 22
  • 23. Factors to consider Aims and scope Open access or subscriber Publishing frequency Prestige Impact factor Cost Target audience Publication type Which factor is most important to you? Edanz Group | 23
  • 24. Evaluating significance: importance Specific interest only or of interest to many Affect many (e.g. new tool) Support for (or contradiction of) an existing theory Substantially improve our understanding of a phenomenon or provide a new technology or disease treatment? Edanz Group | 24
  • 25. Evaluating significance: novelty How new are my results compared with those already published? New findings Incremental Conceptual advances advances Low to medium Medium to high impact factor impact factor Edanz Group | 25
  • 26. Evaluating significance: relevance Are my findings of relevance only to a specific geographical region or ethnic population or do they have implications for other regions and populations? High impact factor journals may consider specific findings if they are the first of their kind or of international significance. Edanz Group | 26
  • 27. Evaluating significance: appeal Is my work in an area of ‘popular appeal’? E.g. is it likely to be reported in mainstream or lay scientific media Examples: Optogenetics Higgs boson Epigenetics Global warming Stem cells Clean tech Edanz Group | 27
  • 28. Publication ethicsDO NOT… Multiple submissions Plagiarism Improper author contribution Data fabrication and falsification Improper use of human subjects and animals Conflicts of interest 연구에 관한 윤리 규정을 지키지 않으면 결국 발각되게 됩니다. Edanz Group | 28
  • 29. Any questions? Edanz Group | 29
  • 30. Section Three Structuring your manuscript You are telling a story Beginning → Middle → End MUST be easy to read AND easy to understand 독자들이 읽기 쉬운 문장을 써야 합니다. Edanz Group | 30
  • 31. ‘Tell them three times’Introduction = Beginning Assertion ‘tell them what you are going to tell them,’Body = Middle Evidence ‘tell them,’Conclusion = End Affirmation ‘tell them again what you told them’. 독자들이 읽기 쉬운 문장을 써야 합니다. Edanz Group | 31
  • 32. Basic manuscript structure Expanded IMRaD model Abstract Introduction Assertion Methods Results Evidence and Discussion Affirmation References Edanz Group | 32
  • 33. The ‘write’ order논문의 목차에 나타난 순서대로 글을 써야 하는 것은 아닙니다. For maximum clarity and consistency: Methods Write during your research Results Introduction Write after selecting your Discussion target journal Title Write last Abstract Edanz Group | 33
  • 34. Abstract Summarizes your work 초록은 논문에서 가장 중요한 부분입니다.Concise (100–300 words)1–4 sentences – describe problem(s) addressed1–4 sentences – objectives/hypotheses1–2 sentences – techniques; AVOID details1–3 sentences – most important resultsFinal sentence – concluding statement 초록은 그 자체로 완결성을 가져야 합니다. Edanz Group | 34
  • 35. Introduction Why? What question (problem) was studied?연구에서 다루고 있는 문제가 무엇인가? The answer to this question is contained within your Introduction Beginning → Middle → End Edanz Group | 35
  • 36. Introduction Beginning Sufficient background information Puts your work into context Start with a broad background General Specific Comprehensive literature review Cite reviews Edanz Group | 36
  • 37. Introduction Middle Rationale The reason(s) for doing this work? Why is it important? Justify your work Explain how you tried to address the problem (1–2 sentences) DO NOT state results from your study Edanz Group | 37
  • 38. Introduction End State the methods you plan to use Clearly and explicitly state 1–3 specific hypotheses or objectives of your study Edanz Group | 38
  • 39. Methods How did you carry out your work? 어떤 방법으로 그 문제를 연구했는가? Subheadings Easier to read Past tense New methods must be described in sufficient detail that they can be reproduced Established methods can be referenced Save time and effort Edanz Group | 39
  • 40. Results What did you find? 어떤 발견을 했는가? Accurate, brief, clear Use subheadings Use past tense to describe your results When referring to figures and tables, use present tense DO NOT explain your results DO NOT duplicate data among figures, tables and text Edanz Group | 40
  • 41. Display items Tables and figures Present a large amount of data quickly and efficiently Present most significant result as a figure or table Keep it simple — use separate panels if necessary AVOID duplication with the text Label all parts of your figures Legends must be able to ‘stand alone’표나 그림은 의사소통의 효율성을 높여 줍니다. Edanz Group | 41
  • 42. Display items Tables Clear concise legend/captionData dividedinto )categoriesfor clarity Abbreviations defined Edanz Group | 42
  • 43. Display items Figures Complicated data separatedMultiple panels: sets of related into smallerdata are shown in a single figure and simpler components Axes clearly labeledClear, ‘stand alone’ legend Edanz Group | 43
  • 44. Discussion So what? What do these findings mean? 연구 결과가 갖는 의의가 무엇인가? The answer to this question is in the Discussion Beginning → Middle → End Edanz Group | 44
  • 45. Discussion Beginning 겸손해야 합니다. AVOID repeating the results section Answer the research question(s) posed Emphasize the major finding(s) first What is your major conclusion, based on the results you have presented? Edanz Group | 45
  • 46. Discussion Middle Interpret your results … Compare with other studies Same or different? Possible reasons why? Unexpected results Briefly describe any limitations Sample sizes Complementary tests How could experiments be improved? Edanz Group | 46
  • 47. Discussion End Restate major conclusion(s) In summary … OR In conclusion … Possible real world applications and implications Suggest future work“Clinical and research priorities include furthering our understanding of thepathogenesis of M. pneumoniae-associated CNS disease, development ofmore reliable serologic assays, and defining the role of quantitative PCR indistinguishing acute infection from asymptomatic carriage and prolongedpost-infection shedding” – Bitun & Richardson Curr Infect Dis Rep 2010, 12:282-290 Edanz Group | 47
  • 48. Any questions? Edanz Group | 48
  • 49. Section Four Hints and tips Clear communication Language Cover letters Responding to reviewer comments Edanz Group | 49
  • 50. ExpectationsInformation is easier tointerpret and more uniformwhen placed where mostreaders expect to find itGood writers are aware ofthese expectationsReadability Edanz Group | 50
  • 51. Verb placementReaders expect verbs to closely follow subjects 독자들은 문장에서 주어 뒤에 바로 동사가 나타날 것이라고 기대합니다. Subject Sentence Verb Verb . Subject and verb far apart = poor readability Edanz Group | 51
  • 52. Avoid reader confusion Readers can be confused if subject and verb are separated by too much contentThe smallest of the URFs (URFA6L), a 207-nucleotide (nt) reading frame overlapping out ofphase the [NH2]-terminal portion of theadenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) subunit 6 gene,has been identified as the animal equivalent of therecently discovered yeast H-ATPase subunit 8 gene. 독자들이 읽기 쉬운 문장을 써야 합니다. Edanz Group | 52
  • 53. Avoid reader confusionThe smallest of the URFs is URFA6L, a 207-nucleotide (nt) reading frameoverlapping out of phase the [NH2]-terminal portion of theadenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) subunit 6 gene; it has been identified as theanimal equivalent of the recently discovered yeast H-ATPase subunit 8 gene.The smallest of the URFs (URFA6L) has been identifiedas the animal equivalent of the recently discovered yeastH-ATPase subunit 8 gene; URFA6L is a 207-nucleotide (nt)reading frame overlapping out of phase the [NH2]-terminal portion of the adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase)subunit 6 gene.We identified the smallest of the URFs (URFA6L) as theanimal equivalent of the recently discovered yeast H-ATPase subunit 8 gene. URFA6L is a … . Edanz Group | 53
  • 54. Which voice? Active vs. passive Use the active voice unless your target journal states otherwise 가능한 한 능동태를 사용합니다.Blood samples were collected from 256 patients.We collected blood from 256 patients. Edanz Group | 54
  • 55. Active voice Subject Verb Active Sentences written in the active voice are: SIMPLE DIRECT CLEAR EASY TO READ Edanz Group | 55
  • 56. Stress position Readers focus on information at the end of a sentence. 무의식적으로 독자들은 문장의 끝에 있는 정보를 중요하게 받아들이곤 합니다. Subject Verb take-home information . Edanz Group | 56
  • 57. Stress positionThe dog sat when her mistress offered a treat.The dog sat when a treat was offered by hermistress.When the mistress offered her a treat, the dog sat. Readers, without thinking, concentrate on the end of a sentence. 무의식적으로 독자들은 문장의 끝에 있는 정보를 중요하게 받아들이곤 합니다. Edanz Group | 57
  • 58. Topic position Readers expect a sentence/phrase to be a story about whoever shows up first Subject Topic position Verb Stress position . Edanz Group | 58
  • 59. Topic position sentence idea idea idea idea Topic link Linkage and context The family went into the courtyard to see the new puppy. The dog sat when her owner offered a treat. Everyone was so excited they broke into applause. However, as the courtyard was situated right next to my bedroom, the sound woke me from my sleep. Edanz Group | 59
  • 60. Readability“only 4% of readers understand a 27-word sentence the first time” Reader objectives Only need to read once Do not have to read slowly Can understand author logic immediately Edanz Group | 60
  • 61. Sentence length Keep it short & simpleWe examined numerous peer-reviewed journalsEasy to read articles had an average sentencelength of around 17 wordsSentences that are 15–20 wordsLong sentences and repetition One sentence: one idea 독자들이 읽기 쉬운 문장을 써야 합니다. Edanz Group | 61
  • 62. Goals to aim for … Maximum 25–30 words per sentence Not more than four 30-word sentences in the whole manuscript Think about ‘reader expectation’ and match the expectation with the contents독자들이 읽기 쉬운 문장을 써야 합니다. Edanz Group | 62
  • 63. Simple is best Simple language IS best Makes YOUR science more relevant Minimizes confusion – maximizes understanding Science is often complex Use simple language to help more people understand your work Edanz Group | 63
  • 64. Cover letters Competition for publication space and for editors’ attention is very high It may not be enough to send a cover letter to a journal editor like this:Dear Editor-in-Chief,I am sending you our manuscript entitled “Techniques to detect circoviruses in Koreanbird species” by Raye et al. We would like to have the manuscript considered forpublication in Virology Methods Online.Please let me know of your decision at your earliest convenience.Sincerely yours,Warren Raye, PhD Edanz Group | 64
  • 65. Your cover letter General rules Address to the editor personally State your manuscript title and publication type Give a brief background, rationale and description of your results Explain the importance of your findings and why they would be of interest to the journal’s target audience Provide corresponding author details Edanz Group | 65
  • 66. Cover letters ExampleDear Dr Graeber,Please find enclosed our manuscript entitled “Amyloid-like inclusions in the brains of Huntington’s disease patients”, byMcGowan et al., which we would like to submit for publication as a Research Paper in Neurogenetics.Recent immunohistochemical studies have revealed the presence of neuronal inclusions containing an N-terminal portion of Give thethe mutant huntingtin protein and ubiquitin in the brain tissues of Huntington’s disease (HD) patients; however, the role ofthese inclusions in the disease process has remained unclear. One suspected disease-causing mechanism in Huntington’s background todisease and other polyglutamine disorders is the potential for the mutant protein to undergo a conformational change to a the researchmore stable anti-parallel β-sheet structure…To confirm if the immunohistochemically observed huntingtin- and ubiquitin-containing inclusions display amyloid features, weperformed Congo red staining and both polarizing and confocal microscopy on post-mortem human brain tissues obtained What was donefrom five HD patients, two AD patients, and two normal controls. Congo red staining revealed a small number of amyloid-like and what wasinclusions showing green birefringence by polarized microscopy, in a variety of cortical regions.... ….detected inclusions foundobserved in parallel sections, suggesting that only a relatively small proportion of inclusions in HD adopt an amyloid-likestructure.We believe our findings would appeal to a broad audience, such as the readership of Neurogenetics. As a wide-reaching journal Interest topublishing original research on all aspects of neuroscience… journal’s readersWe confirm that this manuscript has not been published elsewhere and is not under consideration by another journal. All Conforms toauthors have approved the manuscript and agree with submission to Neurogenetics. We have read and have abided by thestatement of ethical standards for manuscripts submitted to Neurogenetics. The authors have no conflicts of interest to journaldeclare. requirementsPlease address all correspondence to…. Edanz Group | 66
  • 67. 심사과정을 통해 논문의 질을 향상시킬 수Peer review 있습니다. Very few papers are Rejection Acceptance Minor immediately accepted Major revision without need for any revision revisions Complete rejection Journal editor Major revisions decision Minor revisions Acceptance Edanz Group | 67
  • 68. Revision How to respond 심사위원들은 자발적으로 시간을 들여 심사를 하는 것이므로, 예의바르게 대응해야 합니다. Politely respond to ALL the reviewers’ comments in a response letter Make it easy to see the changes Refer to line and page numbers Different color font Highlight the text Edanz Group | 68
  • 69. Revision How to respond Conduct the additional experiments suggested If this is impossible, you MUST explain why You can disagree with reviewers BUT provide evidence (cite references) Comply with deadlines Edanz Group | 69
  • 70. Post-referee revisions The responseDear Dr. _____________: [address the editor byname]Thank you for your consideration of our manuscriptentitled _____________ [insert manuscript titlehere]. We have reviewed the comments of thereviewers and have thoroughly revised themanuscript. We found the comments helpful, andbelieve our revised manuscript represents asignificant improvement over our initial submission.In response to the reviewers’ suggestions we have[summarize the key changes here] Edanz Group | 70
  • 71. Post-referee revisions Point-by-point[After the introduction to the response, address allreviewer points individually]Reviewer Comment: In your analysis of the data you have chosen touse a somewhat obscure fitting function (regression). In my opinion,a simple Gaussian function would have sufficed. Moreover, theresults would be more instructive and easier to compare to previousresults.Response: We agree with the reviewer’s assessment of the analysis.Our tailored function makes it impossible to fully interpret the datain terms of the prevailing theories. In addition, in its current form itwould be difficult to tell that this measurement constitutes asignificant improvement over previously reported values. We haveredone the analysis using a Gaussian fitting function. Edanz Group | 71
  • 72. Post-referee revisions Disagreement[Sometimes you will disagree with the reviewer. Keepyour response polite and professional]Reviewer Comment: In your analysis of the data you have chosento use a somewhat obscure fitting function (regression). In myopinion, a simple Gaussian function would have sufficed. Moreover,the results would be more instructive and easier to compare toprevious results.Response: We agree with the reviewer that a simple Gaussian fitwould facilitate comparison with the results of other studies.However, our tailored function allows for the analysis of the data interms of the Smith model [Smith et al, 1998]. We have added twosentences to the paper (page 3 paragraph 2) to explain the use ofthis function and Smith’s model. Edanz Group | 72
  • 73. Understanding reviewer comments “The English needs to be improved” “Your writing is difficult to understand”GrammarLong, complex sentences and paragraphsNon-native expressionsGaps in the logicPoor organization of the manuscriptFlowToo much information Edanz Group | 73
  • 74. Understanding reviewer comments“The authors hypothesized to look for the pharmacokinetics ofthe insulin using this 4 mm needle; However they didnt dobioequivalence analyses for glucose pharmacodynamics. That isone of my concerns about this methodology.” Questions from reviewers may not always be apparent Cosmetic changes Edanz Group | 74
  • 75. Help your readers understand“If you can’t explain something simply,you don’t understand it well.” – Albert Einstein Write to express NOT impress Consider your audience – their native language may not be English Edanz Group | 75
  • 76. Online resources Edanzedanzediting.com/turkey_2012 Springer Exemplarwww.springerexemplar.com/ Google Scholarscholar.google.com/ Purdue Online Writing Labowl.english.purdue.edu/owl/ Edanz Group | 76
  • 77. Free resource Edanz Group | 77
  • 78. Edanz Journal Advisorfeaturing Journal Selectoredanzediting.com/journal_advisor Edanz Group | 78
  • 79. Thank you Good luck!감사합니다. 좋은 결실을 이루시길 바랍니다. Edanz Group | 79
  • 80. Any questions?edanzediting.com/korea_2012If you have queries about writing:read2write@edanzgroup.com Edanz Group | 80
  • 81. English editing for experts, by expertsExpert academic editors in all fieldsServices to raise your chances of acceptanceEnsuring clear communication of your researchRapid completion Edanz Group | 81
  • 82. ServicesServices for acceptance Language Editing Journal Selection Expert Review Abstract Writing Cover Letter Writing Point-by-Point Response Check Edanz Group | 82
  • 83. Expert editors in all academic fields Dr Stephen Cooke 2006 – PhD Immunology, King’s College, UK Worked as a post-doctoral fellow for both the Arthritis and Rheumatism Council (ARC) and Cancer Research UK (CRUK)Dr Conan Fee 1989 – PhD Chemical & Process Engineering, University of Canterbury, NZDirector of Biomolecular Interactions Centre at the University of Canterbury; has published over 160 journal articles, bookchapters, conference papers, and patents Dr Jennifer Smith 1999 – PhD Botany, University of Otago, NZ Experienced peer reviewer for functional plant biology, and enzyme and microbial technology Dr Alison Sherwin 1992 – PhD Biochemistry, University of Kent at Canterbury, UK Has edited over 3,000 manuscripts in the Health and Life Sciences for Japanese and Chinese authors Dr Kristen Demarest Dr Andrew Gorman 2000 – PhD Neurobiology and Behavior, SUNY, USA 2001 – PhD Geophysics, University of British Columbia, CA Currently staff scientist at Scripps Research Institute Lecturer at the Geology Department, University of Otago Dr Natasha Lundin Dr Brett Kraabel 2007 – PhD Chemistry, University of Otago, NZ 1995 – PhD Physics, University of California Santa Barbara, USA Cover article author in Angewandte Chemie Specialist in condensed matter physics, optics and materials science Edanz Group | 83
  • 84. English editing for experts, by experts www.edanzediting.com Edanz Group | 84
  • 85. Edanz Group | 85
  • 86. Appendix: useful set phrases Abstract Here, we present… Here, we show… Here, we report… In this work we introduce… Edanz Group | 86
  • 87. Appendix: useful set phrases Abstract These results show… To test whether (past tense), we performed.... To examine if (past tense) we (past tense) We used XX to YY. Using this approach, we identified ZZ Edanz Group | 87
  • 88. Appendix: useful set phrases Introduction We demonstrated previously… Previous studies have shown that… We have previously shown that… The topic of XX has recently been reviewed1. (insert reference) To determine whether … The purpose of this study was … Edanz Group | 88
  • 89. Appendix: useful set phrases Introduction Therefore, we tested the hypothesis … This report describes experiments designed to determine whether … Therefore, our first objective in these studies was to determine whether … In this study, we sought to extend our observations and specifically test … Edanz Group | 89
  • 90. Appendix: useful set phrases Methods To test whether XX (past tense), we performed.... To examine if XX (paste tense) we performed… Edanz Group | 90
  • 91. Appendix: useful set phrases Results Among the cases we analyzed… XX was/were observed…. The results are summarized in Table 1. Figure 2a shows the effect of X on Y. Group X showed higher/lower levels of Y than the control group. Edanz Group | 91
  • 92. Appendix: useful set phrases Discussion In the current study, we have shown… In summary… To conclude… In conclusion… In demonstrating XX, our findings show that/illustrate that… Taken together these results suggest… Edanz Group | 92
  • 93. Appendix: useful set phrases Discussion The above data collectively show… Our data supports the idea that XX Our study supports the hypothesis that ZZ Our study is limited by… There were some limitations to the current study. Edanz Group | 93
  • 94. Appendix: referencesPay attention to the referencing style in text:Insect hunting is an ideal way to study predatory behavior (Suzuki et al., 2005).Insect hunting is an ideal way to study predatory behavior (Tanaka and Honda).Insect hunting is an ideal way to study predatory behavior [1].Insect hunting is an ideal way to study predatory behavior (1).Insect hunting is an ideal way to study predatory behavior. [1,2]Insect hunting is an ideal way to study predatory behavior [1–3].Insect hunting is an ideal way to study predatory behavior.¹Tanaka reported that insect hunting was an ideal way to study predatorybehavior (2005). Edanz Group | 94
  • 95. Appendix: referencesIf you need to abbreviate, use the following resources: BIOSIS (BIOSIS Serial Sources) CASSI (Chemical Abstracts Service Source Index) Index MedicusTitle: Advances in drug research Title: Medicine and science in sportsAbbreviation: Adv. Drug Res. Abbreviation: Med. Sci. Sports Some journals limit the number of references: check the Guide for Authors Check a sample paper if you are not sure of the style Referencing styles: APA, Chicago, MLA, ACS, IEEE, Vancouver Use reference managers such as EndNote or Mendeley Edanz Group | 95
  • 96. Appendix: cover letters Common phrasesPlease find enclosed our manuscript entitled (title) by(First Author) et al., which we would like to submit forpublication as a (Publication Type) in (Journal name).To our knowledge, this is the first report showing…We believe our findings would appeal to the readershipof (Journal name).Please address all correspondence to:We shall look forward to hearing from you at yourearliest convenience. Edanz Group | 96
  • 97. Appendix: response letter Common phrases Please find enclosed our revised manuscript entitled (title) by (First Author) et al., which we would like to resubmit for publication as a (Publication Type) in (Journal name). Your comments and those of the reviewers were very helpful. In the following pages are our point-by-point responses to each of the comments of the reviewers. Edanz Group | 97
  • 98. Appendix: Simple words AVOID PREFERRED additional more adequate enough apparent clear attempt try demonstrate show endeavor try exceedingly very Edanz Group | 98
  • 99. Appendix: Simple words AVOID PREFERRED magnitude size objective aim participate take part performed done requested asked resides lives retain keep Edanz Group | 99
  • 100. Appendix: Simple words AVOID PREFERRED subsequently later sufficient enough terminate end utilization use Edanz Group | 100
  • 101. Appendix: Unnecessary wordsAVOID PREFERREDFor the reason that BecauseIn the first place FirstIn the not too distant future SoonFour in number FourGreen color GreenSubsequent to AfterPrior to BeforeExcept in a very few instances Usually Edanz Group | 101
  • 102. Appendix: Hyphens Hyphen (-): for joining usually separate words Incorrect use can lead to ambiguity twenty-four hour reactions is different to twenty four-hour reactions Edanz Group | 102
  • 103. Appendix: DashesEn dash (–): means “through” October 26–29; pp. 2–5. (don’t use ~)Em dash (—): Used to break a sentence, introducesomething, or introduce an afterthought.These two metals—that is, titanium and magnesium—are very light. Edanz Group | 103
  • 104. Appendix: NumbersSpell out the numbers one through nine and usenumerals for 10 and greater, except: Units of measurement 2 mL, 4 min Beginning a sentence Two patients with… Reporting a series including numerals We enrolled 5 patients with AD, 12 with PD and 20 control individuals. Reporting numbers consecutively five 2-mL tubes Reporting a range including a number greater than nine 5–12 Edanz Group | 104