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How to Write for and GetPublished in Scientific Journals 세계적 수준의 영문 저널과 도서를 위한 글쓰기 Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology Warren Raye, PhD Senior Life Sciences Editor Edanz Group 29 June 2012
A little about me…Author ResearcherVirology, Stem Cell Biology, Arthritis, Immunology & Molecular Biology Lecturer & teacher Senior Life Sciences Editor
Today’s presentation …Section One: Scientific publishingSection Two: Before you start …Section Three: Structuring your manuscriptSection Four: Hints and tips
Scientific publishing Section One Why publish? Publishing in English What do editors and reviewers want? Peer review
Scientific publishing Why publish? Nature is complex
Scientific publishing Why publish? We use complex technologies and methods to understand it…
Scientific publishing Why publish? …and the science is often necessarily complex
Scientific publishing Exchange ideas globally자신의 아이디어를 국제적으로 널리 알리기 위해서는무엇보다도 명료한 언어를 사용하는 것이 중요합니다. 출판이 되기 전까지는 연구가 완료된 것이 아닙니다.
Scientific publishing Section One English is the international language of science 과학계에서 국제적으로 통용되는 언어는 영어입니다. Other scientists want to hear from Korean researchers! Become an effective science communicator International reputation
Scientific publishing Peer review improves your manuscript Rejection Acceptance 심사과정을 통해 논문의 Minor revision 질을 향상시킬 수 Major 있습니다. revision Few papers are accepted without revision Rejection and revision are integral to the peer review process Peer review is a positive process
Scientific publishing What do editors and reviewers want? Is the manuscript sufficiently novel? Is the manuscript of broad enough interest? Novelty Aims and Scope Significance Impact Factor
Scientific publishing What do editors want? High quality research Stands up to peer review Original & novel advances a field Interesting to the journal’s readership Active research areas Clear and concise English 저널 편집자들은 양질의 논문을 원합니다.
Before you start … Section Two Read Study design Select an appropriate journal Evaluate significance Ethics
Before you start … Reading Both sides of the brain are essential and work in harmony Logic Creativity Reading Writing Similarly, reading and writing are connected
Before you start … Reading improves your writing Read as often as possible Discuss with your colleagues Assists you with journal selection Provides ideas for your next manuscript좋은 독자가 되는 것은 좋은 글을 쓰는 데에도 도움이 됩니다.
Before you start … Strategies for reading Read Title and Abstract first Self-assess knowledge of topic Read Results or the relevant parts of the Results (Figures and Tables) Read Discussion for interpretation Refer to Introduction and Methods only if necessary
Before you start … Experimental design CriticalWhat is your hypothesis or research question? The aim(s) of your study What methods are appropriate? Do you have the relevant resources? Identify your controls
Before you start … Experimental design Sample sizes (n) large enough? Which statistical test(s)? When in doubt – talk to a statistician! Does your study comply with all ethics requirements?
Before you start … Choosing a target journal: timing The target journal should be chosen: After the results to be published have been obtained (with no new ones coming) After a decision has been made on how high to aim—high, medium or low impact Before writing Title, Abstract, Introduction and Discussion
Before you start … Match your manuscript with the journal What is your message? Who will be interested? How significant are your results? Where have similar articles been published?
Before you start … Factors to consider Aims and scope Open access or Publishing frequency subscriber Impact factor Prestige Target audience Cost Indexing status Publication type Which factor is most important to you?
Before you start … Evaluating significance: importance Specific interest only or of interest to many Affect many (e.g. new tool) Support for (or contradiction of) an existing theory Substantially improve our understanding of a phenomenon or provide a new technology or disease treatment?
Before you start … Evaluating significance: novelty How new are my results compared with those already published? New findings Incremental Conceptual advances advances Low to medium Medium to high impact factor impact factor
Before you start … Evaluating significance: relevance Are my findings of relevance only to a specific geographical region or ethnic population, or do they have implications for other regions and populations? High impact factor journals may consider specific findings if they are the first of their kind or of international significance.
Before you start … Evaluating significance: appeal Is my work in an area of ‘popular appeal’ Examples: Optogenetics Higgs boson Epigenetics Global warming Stem cells Clean tech
Before you start … Publication ethics Multiple submissions Plagiarism Improper author contribution Data fabrication and falsification Improper use of human subjects and animals Conflicts of interest연구에 관한 윤리 규정을 지키지 않으면 결국 발각되게 됩니다.
Structuring your manuscript Section ThreeYou are telling a story Beginning → Middle → EndMust be easy to read and easy to understand 독자들이 읽기 쉬운 문장을 써야 합니다.
Structuring your manuscript ‘Tell them three times’ Introduction = Beginning Assertion ‘tell them what you are going to tell them,’ Body = Middle Evidence ‘tell them,’ Conclusion = End Affirmation ‘tell them again what you told them’.
Structuring your manuscript IMRaD Abstract Introduction Assertion Methods Results Evidence and Discussion Affirmation
Structuring your manuscript The ‘write’ order For maximum clarity and consistency: Methods Results During your research Introduction Discussion After selecting target journal Title Abstract Write last 논문의 목차에 나타난 순서대로 글을 써야 하는 것은 아닙니다.
Structuring your manuscript Abstract초록은 논문에서 가장 중요한 부분입니다. Concise (100–300 words) Describe problem(s) addressed초록은 그 자체로 완결성을 가져야 합니다. Objectives/hypotheses Techniques; avoid details Most important results Concluding statement
Structuring your manuscript Introduction What problem was studied? 연구에서 다루고 있는 문제가 무엇인가?The answer to this question is contained within your Introduction Beginning → Middle → End
Structuring your manuscript Introduction Beginning Sufficient background information Puts your work into context General Specific Comprehensive literature review Cite reviews
Structuring your manuscript Introduction MiddleRationale The reason(s) for doing this work? Why is it important? Justify your workExplain how you tried to address the problem(1–2 sentences)Do not state results from your work
Structuring your manuscript Introduction End State the methods you plan to use Clearly and explicitly state specific hypotheses or objectives of your study
Structuring your manuscript Methods 어떤 방법으로 그 문제를 연구했는가? Subheadings Past tenseNew methods must be described in sufficientdetail that they can be reproduced Established methods can be referenced
Structuring your manuscript Results 어떤 발견을 했는가? Use subheadings Past tense to describe your results Present tense when referring to figures and tables Do not explain the results Do not duplicate data among figures, tables and text
Structuring your manuscript Display items Present a large amount of data quickly and efficiently Present most significant result as a figure or table Keep it simple — use separate panels if necessary Avoid duplication with the text Label all parts of your figures Legends must be able to ‘stand alone’ 표나 그림은 의사소통의 효율성을 높여 줍니다.
Structuring your manuscript Tables Clear concise legend/caption ) Dataformattedfor clarity Abbreviations defined
Structuring your manuscript Discussion What do these findings mean? 연구 결과가 갖는 의의가 무엇인가? The answer to this question is in the Discussion Beginning → Middle → End
Structuring your manuscript Discussion Beginning Avoid repeating the results section Answer the research question(s) posed Emphasize the major finding(s) first What is your major conclusion, based on the results you have presented?
Structuring your manuscript Discussion Middle Interpret your results Compare with other studies Same or different? Unexpected results Briefly describe limitations How could experiments be improved?
Structuring your manuscript Discussion End Restate major conclusion(s) In summary … or In conclusion … Possible applications and implications Suggest future work“Clinical and research priorities include furthering our understanding of thepathogenesis of M. pneumoniae-associated CNS disease, development of morereliable serologic assays, and defining the role of quantitative PCR indistinguishing acute infection from asymptomatic carriage and prolonged post-infection shedding” – Bitun & Richardson Curr Infect Dis Rep 2010, 12:282-290
Coverage andHints and tips Staffing Plan Section Four Clear communication Language Cover letters Responding to reviewer comments
Coverage andHints and tips Staffing Plan ExpectationsInformation is easier tointerpret when placedwhere most readersexpect to find itGood writers are aware ofthese expectationsReadability
Coverage andHints and tips Staffing Plan 1. Verb placementReaders expect verbs to closely follow subjects독자들은 문장에서 주어 뒤에 바로 동사가 나타날 것이라고 기대합니다. Subject Sentence Verb Verb . Subject and verb far apart = poor readability
Coverage and Hints and tips Staffing Plan Avoid reader confusion Readers become confused if subject and verb are separated by too much contentThe smallest of the URFs (URFA6L), a 207-nucleotide (nt)reading frame overlapping out of phase the [NH2]-terminalportion of the adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) subunit 6gene, has been identified as the animal equivalent of therecently discovered yeast H-ATPase subunit 8 gene. 독자들이 읽기 쉬운 문장을 써야 합니다.
Coverage and Hints and tips Staffing Plan Avoid reader confusionThe smallest of the URFs is URFA6L, a 207-nucleotide (nt) reading frame overlapping out of phasethe [NH2]-terminal portion of the adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) subunit 6 gene, has beenidentified as the animal equivalent of the recently discovered yeast H-ATPase subunit 8 gene.The smallest of the URFs (URFA6L) has been identified as theanimal equivalent of the recently discovered yeast H-ATPasesubunit 8 gene; URFA6L is a 207-nucleotide (nt) reading frameoverlapping out of phase the [NH2]-terminal portion of theadenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) subunit 6 gene.We identified the smallest of the URFs (URFA6L) as the animalequivalent of the recently discovered yeast H-ATPase subunit 8gene. URFA6L is a … .
Coverage andHints and tips Staffing Plan Which voice?Use the active voice unless yourtarget journal states otherwise Blood samples were collected from 256 patients. We collected blood from 256 patients. 가능한 한 능동태를 사용합니다.
Coverage andHints and tips Staffing Plan 2. Active voice Subject Verb Active Sentences written in the active voice are: Simple Direct Clear Easy to read
Coverage andHints and tips Staffing Plan 3. Stress position Readers focus on information at the end of a sentence.무의식적으로 독자들은 문장의 끝에 있는 정보를 중요하게 받아들이곤 합니다. Subject Verb take-home information .
Coverage and Hints and tips Staffing Plan Stress positionThe dog sat when her mistress offered a treat.The dog sat when a treat was offered by her mistress.When the mistress offered her a treat, the dog sat. Readers, without thinking, concentrate on the end of a sentence. 무의식적으로 독자들은 문장의 끝에 있는 정보를 중요하게 받아들이곤 합니다.
Coverage andHints and tips Staffing Plan 4. Topic positionReaders expect a sentence/phrase to be a storyabout whoever shows up first Subject Topic position Verb Stress position .
Coverage and Hints and tips Staffing Plan Topic position sentence idea idea idea idea Topic link Linkage and contextThe family went into the courtyard to see the newpuppy. The dog sat when her owner offered a treat.Everyone was so excited they broke into applause.However, as the courtyard was situated right next to mybedroom, the sound woke me from my sleep.
Coverage andHints and tips Staffing Plan Readability “only 4% of readers understand a 27-word sentence the first time” Consider the reader Only need to read once Do not have to read slowly Can understand author logic immediately
Coverage andHints and tips Staffing Plan Sentence length We examined numerous peer-reviewed journals Easy to read articles had an average sentence length of around 17 words Sentences that are 15–20 words One sentence: one idea독자들이 읽기 쉬운 문장을 써야 합니다.
Coverage andHints and tips Staffing Plan Goals to aim for …Maximum 25–30 words per sentenceNot more than four 30-word sentences in thewhole manuscriptThink about ‘reader expectation’ and matchthe expectation with the contents독자들이 읽기 쉬운 문장을 써야 합니다.
Coverage andHints and tips Staffing Plan Simple is bestSimple language is bestMakes your science more relevantMinimizes confusion – maximizes understandingScience is often complex Use simple language to help more people understand your work
Coverage and Hints and tips Staffing Plan Cover letters Competition for publication space and for editors’ attention is very high Do not send a cover letter like this:Dear Editor-in-Chief,I am sending you our manuscript entitled “Techniques to detect circoviruses inKorean bird species” by Raye et al. We would like to have the manuscript consideredfor publication in Virology Methods Online.Please let me know of your decision at your earliest convenience.Sincerely yours,Warren Raye, PhD
Coverage andHints and tips Staffing Plan Your cover letter Address to the editor personally State manuscript title and publication type Provide brief background, rationale and description of your results Explain the importance of your findings and why they would be of interest to the journal’s target audience Provide corresponding author details
Coverage and Hints and tips Staffing Plan A good cover letterDear Dr Graeber,Please find enclosed our manuscript entitled “Amyloid-like inclusions in the brains of Huntington’s disease patients”, byMcGowan et al., which we would like to submit for publication as a Research Paper in Neurogenetics.Recent immunohistochemical studies have revealed the presence of neuronal inclusions containing an N-terminal portion of Give thethe mutant huntingtin protein and ubiquitin in the brain tissues of Huntington’s disease (HD) patients; however, the role ofthese inclusions in the disease process has remained unclear. One suspected disease-causing mechanism in Huntington’s background todisease and other polyglutamine disorders is the potential for the mutant protein to undergo a conformational change to a the researchmore stable anti-parallel β-sheet structure…To confirm if the immunohistochemically observed huntingtin- and ubiquitin-containing inclusions display amyloid features, weperformed Congo red staining and both polarizing and confocal microscopy on post-mortem human brain tissues obtained What wasfrom five HD patients, two AD patients, and two normal controls. Congo red staining revealed a small number of amyloid-like done and whatinclusions showing green birefringence by polarized microscopy, in a variety of cortical regions.... ….detected inclusions was foundobserved in parallel sections, suggesting that only a relatively small proportion of inclusions in HD adopt an amyloid-likestructure.We believe our findings would appeal to a broad audience, such as the readership of Neurogenetics. As a wide-reaching journal Interest topublishing original research on all aspects of neuroscience… journal’s readersPlease address all correspondence to….
Coverage and Hints and tips Staffing Plan Peer review Rejection AcceptanceVery few papers are Minor revision Majorimmediately accepted revisionwithout need for anyrevisions Complete rejection Journal editor Major revisions decision Minor revisions Acceptance
Coverage and Hints and tips Staffing Plan Revision심사위원들은 자발적으로 시간을 들여 심사를하는 것이므로, 예의바르게 대응해야 합니다. Politely respond to all the reviewers’ comments in a response letter Make it easy to see the changes Refer to line and page numbers Different color font Highlight the text
Coverage andHints and tips Staffing Plan How to respond Conduct the additional experiments suggested If this is impossible, you must explain why You can disagree with reviewers but provide evidence (cite references) Comply with deadlines
Coverage and Hints and tips Staffing Plan Your response letterDear Dr _____________: [address editor by name]Thank you for your consideration of our manuscriptentitled _____________ [insert manuscript title]. Wehave reviewed the comments of the reviewers and havethoroughly revised the manuscript. We found thecomments helpful, and believe our revised manuscriptrepresents a significant improvement over our initialsubmission.In response to the reviewers’ suggestions we have[summarize the key changes]
Coverage and Hints and tips Staffing Plan Agreement Address all reviewer points individuallyReviewer Comment: In your analysis of the data you have chosen touse a somewhat obscure fitting function (regression). In my opinion,a simple Gaussian function would have sufficed. Moreover, theresults would be more instructive and easier to compare to previousresults.Response: We agree with the reviewer’s assessment of the analysis.Our tailored function makes it impossible to fully interpret the datain terms of the prevailing theories. In addition, in its current form itwould be difficult to tell that this measurement constitutes asignificant improvement over previously reported values. We haveredone the analysis using a Gaussian fitting function.
Coverage and Hints and tips Staffing Plan Disagreement Keep your response polite and professionalReviewer Comment: In your analysis of the data you have chosento use a somewhat obscure fitting function (regression). In myopinion, a simple Gaussian function would have sufficed. Moreover,the results would be more instructive and easier to compare toprevious results.Response: We agree with the reviewer that a simple Gaussian fitwould facilitate comparison with the results of other studies.However, our tailored function allows for the analysis of the data interms of the Smith model [Smith et al, 1998]. We have added twosentences to the paper (page 3 paragraph 2) to explain the use ofthis function and Smith’s model.
Coverage andHints and tips Understanding reviewer Staffing Plan comments “The English needs to be improved” “Your writing is difficult to understand” Grammar Long, complex sentences and paragraphs Non-native expressions Gaps in the logic Poor manuscript organization Too much information
Coverage and Hints and tips Understanding reviewer Staffing Plan comments“The authors hypothesized to look for the pharmacokinetics ofthe insulin using this 4 mm needle; however they didnt dobioequivalence analyses for glucose pharmacodynamics. Thatis one of my concerns about this methodology.” Questions from reviewers may not always be apparent Cosmetic changes
Coverage and Hints and tips Help your readers Staffing Plan understand“If you can’t explain something simply,you don’t understand it well.” – Albert Einstein Write to express not impress Consider your audience – their native language may not be English
Coverage andHints and tips Staffing Plan Online resources Edanz edanzediting.co.jp/korea_2012 Springer Exemplar www.springerexemplar.com/ Google Scholar scholar.google.com/ Purdue Online Writing Lab owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/