Chem 112 Correlation of OWL scores & course grades
What is the oxidation number of manganese in permanganate, MnO 4 - ?
Pressure and Introduction to the Gas Laws
Galileo shows the Duke of Padua that water can only be pumped 33 feet. Water cannot be raised more than 33 feet by any suction pump.
How to make a Torrichellian barometer Torrichelli proves the existence of a vacuum. When he tilts the tube the mercury fills the tube. When he raises the tube to upright, the mercury falls to 760 cm leaving a vacuum above. A portrait of Torricelli’s mentor, Galileo, hangs on the wall Torricelli with his newly invented barometer In Italian, “Torre” means “tower”. So, Torricelli means “little tower”.
Von Guericke’s vacuum pump & two hemispheres
Plaque honoring Boyle and Hooke at Oxford University, Oxford, England
Robert Boyle’s three-story water barometer Pascal’s diagrams of apparatus for measuring air pressure and hydrostatic pressure.
Pascal’s brother-in-law, Perier Graph of the data taken during Perier’s ascent of Puy de Dome.
Pressure: the principle of snowshoes and ice skates
Pressure Units (three types)
US weather map with isobars
Derivation of formula for hydrostatic pressure
A range of pressure values for comparison
Capillary action, vacuum pumps, and barometers
How to read a manometer Comparing barometer to manometers:
Absolute pressure vs. Relative pressure (Gauge pressure) We must use absolute pressure readings (and absolute temperature readings) in using the gas laws. Otherwise, our equations our equations become as complex (and even more complex) as the original Charles’ Law.
Compressed gas cylinder and its pressure regulator How we store & utilize gas in lab
Lismore Castle, Ireland birthplace of Robert Boyle Robert Boyle (1637-1691)
An Ideal Gas Thermometer Use of absolute temperature to simplify gas equations
Ideal gas law
Ten resulting equations (all part of PV = nRT)
The Universal Gas Law Constant, R (Universal because it works for all gases within the range of validity of the ideal gas law)