Travel Guide To Renaissance Italy


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Travel Guide To Renaissance Italy

  1. 1. Travel Guide to Renaissance Italy By Gergely Kovacs 9S 1
  2. 2. The Renaissance (History) The Renaissance as a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 1400 to the beginning of the 1600’s. The word is French for 'rebirth'. Historians first use it (from about 1840) for the period from the 14th to the 16th century, implying a rediscovery of rational civilization (exemplified by Greece and Rome) after the medieval centuries - seen as superstitious and artistically primitive. The Renaissance may be vivid in the mind's eye - in images of human figures sculpted in the round, or in scenes painted with a profound and moving realism. But as a concept it is a slippery customer. The Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is perhaps best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymath as Leonardo de Vinchi and Michelangelo who inspired the term "Renaissance man". Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence affected literature, philosophy, art, politics, science, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, and searched for realism and human emotion in art. The Renaissance may be vivid in the mind's eye - in images of human figures sculpted in the round, or in scenes painted with a profound and 2 moving realism. But as a concept it is a slippery customer.
  3. 3. Cities to visit in Renaissance Italy Coat of arms Florence Birthplace of the Italian Renaissance The Renaissance was a rebirth that occurred throughout most of Europe. However, the changes that we associate with the Renaissance first occurred in the Italian city of Florence and continued to be more pervasive there than anywhere else. The city's economy and its writers, painters, architects, and philosophers all made Florence a model of Renaissance culture. Fifteenth-century Florence was an exciting place to be. In 1425 the city had a population of 60,000 and was a self-governed, independent city-state. Twelve artist guilds that regulated the trades were the basis of Florence's commercial success. Members of the guilds, who were wealthy and held positions in government, were some of Florence's most influential people in society and politics. Because of its strong economy and a political philosophy that was dedicated to the welfare of the city, Florence thrived. Many families of Florence, beginning in the thirteenth century, were successful bankers. The Florentine gold coin known as the florin was of such reliable purity that it was the standard coinage throughout Europe. Florentine bankers were known throughout Europe as well, for they established banking houses in other important cities such as London, Geneva, and Bruges (Belgium). Life In Florence The humanist movement was strong in Florence. Cosimo de Medici, Florence's wealthiest and most influential citizen, studied the works of ancient authors and collected manuscripts of classical writings. The Florentines enjoyed many pleasurable diversions from business and intellectual life. Lorenzo de Medici, Cosimo's grandson who was known as "The Magnificent," influenced the types of entertainment held and often sponsored the activities. Mystery plays, based on the theme of the Passion (the sufferings of Jesus), were regularly staged for the enjoyment and edification of the citizens. To celebrate the feast day of Saint John, Florence's patron saint, Florentines held a horse race that ran throughout the city. And festivals held during the season before Lent--called Carnival--were grand productions, especially in the late fifteenth century. Florence Art and Architecture 3 Florence, like many cities of the Renaissance, had been built over many years and so was home to numerous churches, public buildings, and houses constructed with
  4. 4. Rome, the city of God During the Middle Ages, the city of Rome was abandoned due to the transfer of the papal court to Avignon, in France. The absence of the Pope caused a severe economic crisis that forced the population to abandon the city. Reduced to poverty, Rome became a mass of ruins where herds of sheep and cattle grazed. But, after the year 1418, the year when Pope Martin V Rome was not the centre of the Renaissance from the very beginning: Flourishing commerce, particularly with the East, went hand in hand with cultural progress particularly around cities such as Venice and Florence. The race for power set the various noble families of Rome into direct competition as each attempted to outdo the next in terms of magnificence. This soon allowed Rome to compete with any of the other European cities in terms of wealth, beauty and art and indeed to overtake those cities that hitherto had exhibited a far greater cultural and economic development, such as Florence for example. Rome became the centre of the Renaissance movement in Europe, attracting many if not all of the greatest and most gifted artists and architects of the age. Men such as Bramante, Michaelangelo and Rafael were given one commission after another to complete and beautify the city of God. The City In The Renaissance The entry of Pope Martin V (a member of the Colonna family) into Rome in 1420 marked the beginning of the Renaissance city and of the absolute papal rule that lasted until 1870. Although Martin was neither a builder nor a patron of the arts, he laid the foundations of government that made Rome the capital of a Renaissance state. From this period the apostolic vice chamberlain, as governor of Rome, controlled municipal offices, communal finances, and the statutes of the city. The Roman commune was transformed into a unit of authoritarian papal rule, and the surrounding Papal States (the various territories of the pope in central Italy) increasingly came under the firm control of papal officials. During the 15th-century pontificates of Nicholas V and, especially, Sixtus IV, the squalid narrow streets of medieval Rome were widened and paved, and new Renaissance buildings replaced crumbling structures. At the same time, the monuments of ancient Rome suffered further damage as they were torn apart for their building materials, and their marble went too often into the lime kilns rather than into new structures. However, the popes attracted scholars and artists from across Italy, and by the end of the 15th century Rome had become the principal centre of 4 Renaissance culture. The high point was reached under Leo X(reigned 1513–21), with his plans for the new St Peter’s and his patronage of such artists as Michelangelo and
  5. 5. Venice, where East meets West Just as with Florence, Venice was a Republic during the Renaissance. Actually, Venice was an empire that controlled land in modern day Italy, a whole lot of sea coast down the Adriatic and countless islands. It enjoyed a stable political climate and thriving trade economy, both of which survived outbreaks of the Black Death and the fall of Constantinople (a major trading partner). Venice was, in fact, so prosperous and healthy that it took someone named Napoleon to undo its empire status...but, that was quite a while after the Renaissance had faded away and had nothing to do with art. The important part is, Venice (again, like Florence) had the economy to support art and artists, and did so in a big way. As a major port of trade, Venice was able to find ready markets for whatever decorative arts Venetian craftsmen could produce. The whole Republic was crawling with ceramists, glassworkers, woodworkers, lace makers and Venice: The leading art center Although concurrent with the Italian High Renaissance, the Venetian Renaissance is considered separately. Venice was a stable, powerful and prosperous city where East meets West. It was independent from the Church in Rome, and enjoyed a more relaxed outlook with attitudes to match. Wealthy patrons eagerly supported the arts for both public and private use. Venetian artists were treated as craftsmen and didn't enjoy the high intellectual regard afforded their Italian Renaissance contemporaries. Venetian painting is filled with the soft, muted, reflected light one sees in Venice. Many of the subjects were stated as allegories. While Venetian art appeals more to the senses and emotion, Italian High Renaissance art focuses more on intellect. Venetian art is imbued with soft, reflected light, and muted tones. Venice was the leading center of art in Northern Italy. In Venice a unique style of art flourished, led by master Giovanni Bellini and his pupils, Giorgione and Titian. Giovanni Bellini, also emerged as a Venetian master in the Early Renaissance. The contours and lines of his paintings are not as brittle and sharp as those of Mantegna. His colors are softer and his paintings are more light-filled than Mantegna's. Bellini shows a regard for every detail of nature. He was an established artist when the era of Venetian painting came into its own during what is known as the High Renaissance. 5 Giorgione is considered one of the greatest artists of the Renaissance. Unfortunately, he died young - in his early thirties - after contracting the plague,
  6. 6. . By land • For most people during the Renaissance traveling by land was limited to the local fair of farmer’s Market. Road were little more than rocky pathways, and could be dangerous, with bandits waiting to pounce on unsuspecting travelers.  Common vehicles for traveling on land during the Renaissance Italy included horses, pack mules, wagons and for the wealthy, coaches. The most common way to get around on land was on foot. And it was usually the most efficient. Carts and wagons were slow and cumbersome. Traveling by horseback was the fastest way, but only the wealthy had horses for riding. om/ gons.c jpg niwa . photo1.jpg /w w w.mi yle_photo t http:/ ges/old_s ima 2. By water http ://w w ima w.deca ges/ deca lzone.c ls/a o wst nim m/ 094 als/ .png 6
  7. 7. Local customs and manners (p.6 and 7) Society While it has been traditionally viewed simply as the context for extraordinary artistic creativity, patronage has more recently been examined by historians and art historians alike as a comprehensive system of patron-client structures which permeated society and social relations. Day-to-day life Both Catholics and Protestants celebrated Sunday as a holy day and a day off from work. In many places, such as England, the law required people to attend church every week and to take Communion a certain number of times a year. (And from 1570 into the 1590s, the law also demanded that Englishmen, except for nobles, wear woolen caps to church-part of a government plan to support the nation's wool industry.) After the worship service, or between morning and evening services, there was often time for fun and relaxation. Monks and nuns were expected to follow a specific rule of behavior. Many monasteries used the sixth-century Rule of Saint Benedict, sometimes altered to reflect the goals of different monastic groups. A portion of the Rule was read aloud in the monastery every morning so that everyone would remember how they were supposed to behave. By the Renaissance, however, there were numerous complaints that monks and nuns were not living the simple life that the Rule required. In the wake of the Protestant Reformation, the Catholic Church made an extra effort to encourage monks and nuns to go back to closely following the Rule. Politics president, king Henry VIII of England, the monarch who broke away from the Catholic Church and established the Church of England, this led to years of religious strife. Holbein, a German painter moved to England, where he became the official court portrait painter to king Henry VIII. Julius II was elected pope 1503. Henry VIII of England, the His papacy was notable for monarch who broke away vigorous political and military from the Catholic Church campaigns to consolidate the and established the Church’s power, as well as a Church of England, this led flourishing of the arts that made to years of religious strife. Rome the unrivaled center of High Holbein, a German painter 7 Renaissance culture. He summoned moved to England, where Raphael and Michelangelo to Rome he became the official
  8. 8. Local manners (e.g., table manners) Michelangelo painted the ceiling of the Sistine As with most everything in Renaissance Europe, Italy set the style and pace in courtly graces and manners in the early 16th century. Italy led Europe in hygiene, dress, cooking, table manners and conversation and considered the rest of Europe, with the exception of a thin upper crust in England and France, as little better than barbarians. The French, impressed with their own adaptation of Italian manners, tended to agree. Italy's leadership in manners and courtly behavior actually began in the High Middle Ages. Many books describing proper behavior Beliefs Renaissance humanists believed that the liberal arts (art, music, grammar, rhetoric, oratory, history, poetry, using classical texts, and the studies of all of the above) should be practiced by all levels of "richness". They also approved of self, human worth and individual dignity. They hold the belief that everything in life has a determinate nature, but man's privilege is to be able to choose his own nature. Scholars began comparing their accomplishments with the glories of the achievements of ancient Greece and Rome. During the 14th century, one group of Italian writers believed that the current age was like the great civilizations of the past because the current age showed an emphasis on artists and their achievements as did, as they believed, all great societies of the past. A shift in political beliefs began too. Florentine scholar Leonardo Bruni believed the best form of government was a republican or representative form of government. He, and like-minded thinkers, found such a government when they studied ancient Rome before the emperors came to power. They believed this was the best model for a government to take. This movement encouraged education in social and political life. They believed in patriotism and in humanistic learning and that, the residents of Florence, in particular, and other Italian cities should be proud of their heritage. Death By Shakespeare's time, humanism and the revival of classical philosophy resulted in the growing influence of alternative ways of thinking about death. As a subject for 8
  9. 9. What to wear (p.8 and 9) Clothes A part of the Age of Renaissance was the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The clothing during that period spoke much about the social standing of the wearer. One could largely distinguish between aristocracy or nobility and the lower-downs. In fact what one wore was extremely important, as compared to the present day scenario. The rich wore fabrics such as velvet, satin and cotton, whereas the poor wore flannel and other cheaply available fabrics. It may It is believed that during the surprise some how cotton was regarded as a rich person’s Renaissance, clothes wore such an clothing. In those days, cotton was not easily available as important treasure that those compared to today and was imported from India and America, belonging to the upper classes of levying a high taxation. Amongst the common fabrics were flax nobility and aristocracy would and wool. Wool was spun into a form know as tweed. spend all their earnings on what they wore. The women finely decorated their dresses. Typical Renaissance clothing was not just limited to England, which was ruled by Queen Elizabeth, but its 9
  10. 10. Men of the Renaissance Age commonly wore boots, pants, a shirt, a vest and a hat. Women would be seen wearing shoes, an over and under skirt, a shirt, a bodice, and a hat or snood. They generally braided their long hair. Curls were a mark of beauty. Children after the age of years would wear what the adults wore. Fashion Because the Renaissance era encompasses approximately 150 years of history, its fashions changed dramatically from beginning to end. At the dawn of the Renaissance in 1450, clothing styles were influenced by Medieval and Gothic designs, as well as the Italian Renaissance movement in art. Women's fashions assumed a more natural appearance from their Gothic predecessors. Dresses gradually lost their long trains, and flowing skirts became increasingly popular. The robe, which was actually a dress with an attached bodice and skirt, appeared on the fashion scene. In addition, the long, rigid, corset that extended in a cone shape below the waist to a V debuted during the early part of the Renaissance period. Women also began showing their hair again. Instead of covering their heads, they adorned their coiffures with shimmering veils and dazzling jewels. In men's fashions, doublets shortened and low-necked tunics and Braiding chemises became common garb. Hose became a common necessity for the well- dressed gentleman. Brocades and velvets were among the favored fabrics for both men's and women's clothing. Hair Women had been a very vital part of this century for the hair styles tell mostly about them. Tell of their life and social standing in this passed time. Generally, renaissance hair styles are all about long hairs. So now I will present to you two different hair styles of some hair styles present during this era. The act of braiding the hair of many women which is long was originally the custom. Even artworks, paintings, tapestries and other captured and documented this through the ages that show us many women who wore their hair in elaborate braids and styles, with hair that fell well past their hips in most cases. Beauty Women of the Renaissance period did not concern themselves with things like a few extra pounds of weight. In fact, just the opposite was true. The ideal beauty of that era was more voluptuous than perhaps any other time in history. Paintings from the 10
  11. 11. What to see and do Art The Renaissance patrons wanted art that showed joy in human beauty and life’s pleasures. Renaissance art is more lifelike than in the art of the Middle Ages. Renaissance artists studied perspective, or the differences in the way things look when they are close to something or far away. The artists painted in a way that showed these differences. As a result, their paintings seem to have depth. An artist from Florence named Giotto was one of the first to paint in this new style. Giotto lived more than a century before the beginning of the Renaissance, but his paintings show real emotion. The bodies look solid, and the background of his Leonardo da Vinci was paintings shows born in 1452 in the village of Vinci. Leonardo began his career working for a master painter in Florence. His Last Supper shows clearly the different feelings of Jesus and his followers. Leonardo’s fame grew—but not just for his painting. Leonardo was truly a “Renaissance Man,” skilled in many fields. He was a scientist and an inventor as well as an artist. He made notes and drawings of everything he saw. Leonardo invented clever machines, and even designed imitation wings that he hoped would let a person fly like a bird. Michelangelo Buonarroti of Florence was one of the greatest artists of all time. Like Leonardo, Michelangelo was a “Renaissance Man” of many talents. He was a sculptor, a painter, and an architect. When Michelangelo carved a statue of Moses, he included veins and muscles in the arms and legs. Michelangelo was a devout Christian, and the church was his greatest patron. He designed the dome of St. Peter’s church in Rome. Nearby, Michelangelo’s paintings cover the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, the building where new popes have been selected for 11 more than five hundred years. Michelangelo’s painting illustrates the Book of Genesis, with scenes that span from the Creation to the
  12. 12. What to eat Food and Cooking During the Renaissance, as in ages past, food was a matter of social class, as well as region and season. In modest European homes, meat was not necessarily served every day (although for special occasions, meat dishes were often served in abundance, to display the generosity of the host). Bread was the fundamental staple for the lower and middle classes, was made with cheaper grains than wheat: barley and rye, for example. Meals for the lower social classes usually consisted of dark bread such as rye or barley, The middle class enjoyed more variety, as each meal generally consisted of several different dishes, with a game bird of some kind being the standard main course. For dessert, the middle class dined on sweets and confections with spiced wine. Meals for the wealthiest classes were similar to those of the middle class, although the rich also enjoyed unusual delicacies such as molded jelly and pastries. The bread of the upper classes was made with a higher proportion of wheat, which was more finely ground and sifted. Stale bread was cut into squares and used for trenchers, a surface on which to serve other foods and sauces. When the rich were done with their meals, the sauce-soaked bread was usually given to the poor. Most meat was usually served either extremely fresh (birds kept in cages until killed for dinner), or salted and preserved. The spicing of many Renaissance recipes was intended to mask the fact that the meat was extremely salty and had to be soaked and boiled for a long time. Meat was commonly served in ragouts and pottages, or baked into pies. Roasted meats naturally had to be fresh and of Usual types of food in the renaissance: 1. Soups 2. Roasts 3. Salads 4. Cheese 5. Pastas 6. Pastries 7. Seasonings 8. Side-Dishes 9. Desserts, Appetizers 12
  13. 13. Diseases and wars in the Renaissance Black One theory that has been advanced is that the devastation caused by the Black Death in Florence, which hit Europe between 1348 and 1350, resulted in a shift in the world view of people in 14th-century Italy. Italy was particularly badly hit by the plague, and it has been speculated that the familiarity with death that this brought caused thinkers to dwell more on their lives on Earth, rather than on spiritually and the afterlife. It has also been argued that the Black Death prompted a new wave of piety, manifested in the sponsorship of religious works of art. However, this does not fully explain why Great Pox During the 1490's, northern Italy was struck with a series of terrifying events which the Florentine historian Guicciardini would later characterize as the calamity of Italy: Charles VIII of France invaded in 1494; the winter of 14956 was intensely cold; there were floods, earthquakes, and a serious famine. In the midst of this, a new disease broke out in Italy, reportedly arriving with the French troops in Naples in 1494. It covered the body with abscesses and racked • with pain. Eventually the malady filled it The Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453) the streets with beggars, for, unlike the plague, it killed slowly. Roses (1455-1485 • The Wars of the • The Italian Wars (1494-1559) Wars • The Valois-Hapsburg Wars • The Eighty Years War • The Wars of Religion [Huguenot Wars] (1562-1598) • The Thirty Years War • The English Civil Wars • The Anglo-Dutch Wars • The War of the League of Augsburg • The Great Northern War The warfare of this period was affected by developing technologies: • gunpowder (introduced to Europe in the mid 13th century) • artillery (chiefly bombards used as siege weapons) • muskets (a heavy, smoothbore gun fired from the shoulder, invented in the 15th century) • rifles (guns having a rifled bore, invented in 1520) 13 In military terms, the period is perhaps best described as pike and shot, describing the principal arms of the foot soldiers of the time. Tactics developed from the
  14. 14. Imortant people: Leonardo da Vinci Born in the Tuscan village of Vinci near Florence, Leonardo (1452-1519) was the embodiment of the "Universal Renaissance Man," or uomo universale. He worked as a sculptor and architect, and also painted a small number of pictures. He kept voluminous notebooks and wrote on many topics, with plans to publish treatises on painting, anatomy, mechanics, and water, among others. He is also left notes on geometry, bronze casting, ancient weapons, a bestiary, riddles, fables, and more, and was famed for his inventions. Although regarded as a Florentine artist, he worked mostly in Milan, as a military engineer for the Sforzas, and died in France at the court of Francis I. Leonardo da Vinci was a man who had attained mastery over all branches of art and science. He was a painter, sculptor, architect and engineer besides being a scholar in the natural sciences, medicine and philosophy. Leonardo is probably most famous for painting the Mona Lisa, which is one of the world's best-known and most widely recognized works of art. He was commissioned by Francesco del Giocondo, a friend of Leonardo's father, to paint a portrait of the man's wife, Lisa Gherardini del Giocondo. The result was the Mona Lisa (La Gioconda) (1503-1506), Some of the attributesonethisthe most famous which was to become of of list of talents pictures in the world, although the portrait was artist, sculptor, time and never include: not finished in anatomist, urban delivered to the client. Leonardo received several more important commissions, planner, mathematician, inventor, gourmet including the commission to decorate the Grand Council athelete, architect--and the cook, equestrian, Chamber in the Palazzo Vecchio, the seat of government of Florence. list continues. A man so far ahead of his time, his inventions included prototypes of helicopters and flying machines, parachutes Leonardo's Flying Machine 14
  15. 15. Imortant people: Michelangelo Buonarroti Michelangelo Buonarroti was born on March 6, 1475 in the village of Caprese, Italy. He was one of the most important artists of the Italian Renaissance, a period when the arts and sciences flourished. Michelangelo became an apprentice to prominent Florentine painter, Domenico Ghirlandaio at the age of 12, but soon began to study sculpture instead. He attracted the attention and patronage of Lorenzo de Medici, who was ruler of Florence until 1492. At age 23, Michelangelo completed his magnificent Pieta, a marble statue that shows the Virgin Mary grieving over the dead Jesus. He began work on the colossal figure of "David" in 1501, and by 1504 the sculpture (standing at 4.34m/14 ft 3 in tall) was in place outside the Palazzo Vecchio. The statue became a symbol for the new republic that had replaced Medici rule. Michelangelo portrayed David partly as the ideal man, partly as an adolescent youth. Unlike predesessors by other sculptors which depict David with the grissly head of the giant under his foot, Michelangelo poses David at the moment he faces the giant, with the deed before him. He believed this was the moment of David's greatest courage. From 1508 until 1512 Michelangelo worked on his most famous project, the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican. He had always considered himself a sculptor and resisted painting the Sistine with characteristic vehemence: "I cannot live under pressures from patrons, let alone paint." Only the power of the Pope Julius II forced him into the reluctant achievement of the world's greatest single fresco. He covered the ceiling with paintings done on wet plaster, showing nine scenes from the Old Testament. Michelangelo later painted "The Last Judgment" on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. Toward the end of his life, Michelangelo became more involved in architecture and poetry. In 1546 he was made chief architect of the partly finished St. Peter’s Basalica in Rome, where the Pieta is now kept. 15
  16. 16. Imortant people: Sandro Bottice'i Botticelli, a Florentine painter, was one of the most distinctive and popular of Renaissance artists. Apprenticed to Filippo Lippi, he developed a highly personalized style taking Filippo Lippi's linear approach to new heights of gracefulness. His work was elegantly executed with a rich language of sometimes highly personal and melancholy gesture. By 1480 Botticelli had is own workshop with assistants. He spent almost all of his life working for the great families of Florence, especially the Medici family, for whom he painted portraits, most notably the Giuliano de' Medici. Adoration of the Magi was painted on commission (though not for the Medicis), and contains likenesses of the Medici family. His ideal of feminine beauty is shown in his Imortant people: King Matthias The most popular of all Hungarian Kings was Matthias Corvinus.  The Renaissance King's (1458 - 1490) popularity was based on his uncomplicated, traditional character. Since 1301 (the extinction of  the Hungarian House of Árpád) he was the first Hungarian on the  throne. Matthias valued the sciences, arts and architecture, he invited foreign humanists, writers, musicians and artist. In his court he was entertaining such outstanding guests as the renaissance poet Janus Pannonius, the Italian historian Antonio Bonfini and the astronomer Regiomontanus (Johann Müller). The first Hungarian press and set  up the Corvin library that held at least 500 volumes. Culturally Hungary was equal to any West European nation. Under King Matthias Hungary  also became one of the most powerful nations in Europe. Thanks to his flamboyance the Renaissance reached Hungary at an early date. Matthias, brought up by eminent Humanists, was passionately fond of the new artistic luxuries, and highly prized the relics of classical Greece and Rome. After he married Beatrix of Aragon (daughter of the King of Naples), representatives of Italian Renaissance found a second home in his court. Contemporary descriptions of the court of Matthias provide splendid pictures of the feasts where, after exotic and highly spiced dishes, Matthias 16
  17. 17. Bibliography (p. 17 and 18) Page 1: picture: Page 2: picture 1: picture 2: renaissance-art-300.jpg picture 3: text 1: The Renaissance Period,, 26 Sept 2009, http:// text 2: Jacob Burchardt Renaissance-Cultural history,, 26 Sept 2009, Jacob_Burckhardt.html Text 3: Why did the Renaissance start in Italy during the 15th century?,, 27 Sept 2009, Why_did_the_Renaissance_start_in_Italy_d_L112408.html Page 3: picture 1: picture 2: picture 3: Stemma.png text: Renaissance: Focus on Florence,, 27 Sept 2009, http:// Page 4: picture 1: picture 2: text:Tour of Renaissance Rome,, 27 Sept 2009, http:// Book: Corrain Lucia, The Art of The Renaissance, p.30, Firenze, Italia, Volo publisher, 2008 17
  18. 18. Page 6: picture 1: picture 2: picture 3: picture 4: Santamaria.jpg Page 7: picture 1: picture 2: text 1: Life in The Renaissance,, 28 Sept 2009, http:// text 2: Lord Aubrey de Baudricourt, Courtly graces and manners in the renaissance,, 28 Sept 2009, arpcourt.html Book: Corrain Lucia, The Art of The Renaissance, p.5 and 60, Firenze, Italia, Volo publisher, 2008 Page 8: picture 1: picture 2: website adress not found text 1: Death: The undiscovered country,, 29 Sept 2009, Page 9: picture 1: blogs5/89331/uploads/renaissance-clothing-5.jpg picture 2: text 1: The Renaissance Era (1450-1600), Fashion,, 29 Sept 2009, text 2: Costumes and Clothing Renaissance, The Italian Renaissance,, 29 Sept 2009, 18 7631/costume4.htm, text 3: Renaissance Life, The Renaissance,, 30 Sept 2009
  19. 19. Page 11: picture 1: leonardo_da_vinci_last_supper.jpg picture 2: text 1: The Mind of Leonardo, In Leonardo’s Studio,, 30 Sept 2009, c=13419&k=13394&rif=13394 Page 12: picture 1: picture 2: With-Fruit,-Vegetables-And-Poultry-1564.jpg text 1: Renaissance Food,, 1 Oct 2009, http:// Page 13: picture 1: picture 2: text 1: The Black Death,, 2 Oct 2009, history/the-black-death-2/ Page 14: picture 1: italian_renaissance_art.jpg picture 2: vinci.jpg picture 3: vinci-art.jpg text 1: Leonardo da Vinci,, 3 Oct 2009, http:// Page 15: picture 1: picture 2: 19
  20. 20. Page 16: Sandro Botticelli picture 1: venus/ picture 2: text: Sandro Botticelli,, 8 Oct 2009, wiki/Sandro_Botticelli Matthias Corvinus of Hungary picture 1: picture 2: text: Matthias Corvinus of Hungary,, 10 Oct 2009 http:// Page 21: picture: 20
  21. 21. The End 21