Session : 2012-2013
technical description on
Batch : CS-3
Submitted To: Submitted By:
meera shroti mam yash agrawal
I owe a great many thanks to a great many people who helped and supported me
during the completion of file.
My deepest thanks to Lecturer,
Meera Shroti mam
the Guide of the
project for guiding and correcting various documents of mine with attention and
care. She has taken pain to go through the project and make necessary correction as
and when needed.
I express my thanks to the Principal of, Acropolis institute of Technology and Research, for
extending his support.
I would also thank my Institution and my faculty members without whom
this project would have been a distant reality. I also extend my heartfelt thanks to
my family and well wishers.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
3} Types Of Computer
4} Components And Working
5} Advantages and Disadvantages
Computer is an electronic Device that is used for information Processing.
A computer system includes a computer, peripheral devices, and software
Accepts input, processes data, stores data, and produces output
Input refers to whatever is sent to a Computer system
Data refers to the symbols that represent facts, objects, and ideas
Processing is the way that a computer manipulates data
A computer processes data in a device called the central processing unit (CPU)
History of computers
The history of the modern computer begins with two separate technologies, automated calculation
and programmability. However no single device can be identified as the earliest computer, partly
because of the inconsistent application of that term. A few devices are worth mentioning
though, like some mechanical aids to computing, which were very successful and survived for
centuries until the advent of the electronic calculator, like the Sumerian abacus, designed around
2500 BC of which a descendant won a speed competition against a modern desk calculating
machine in Japan in 1946, the slide rules, invented in the 1620s, which were carried on five Apollo
space missions, including to the moon and arguably the astrolabe and the Antikythera
mechanism, an ancient astronomical computer built by the Greeks around 80 BC. The Greek
mathematician Hero of Alexandria (c. 10–70 AD) built a mechanical theater which performed a
play lasting 10 minutes and was operated by a complex system of ropes and drums that might be
considered to be a means of deciding which parts of the mechanism performed which actions and
In 1642, the Renaissance saw the invention of the mechanical calculator, a device that could
perform all four arithmetic operations without relying on human intelligence. The mechanical
calculator was at the root of the development of computers in two separate ways. Initially, it was in
trying to develop more powerful and more flexible calculators that the computer was first
theorized by Charles Babbage and then developed. Secondly, development of a low-cost
electronic calculator, successor to the mechanical calculator, resulted in the development by Intel
of the first commercially available microprocessor integrated circuit.
FIRST GENERATION COMPUTERS
1. Use of vacuum tubes
2. Big & Clumsy
3. High Electricity
4. Programming in Mechanical
5. Larger AC were needed
6. Lot of electricity failure
SECOND GENERATION COMPUTERS
1. Transistors were used
2. Core Memory was
3. Faster than First
4. First Operating System was
5. Programming was in
Machine Language &
6. Magnetic tapes & discs
7. Computers became smaller
in size than the First
8. Computers consumed less
heat & consumed less
THIRD GENERATION COMPUTERS
1. Integrated circuits
2. Power consumption
3. SSI & MSI
Technology was used
4. High level languages
FOURTH GENERATION COMPUTERS
1. LSI & VLSI Technology
2. Development of Portable
3. RAID Technology of data
4. Used in virtual
reality, multimedia, simulati
5. Computers started in use
for Data Communication
6. Different types of
memories with very high
accessing speed & storage
FIFTH GENERATION COMPUTERS
1. Used in parallel
2. Uses superconductors
3. Used in speech
4. Used in intelligent
5. Used in artificial
Type of computer
Digital computer Analog computer Hybrid Computer
Analog Computer is a computing device that works on continuous
range of values. The results given by the analog computers will
only be approximate since they deal with quantities that vary
continuously. It generally deals with physical variables such as
voltage, pressure, temperature, speed, etc.
• Signals are continuous of (0 to 10 V)
• Accuracy 1% Approximately
• High speed
• Output is continuous
• Time is wasted in transmission time
• On the other hand a digital computer operates on digital data such as
numbers. It uses binary number system in which there are only two digits
0 and 1. Each one is called a bit.
• The digital computer is designed using digital circuits in which there are
two levels for an input or output signal. These two levels are known as
logic 0 and logic 1. Digital Computers can give more accurate and faster
• Digital computer is well suited for solving complex problems in
engineering and technology. Hence digital computers have an increasing
use in the field of design, research and data processing.
• Signals are two level of (0 V or 5 V)
• Accuracy unlimited
• low speed sequential as well as parallel processing
• Output is continuous but obtain when computation is completed.
Micro computer are the smallest computer
system. There size range from calculator to
desktop size. Its CPU is microprocessor. It also
known as Grand child Computer.
• Application : - personal computer, Multi user
Main Frame Computer
Mainframe computers can also process data at
very high speeds i.e., hundreds of million
instructions per second and they are also
quite expensive. Normally, they are used in
banking, airlines and railways etc for their
• Application – Host computer, Central data
Mini computers are lower to mainframe
computers in terms of speed and storage
capacity. They are also less expensive than
mainframe computers. Some of the features of
mainframes will not be available in mini
computers. Hence, their performance also will be
less than that of mainframes. Mini computer are
also known as mid range computer or Child
• Application :- Departmental systems, Network
Servers, work group system.
• Super computer are those computer which are
designed for scientific job like whether forecasting
and artificial intelligence etc. They are fastest and
expensive. A super computer contains a number of
CPU which operate in parallel to make it faster. It
also known as grand father computer.
• Application – whether forecasting, weapons
research and development.
Type Components Physical
Microcomputer All components
in a single unit
Smallest Cheapest At homes, in schools
Small Cheap In
ments of large
Large Expensive In large
Supercomputer Several separate
In scientific research,
Comparisons between different types of
Working of a computer
Basically, computers work by taking commands and giving feedback:
input and output. The hardware in the computer takes the input from
the user or a program and provides the result (text, image, file) that is
desired.For example, when you type letters on a keyboard, it analyzes
the keystroke and electronically displays the image of the letter on the
screen. This requires several dozen operations that you never see, and
which operate at incredible speed.
A computer works by manipulation of binary coded symbols
(numbers), according to lists of binary coded instruction symbols.
Everything in an electronic (digital) computer is binary coded
symbols, whether it is data or instructions.
A computer has many components that work together to produce a
picture on your screen, run programs, allow you to type, move the
mouse about and surf the Internet, and other activities. Computer
hardware devices include:
Processor (CPU) - This processes all the information on a computer and tells it where
to go, and what to do.
Hard Drive (HDD) - This stores data for the computer to use when needed. All your
files and the operating system are stored here.
Random Access Memory (RAM) - This is where data is stored whilst the computer is
turned on, the operating system and any other programs you open are stored here,
and deleted when the computer is turned off.
Graphics Processor Unit (GPU) - This processes the signals from the HDD, RAM and
CPU to make a picture appear on your computer screen.
Motherboard (MOBO) - All the components fit onto the MOBO and it brings them
all together to form a computer. Information travels from component to
component through the MOBO
The Components of a Personal
By: Nick Shuman
The master relay of a PC, connecting all input and output devices together.
Houses all of the components needed to mange incoming and outgoing data, storage
devices and memory.
Input Device - Keyboard
The keyboard is an input device that allows you to send command requests to the
The first computers didn’t have a mouse, so navigation was done exclusively via
keyboard commands and shortcuts.
Input Device - Mouse
The mouse is another input device that allows you to send commands to the
Before the invention of the mouse, the arrow keys on the keyboard were the primary
source of cursor navigation.
Mice of yesterday used an internal “ball” to control the cursor. Today’s mice are based
on optical sensor technology.
Output Device - Monitor
The monitor is an output device that displays data in a graphic-oriented format.
CRT (cathode-ray tube) monitors were big, heavy & put out a lot of heat.
Today’s flatscreen and HD monitors are lighter, cooler and more energy-efficient.
Output Device - Printer
The printer receives data and outputs it to paper.
Yesterday’s printers communicated via parallel or serial port.
Today’s printers communicated via USB, ethernet and even wirelessly.
Output Device - Speakers
Speakers receive data and output it as sound.
Most PC’s come with a small, built-in speaker, but many users opt to add more
powerful external speakers for game play, music and video.
They allow people across the globe to communicate with each
other, no matter at what time, via the use of email.
They allow people to look up information directly, instead of the
use of searching through books.
Back-up copies of work can be made easily, without having to re-
People can work from home, and spend more time with their
families because of this.
People with disabilities whom can't write, can get software that
allows them to speak and it no longer as safe as it used to be.types
it on the screen.
1. People somtimes spend all their time secluded in theirs rooms on the
2. It may have a negative effect on your eyesight due to radiation.
3. Easier to copy peoples homework as you can sometimes find the sources
4. It can have negative effects on your social life and interactions with
other people if you do not maintain the balance between time online and
5. Details such as bank records, can be hacked into, and thus your
personal information is
Use of computer in different
• Banking sector.
• Service sector.
• Engineering and Robotics.
• MARKETING :- Computer is mainly used for sales
promotion, e.g. designing of advertisements.
Internet marketing (e-marketing).
Comparing the sales figure.
Studying the demand graph.
• PRODUCTION :-It is used for making design of product.
CAD (computer aided design)
• Research :-Used in different pharmaceutical companies.
• Hospitals :- Mainly computer is used for keeping the record of
Inventory of medicines.
• Diagnosis :-
• Higher education :- All the universities and colleges are
furnished with computer labs.
• Online education :- This can done with the help of
computer and internet.
• Faculty usage.
• School library.
• Used to generate letters and documents.
• Air force :- All the fighter plane are equipped with computer system
for targeting and navigation.
With the help of computer only “PREDATOR” an unmanned fighter can
• Army :- Gentle men uses computerized “ROBOT” in the battle field.
Tanks are also installed with computer.
• Navy :- Today all the submarines uses computer far navigation and