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Session : 2012-2013
technical description on
personal computer
Batch : CS-3
Submitted To: Submitted By:
meera shroti mam y...
Acknowledgement
I owe a great many thanks to a great many people who helped and supported me
during the completion of file...
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1} Introduction
2} History
3} Types Of Computer
4} Components And Working
5} Advantages and Disadvantage...
Introduction
Computer is an electronic Device that is used for information Processing.
A computer system includes a comp...
History of computers
The history of the modern computer begins with two separate technologies, automated calculation
and p...
FIRST GENERATION COMPUTERS
1. Use of vacuum tubes
2. Big & Clumsy
3. High Electricity
Consumption
4. Programming in Mechan...
SECOND GENERATION COMPUTERS
1. Transistors were used
2. Core Memory was
developed
3. Faster than First
Generation computer...
THIRD GENERATION COMPUTERS
1. Integrated circuits
developed
2. Power consumption
was low
3. SSI & MSI
Technology was used
...
FOURTH GENERATION COMPUTERS
1. LSI & VLSI Technology
used
2. Development of Portable
Computers
3. RAID Technology of data
...
FIFTH GENERATION COMPUTERS
1. Used in parallel
processing
2. Uses superconductors
3. Used in speech
recognition
4. Used in...
Type of computer
Digital computer Analog computer Hybrid Computer
Micro Computer
Main frame
Computer
Super Computer
Home P...
Analog computer
Analog Computer is a computing device that works on continuous
range of values. The results given by the a...
Analog computer
Digital Computers
• On the other hand a digital computer operates on digital data such as
numbers. It uses binary number s...
Micro Computer
Micro computer are the smallest computer
system. There size range from calculator to
desktop size. Its CPU ...
Main Frame Computer
Mainframe computers can also process data at
very high speeds i.e., hundreds of million
instructions p...
Mini Computer
Mini computers are lower to mainframe
computers in terms of speed and storage
capacity. They are also less e...
Super Computer
• Super computer are those computer which are
designed for scientific job like whether forecasting
and arti...
Super computer
Type Components Physical
Size and
Capacity
Cost Usage
Microcomputer All components
in a single unit
Smallest Cheapest At h...
Working of a computer
Basically, computers work by taking commands and giving feedback:
input and output. The hardware in ...
Processor (CPU) - This processes all the information on a computer and tells it where
to go, and what to do.
Hard Drive (H...
The Components of a Personal
Computer
By: Nick Shuman
Components
 CPU Tower
 Input Devices:
Keyboard
Mouse
 Output Devices:
Monitor
Printer
Speakers
 Storage Devices:
...
Components - Cont’d
 Processing:
CPU
RAM
Motherboard
 Media Ports:
Video
Audio
Networking
USB
CpU “tower”
The master relay of a PC, connecting all input and output devices together.
Houses all of the components neede...
Input Device - Keyboard
The keyboard is an input device that allows you to send command requests to the
computer.
The firs...
Input Device - Mouse
The mouse is another input device that allows you to send commands to the
computer.
Before the invent...
Output Device - Monitor
The monitor is an output device that displays data in a graphic-oriented format.
CRT (cathode-ray ...
Output Device - Printer
The printer receives data and outputs it to paper.
Yesterday’s printers communicated via parallel ...
Output Device - Speakers
Speakers receive data and output it as sound.
Most PC’s come with a small, built-in speaker, but ...
They allow people across the globe to communicate with each
other, no matter at what time, via the use of email.
They allo...
disadvantages
1. People somtimes spend all their time secluded in theirs rooms on the
computer.
2. It may have a negative ...
Use of computer in different
fields
• Business.
• Medical.
• Banking sector.
• Education.
• Service sector.
• Defence.
• E...
BUSINESS
• MARKETING :- Computer is mainly used for sales
promotion, e.g. designing of advertisements.
Internet marketing ...
MEDICAL
• Research :-Used in different pharmaceutical companies.
• Hospitals :- Mainly computer is used for keeping the re...
EDUCATION
• Higher education :- All the universities and colleges are
furnished with computer labs.
• Online education :- ...
DEFENCE
• Air force :- All the fighter plane are equipped with computer system
for targeting and navigation.
With the help...
THANK YOU
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Transcript of "Personal computer"

  1. 1. Session : 2012-2013 technical description on personal computer Batch : CS-3 Submitted To: Submitted By: meera shroti mam yash agrawal
  2. 2. Acknowledgement I owe a great many thanks to a great many people who helped and supported me during the completion of file. My deepest thanks to Lecturer, Meera Shroti mam the Guide of the project for guiding and correcting various documents of mine with attention and care. She has taken pain to go through the project and make necessary correction as and when needed. I express my thanks to the Principal of, Acropolis institute of Technology and Research, for extending his support. I would also thank my Institution and my faculty members without whom this project would have been a distant reality. I also extend my heartfelt thanks to my family and well wishers.
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1} Introduction 2} History 3} Types Of Computer 4} Components And Working 5} Advantages and Disadvantages 6} Uses
  4. 4. Introduction Computer is an electronic Device that is used for information Processing. A computer system includes a computer, peripheral devices, and software Accepts input, processes data, stores data, and produces output Input refers to whatever is sent to a Computer system Data refers to the symbols that represent facts, objects, and ideas Processing is the way that a computer manipulates data A computer processes data in a device called the central processing unit (CPU)
  5. 5. History of computers The history of the modern computer begins with two separate technologies, automated calculation and programmability. However no single device can be identified as the earliest computer, partly because of the inconsistent application of that term. A few devices are worth mentioning though, like some mechanical aids to computing, which were very successful and survived for centuries until the advent of the electronic calculator, like the Sumerian abacus, designed around 2500 BC[4] of which a descendant won a speed competition against a modern desk calculating machine in Japan in 1946,[5] the slide rules, invented in the 1620s, which were carried on five Apollo space missions, including to the moon[6] and arguably the astrolabe and the Antikythera mechanism, an ancient astronomical computer built by the Greeks around 80 BC.[7] The Greek mathematician Hero of Alexandria (c. 10–70 AD) built a mechanical theater which performed a play lasting 10 minutes and was operated by a complex system of ropes and drums that might be considered to be a means of deciding which parts of the mechanism performed which actions and when. In 1642, the Renaissance saw the invention of the mechanical calculator,[11] a device that could perform all four arithmetic operations without relying on human intelligence.[12] The mechanical calculator was at the root of the development of computers in two separate ways. Initially, it was in trying to develop more powerful and more flexible calculators[13] that the computer was first theorized by Charles Babbage[14][15] and then developed.[16] Secondly, development of a low-cost electronic calculator, successor to the mechanical calculator, resulted in the development by Intel[17] of the first commercially available microprocessor integrated circuit.
  6. 6. FIRST GENERATION COMPUTERS 1. Use of vacuum tubes 2. Big & Clumsy 3. High Electricity Consumption 4. Programming in Mechanical Language 5. Larger AC were needed 6. Lot of electricity failure occurred
  7. 7. SECOND GENERATION COMPUTERS 1. Transistors were used 2. Core Memory was developed 3. Faster than First Generation computers 4. First Operating System was developed 5. Programming was in Machine Language & Assembly Language 6. Magnetic tapes & discs were used 7. Computers became smaller in size than the First Generation computers 8. Computers consumed less heat & consumed less electricity
  8. 8. THIRD GENERATION COMPUTERS 1. Integrated circuits developed 2. Power consumption was low 3. SSI & MSI Technology was used 4. High level languages were used
  9. 9. FOURTH GENERATION COMPUTERS 1. LSI & VLSI Technology used 2. Development of Portable Computers 3. RAID Technology of data storage 4. Used in virtual reality, multimedia, simulati on 5. Computers started in use for Data Communication 6. Different types of memories with very high accessing speed & storage capacity
  10. 10. FIFTH GENERATION COMPUTERS 1. Used in parallel processing 2. Uses superconductors 3. Used in speech recognition 4. Used in intelligent robots 5. Used in artificial intelligence
  11. 11. Type of computer Digital computer Analog computer Hybrid Computer Micro Computer Main frame Computer Super Computer Home PC Mini Computer
  12. 12. Analog computer Analog Computer is a computing device that works on continuous range of values. The results given by the analog computers will only be approximate since they deal with quantities that vary continuously. It generally deals with physical variables such as voltage, pressure, temperature, speed, etc. • Signals are continuous of (0 to 10 V) • Accuracy 1% Approximately • High speed • Output is continuous • Time is wasted in transmission time
  13. 13. Analog computer
  14. 14. Digital Computers • On the other hand a digital computer operates on digital data such as numbers. It uses binary number system in which there are only two digits 0 and 1. Each one is called a bit. • The digital computer is designed using digital circuits in which there are two levels for an input or output signal. These two levels are known as logic 0 and logic 1. Digital Computers can give more accurate and faster results. • Digital computer is well suited for solving complex problems in engineering and technology. Hence digital computers have an increasing use in the field of design, research and data processing. • Signals are two level of (0 V or 5 V) • Accuracy unlimited • low speed sequential as well as parallel processing • Output is continuous but obtain when computation is completed.
  15. 15. Micro Computer Micro computer are the smallest computer system. There size range from calculator to desktop size. Its CPU is microprocessor. It also known as Grand child Computer. • Application : - personal computer, Multi user system, offices.
  16. 16. Main Frame Computer Mainframe computers can also process data at very high speeds i.e., hundreds of million instructions per second and they are also quite expensive. Normally, they are used in banking, airlines and railways etc for their applications. • Application – Host computer, Central data base server.
  17. 17. Mini Computer Mini computers are lower to mainframe computers in terms of speed and storage capacity. They are also less expensive than mainframe computers. Some of the features of mainframes will not be available in mini computers. Hence, their performance also will be less than that of mainframes. Mini computer are also known as mid range computer or Child computer. • Application :- Departmental systems, Network Servers, work group system.
  18. 18. Super Computer • Super computer are those computer which are designed for scientific job like whether forecasting and artificial intelligence etc. They are fastest and expensive. A super computer contains a number of CPU which operate in parallel to make it faster. It also known as grand father computer. • Application – whether forecasting, weapons research and development.
  19. 19. Super computer
  20. 20. Type Components Physical Size and Capacity Cost Usage Microcomputer All components in a single unit Smallest Cheapest At homes, in schools and offices Minicomputer Several functional units Small Cheap In universities, mediu m-sized companies, depart ments of large companiesMainframe computer Several separate units Large Expensive In large organizations, universities, government Supercomputer Several separate units Largest Most expensive In scientific research, weather forecasting, space exploration, military defense Comparisons between different types of computers:
  21. 21. Working of a computer Basically, computers work by taking commands and giving feedback: input and output. The hardware in the computer takes the input from the user or a program and provides the result (text, image, file) that is desired.For example, when you type letters on a keyboard, it analyzes the keystroke and electronically displays the image of the letter on the screen. This requires several dozen operations that you never see, and which operate at incredible speed. A computer works by manipulation of binary coded symbols (numbers), according to lists of binary coded instruction symbols. Everything in an electronic (digital) computer is binary coded symbols, whether it is data or instructions. A computer has many components that work together to produce a picture on your screen, run programs, allow you to type, move the mouse about and surf the Internet, and other activities. Computer hardware devices include:
  22. 22. Processor (CPU) - This processes all the information on a computer and tells it where to go, and what to do. Hard Drive (HDD) - This stores data for the computer to use when needed. All your files and the operating system are stored here. Random Access Memory (RAM) - This is where data is stored whilst the computer is turned on, the operating system and any other programs you open are stored here, and deleted when the computer is turned off. Graphics Processor Unit (GPU) - This processes the signals from the HDD, RAM and CPU to make a picture appear on your computer screen. Motherboard (MOBO) - All the components fit onto the MOBO and it brings them all together to form a computer. Information travels from component to component through the MOBO
  23. 23. The Components of a Personal Computer By: Nick Shuman
  24. 24. Components  CPU Tower  Input Devices: Keyboard Mouse  Output Devices: Monitor Printer Speakers  Storage Devices: Disk Drive Hard Drive Optical Drive
  25. 25. Components - Cont’d  Processing: CPU RAM Motherboard  Media Ports: Video Audio Networking USB
  26. 26. CpU “tower” The master relay of a PC, connecting all input and output devices together. Houses all of the components needed to mange incoming and outgoing data, storage devices and memory.
  27. 27. Input Device - Keyboard The keyboard is an input device that allows you to send command requests to the computer. The first computers didn’t have a mouse, so navigation was done exclusively via keyboard commands and shortcuts.
  28. 28. Input Device - Mouse The mouse is another input device that allows you to send commands to the computer. Before the invention of the mouse, the arrow keys on the keyboard were the primary source of cursor navigation. Mice of yesterday used an internal “ball” to control the cursor. Today’s mice are based on optical sensor technology.
  29. 29. Output Device - Monitor The monitor is an output device that displays data in a graphic-oriented format. CRT (cathode-ray tube) monitors were big, heavy & put out a lot of heat. Today’s flatscreen and HD monitors are lighter, cooler and more energy-efficient.
  30. 30. Output Device - Printer The printer receives data and outputs it to paper. Yesterday’s printers communicated via parallel or serial port. Today’s printers communicated via USB, ethernet and even wirelessly.
  31. 31. Output Device - Speakers Speakers receive data and output it as sound. Most PC’s come with a small, built-in speaker, but many users opt to add more powerful external speakers for game play, music and video.
  32. 32. They allow people across the globe to communicate with each other, no matter at what time, via the use of email. They allow people to look up information directly, instead of the use of searching through books. Back-up copies of work can be made easily, without having to re- write everything. People can work from home, and spend more time with their families because of this. People with disabilities whom can't write, can get software that allows them to speak and it no longer as safe as it used to be.types it on the screen. ADVANTAGES
  33. 33. disadvantages 1. People somtimes spend all their time secluded in theirs rooms on the computer. 2. It may have a negative effect on your eyesight due to radiation. 3. Easier to copy peoples homework as you can sometimes find the sources online. 4. It can have negative effects on your social life and interactions with other people if you do not maintain the balance between time online and offline. 5. Details such as bank records, can be hacked into, and thus your personal information is
  34. 34. Use of computer in different fields • Business. • Medical. • Banking sector. • Education. • Service sector. • Defence. • Engineering and Robotics. • Entertainment.
  35. 35. BUSINESS • MARKETING :- Computer is mainly used for sales promotion, e.g. designing of advertisements. Internet marketing (e-marketing). Comparing the sales figure. Studying the demand graph. • PRODUCTION :-It is used for making design of product. CAD (computer aided design)
  36. 36. MEDICAL • Research :-Used in different pharmaceutical companies. • Hospitals :- Mainly computer is used for keeping the record of patients. Inventory of medicines. Surgeries. • Diagnosis :- CT scan. Ultra-sound. Blood test. Electro-cardio gram.
  37. 37. EDUCATION • Higher education :- All the universities and colleges are furnished with computer labs. • Online education :- This can done with the help of computer and internet. • Self-Learning. • Faculty usage. • School library. • Used to generate letters and documents.
  38. 38. DEFENCE • Air force :- All the fighter plane are equipped with computer system for targeting and navigation. With the help of computer only “PREDATOR” an unmanned fighter can be controlled. • Army :- Gentle men uses computerized “ROBOT” in the battle field. Tanks are also installed with computer. • Navy :- Today all the submarines uses computer far navigation and targeting.
  39. 39. THANK YOU
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