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Agility, Business Value and the 11 Axis Of Software Quality

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Considering business value as the prime driver fo Agile development, focusing on quality as a means of contributing to value.

Considering business value as the prime driver fo Agile development, focusing on quality as a means of contributing to value.


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  • 1. Agility, Business Value & the 11 Axis of Software Quality Schalk W. Cronjé ysb33r@gmail.com ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 2. Are you still agile? Do you believe in quality? Do you deliver business value? ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 3. Agility, Business Value & the 11 Axis of Software Quality ● Agility and institutional theory ● Views of quality ● Software quality factors ● Measuring for value ● The real world ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 4. Human capital ● Knowledge ● The most important asset of any organisation ● Hated by bean counters – Difficult to measure ● Requires non-linear, empirical management ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 5. Institutions ● Sets of internalised rules Institution supported by values – Has tacit influence – Rules will be contested ● Shape understanding of Organisations social meaning + order – Provides a framework for performance ● Shapes of rights + duties People – Political authority – Economic opportunities An organisation can become "institutionalised" Institutions don't last forever ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 6. Scott's Model interpret Societal Institutions innovate invent, error negotiate diffuse, impose Organisational Fields invent, negotiate diffuse, impose Organisations invent, sanction negotiate behaviour diffuse, impose Actors Limitations of cognitive / social rationality (groups/individuals) Selective perception ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 7. Agile Today ● Mature ● Well-known methodologies agile today ● Embraced by many – Even if only by lip service ● Misunderstood by many ● Too easy to tick the boxes than to deliver value ● Tyranny of the urgent – Discipline ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 8. Time to Revisit Agile Values We value people and interactions above processes and tools We value responding to change over following a plan ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 9. Business Value ● "Business Value" is executing / procuring / producing that which is of "value to the business" ● Responding to change can provide value ● Indirect actions at grass roots can provide long-term business value ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 10. Agility, Business Value & the 11 Axis of Software Quality ● Agility and institutional theory ● Views of quality ● Software quality factors ● Measuring for value ● The real world ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 11. Quality as an Institution ● Well known concept ● Contested nature ● Has a tacit influence ● Embodied in many organisations ● Cannot be directly measured ● Improving quality can have side-effects ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 12. Product / Service Quality Features (Kano model) ● Primary – Basic features ● Secondary – Distinguishing performance features ● Tertiary – Excitement features – Discovered after purchase – Predisposes to repeat purchase Quality scope == Fitness of Use ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 13. Cost of Quality ● Appraisal costs – Discovering condition of hardware & 3rd-party software components ● Internal failure costs – Defects found before shipment ● External failure costs – Defects found after shipment ● Prevention costs – Costs for preventing all of the above ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 14. Agility, Business Value & the 11 Axis of Software Quality ● Agility and institutional theory ● Views of quality ● Software quality factors ● Measuring for value ● The real world ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 15. Relative easy to The one always quantify remembered Correctness To what extent does the system satisfy requirements and meet objectives? ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 16. Know your Directly related boundaries to fitness of use Reliability Measures of stability and precision ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 17. Builds Difficult to perception measure Usability Effort to learn and use the application / API ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 18. Major long-term Affects process costs throughput Maintainability Effort required to find, fix and test defects or update running systems ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 19. Requires vision Separation of concerns Portability Effort to adapt to another HW /OS / SW environment ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 20. Know your Directly related boundaries to fitness of use Efficiency Resource usage ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 21. Time and cost contributor Design it in Testability How easy is it to test the system? ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 22. Are you responsive to ... know your change? but... boundaries Flexibility Effort to modify / adapt to different consumers ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 23. Cost of Design in, violation can be rather than high afterthought Integrity Access control ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 24. APIs / SOA Reducing cost of others Reusability Repackaging within other applications ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 25. Use of Cost for others standards to connect to your systems Interoperability Effort required to connect systems together ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 26. 11 Axis of Software Quality Correctness Reliability Flexibility Reusability Portability Efficiency Maintainability Integrity Interoperability Usability Testability ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 27. Agility, Business Value & the 11 Axis of Software Quality ● Agility and institutional theory ● Views of quality ● Software quality factors ● Measuring for value ● The real world ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 28. Agility, Business Value & Quality ● Quality contributes to business value ● The team is in the best position to judge software quality ● Quality is a tacit process – Need ways to frame quality It's business value Jim, but not as you know it ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 29. "Value delivery advocates measuring value using quantified business objectives in alignment" Ryan Shriver, Overload 89, Feb 2009 ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 30. Advocacy Evaluation Why measure? Strategy ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 31. Measuring for Value ● Metrics are nothing, measuring is everything ● Start small ● Think strategically ● Apply Pareto's law ● Use checks and balances ● Avoid too many metrics ● Know when to change reason to measure – evaluation → advocacy ● Know when to no longer measure ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 32. Example: Clean Build Failures ● Measures of daily clean-room failures – Tracked over quarter – Daily visibility ● Very simple measure - small heartbeat ● "Getting in the groove" metric – Subtle team introduction to measurements – Team can relate to objective ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 33. Example: Code-coverage ● Code coverage measures amount of code exercised during a test run. ● Code coverage does not: – validate usefulness of tests – directly address any of the software quality factors ● Why measure it? – Implies underlying automated tests – Change in coverage implies change in quality ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 34. Example: Outage Time ● Measure the time production systems are off- line ● Uses Nagios statistics ● Addresses reliability ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 35. Metrics vs Business Value ● Do these metrics contribute to business value? – Clean-room failures – Code coverage – Outage time ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 36. How do you measure up? Correctness Reliability Flexibility Reusability Portability Efficiency Maintainability Integrity Interoperability Usability Testability ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 37. Agility, Business Value & the 11 Axis of Software Quality ● Agility and institutional theory ● Views of quality ● Software quality factors ● Measuring for value ● The real world ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 38. "Excellent system qualities are a continuous management and engineering challenge, with no perfect solutions" Tom Gilb, Overload 85, June 2008 ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 39. Institutional Sustainability ● Continual maintenance ● Human capital development ● Mutual trust building – Historical perceptions ● Requires learning – Environment that "learns to learn" ● Humans create quality not technology ● Tied to continuous improvement ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  • 40. End note If change does not make sense, it will not happen. ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé