Agility, Business Value &

the 11 Axis of Software Quality

         Schalk W. Cronjé
        ysb33r@gmail.com



        ...
Are you still agile?



    Do you believe in quality?



       Do you deliver business value?

                         ...
Agility, Business Value &
the 11 Axis of Software Quality
●   Agility and institutional theory
●   Views of quality
●   So...
Human capital

●   Knowledge
●   The most important asset of any organisation
●   Hated by bean counters
    –   Difficult...
Institutions
●   Sets of internalised rules                    Institution
    supported by values
    –   Has tacit influ...
Scott's Model
                                                                  interpret
Societal Institutions           ...
Agile Today

●   Mature
●   Well-known methodologies          agile
                                      today
●   Embrac...
Time to Revisit Agile Values

We value people and interactions

            above processes and tools

We value responding...
Business Value

●   "Business Value" is executing / procuring /
    producing that which is of "value to the
    business"...
Agility, Business Value &
the 11 Axis of Software Quality
●   Agility and institutional theory
●   Views of quality
●   So...
Quality as an Institution

●   Well known concept
●   Contested nature
●   Has a tacit influence
●   Embodied in many orga...
Product / Service Quality Features
                                               (Kano model)



●   Primary
     –   Bas...
Cost of Quality

●   Appraisal costs
    –   Discovering condition of hardware & 3rd-party
        software components
●  ...
Agility, Business Value &
the 11 Axis of Software Quality
●   Agility and institutional theory
●   Views of quality
●   So...
Relative easy to                                 The one always
   quantify                                       remember...
Know your                                Directly related
boundaries                                to fitness of
        ...
Builds
                                           Difficult to
perception
                                            meas...
Major long-term
                                                     Affects process
     costs
                          ...
Requires vision                                Separation of
                                                 concerns



...
Know your                      Directly related
boundaries                      to fitness of
                            ...
Time and cost
 contributor                                 Design it in




                Testability



               ...
Are you
responsive to                                  ... know your
change? but...                                  bound...
Cost of
                                       Design in,
violation can be
                                      rather th...
APIs / SOA                              Reducing cost
                                          of others




            ...
Use of                                   Cost for others
standards                                   to connect to
       ...
11 Axis of Software Quality

                      Correctness
                                    Reliability
       Flex...
Agility, Business Value &
the 11 Axis of Software Quality
●   Agility and institutional theory
●   Views of quality
●   So...
Agility, Business Value & Quality

●   Quality contributes to business value
●   The team is in the best position to judge...
"Value delivery advocates measuring value
 using quantified business objectives in
               alignment"

            ...
Advocacy
Evaluation




             Why measure?



               Strategy



                                ACCU 2009
...
Measuring for Value
●   Metrics are nothing, measuring is everything
●   Start small
●   Think strategically
●   Apply Par...
Example: Clean Build Failures

●   Measures of daily clean-room failures
    –   Tracked over quarter
    –   Daily visibi...
Example: Code-coverage

●   Code coverage measures amount of code
    exercised during a test run.
●   Code coverage does ...
Example: Outage Time

●   Measure the time production systems are off-
    line
●   Uses Nagios statistics
●   Addresses r...
Metrics vs Business Value

●   Do these metrics contribute to business
    value?
    –   Clean-room failures
    –   Code...
How do you measure up?

                      Correctness
                                    Reliability
       Flexibili...
Agility, Business Value &
the 11 Axis of Software Quality
●   Agility and institutional theory
●   Views of quality
●   So...
"Excellent system qualities are a
continuous management and engineering
  challenge, with no perfect solutions"

         ...
Institutional Sustainability

●   Continual maintenance
●   Human capital development
●   Mutual trust building
    –   Hi...
End note

If change does not make sense,
        it will not happen.




                                ACCU 2009
       ...
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Agility, Business Value and the 11 Axis Of Software Quality

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Considering business value as the prime driver fo Agile development, focusing on quality as a means of contributing to value.

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Agility, Business Value and the 11 Axis Of Software Quality

  1. 1. Agility, Business Value & the 11 Axis of Software Quality Schalk W. Cronjé ysb33r@gmail.com ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  2. 2. Are you still agile? Do you believe in quality? Do you deliver business value? ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  3. 3. Agility, Business Value & the 11 Axis of Software Quality ● Agility and institutional theory ● Views of quality ● Software quality factors ● Measuring for value ● The real world ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  4. 4. Human capital ● Knowledge ● The most important asset of any organisation ● Hated by bean counters – Difficult to measure ● Requires non-linear, empirical management ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  5. 5. Institutions ● Sets of internalised rules Institution supported by values – Has tacit influence – Rules will be contested ● Shape understanding of Organisations social meaning + order – Provides a framework for performance ● Shapes of rights + duties People – Political authority – Economic opportunities An organisation can become "institutionalised" Institutions don't last forever ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  6. 6. Scott's Model interpret Societal Institutions innovate invent, error negotiate diffuse, impose Organisational Fields invent, negotiate diffuse, impose Organisations invent, sanction negotiate behaviour diffuse, impose Actors Limitations of cognitive / social rationality (groups/individuals) Selective perception ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  7. 7. Agile Today ● Mature ● Well-known methodologies agile today ● Embraced by many – Even if only by lip service ● Misunderstood by many ● Too easy to tick the boxes than to deliver value ● Tyranny of the urgent – Discipline ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  8. 8. Time to Revisit Agile Values We value people and interactions above processes and tools We value responding to change over following a plan ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  9. 9. Business Value ● "Business Value" is executing / procuring / producing that which is of "value to the business" ● Responding to change can provide value ● Indirect actions at grass roots can provide long-term business value ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  10. 10. Agility, Business Value & the 11 Axis of Software Quality ● Agility and institutional theory ● Views of quality ● Software quality factors ● Measuring for value ● The real world ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  11. 11. Quality as an Institution ● Well known concept ● Contested nature ● Has a tacit influence ● Embodied in many organisations ● Cannot be directly measured ● Improving quality can have side-effects ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  12. 12. Product / Service Quality Features (Kano model) ● Primary – Basic features ● Secondary – Distinguishing performance features ● Tertiary – Excitement features – Discovered after purchase – Predisposes to repeat purchase Quality scope == Fitness of Use ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  13. 13. Cost of Quality ● Appraisal costs – Discovering condition of hardware & 3rd-party software components ● Internal failure costs – Defects found before shipment ● External failure costs – Defects found after shipment ● Prevention costs – Costs for preventing all of the above ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  14. 14. Agility, Business Value & the 11 Axis of Software Quality ● Agility and institutional theory ● Views of quality ● Software quality factors ● Measuring for value ● The real world ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  15. 15. Relative easy to The one always quantify remembered Correctness To what extent does the system satisfy requirements and meet objectives? ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  16. 16. Know your Directly related boundaries to fitness of use Reliability Measures of stability and precision ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  17. 17. Builds Difficult to perception measure Usability Effort to learn and use the application / API ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  18. 18. Major long-term Affects process costs throughput Maintainability Effort required to find, fix and test defects or update running systems ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  19. 19. Requires vision Separation of concerns Portability Effort to adapt to another HW /OS / SW environment ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  20. 20. Know your Directly related boundaries to fitness of use Efficiency Resource usage ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  21. 21. Time and cost contributor Design it in Testability How easy is it to test the system? ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  22. 22. Are you responsive to ... know your change? but... boundaries Flexibility Effort to modify / adapt to different consumers ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  23. 23. Cost of Design in, violation can be rather than high afterthought Integrity Access control ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  24. 24. APIs / SOA Reducing cost of others Reusability Repackaging within other applications ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  25. 25. Use of Cost for others standards to connect to your systems Interoperability Effort required to connect systems together ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  26. 26. 11 Axis of Software Quality Correctness Reliability Flexibility Reusability Portability Efficiency Maintainability Integrity Interoperability Usability Testability ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  27. 27. Agility, Business Value & the 11 Axis of Software Quality ● Agility and institutional theory ● Views of quality ● Software quality factors ● Measuring for value ● The real world ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  28. 28. Agility, Business Value & Quality ● Quality contributes to business value ● The team is in the best position to judge software quality ● Quality is a tacit process – Need ways to frame quality It's business value Jim, but not as you know it ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  29. 29. "Value delivery advocates measuring value using quantified business objectives in alignment" Ryan Shriver, Overload 89, Feb 2009 ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  30. 30. Advocacy Evaluation Why measure? Strategy ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  31. 31. Measuring for Value ● Metrics are nothing, measuring is everything ● Start small ● Think strategically ● Apply Pareto's law ● Use checks and balances ● Avoid too many metrics ● Know when to change reason to measure – evaluation → advocacy ● Know when to no longer measure ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  32. 32. Example: Clean Build Failures ● Measures of daily clean-room failures – Tracked over quarter – Daily visibility ● Very simple measure - small heartbeat ● "Getting in the groove" metric – Subtle team introduction to measurements – Team can relate to objective ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  33. 33. Example: Code-coverage ● Code coverage measures amount of code exercised during a test run. ● Code coverage does not: – validate usefulness of tests – directly address any of the software quality factors ● Why measure it? – Implies underlying automated tests – Change in coverage implies change in quality ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  34. 34. Example: Outage Time ● Measure the time production systems are off- line ● Uses Nagios statistics ● Addresses reliability ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  35. 35. Metrics vs Business Value ● Do these metrics contribute to business value? – Clean-room failures – Code coverage – Outage time ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  36. 36. How do you measure up? Correctness Reliability Flexibility Reusability Portability Efficiency Maintainability Integrity Interoperability Usability Testability ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  37. 37. Agility, Business Value & the 11 Axis of Software Quality ● Agility and institutional theory ● Views of quality ● Software quality factors ● Measuring for value ● The real world ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  38. 38. "Excellent system qualities are a continuous management and engineering challenge, with no perfect solutions" Tom Gilb, Overload 85, June 2008 ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  39. 39. Institutional Sustainability ● Continual maintenance ● Human capital development ● Mutual trust building – Historical perceptions ● Requires learning – Environment that "learns to learn" ● Humans create quality not technology ● Tied to continuous improvement ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
  40. 40. End note If change does not make sense, it will not happen. ACCU 2009 © Schalk W. Cronjé
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