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DIAGNOSIS: Patients: Filipinos living in Butuan City Butuan City is located in the fertile coastal plains and valleys along the Agusan River. The locals depend on the excellent agricultural potential of the Agusan River Valley and coastal plains; howeverm the richness of the soil and water serves as home for intestinal parasites which cause many digestive diseases.
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DISEASES IN THE MOUTHAcute Stomatitis, Aphthous Stomatitis,Thrush and Glossitis
1. ACUTE STOMATITIS An acute inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth, occurring most frequently in children, though no age is exempt. Symptoms: The inflammation is attended by the following symptoms: heat, pain, redness, and swelling. At first the mouth is dry and hot, with a burning, smarting sensation; but soon secretion is established, and mucus and saliva are found in excess. This condition is often called catarrhal stomatitis. Treatment: After thoroughly cleansing the mouth with a weak solution of pyrozone, or a wash of boracic acid. The mouth should be kept sweet and clean. The diet should consist of liquid food; warm drinks are more agreeable than very cold or very hot fluids.
2. APHTHOUS STOMATITIS Synonyms: Follicular Stomatitis; Disseminated Vesicular Stomatitis; Fibrinous Stomatitis. A variety of stomatitis, characterized by small, round,white patches upon the mucous membrane of the tongue, gums, and cheeks. Small vesicles appear upon an inflamed base, and later form small ulcers. Symptoms: The mouth is exquisitely tender, and, when nursing or attempting to eat, a burning sensation follows. Treatment: Cleanliness is of the greatest importance, and the mouth should be rinsed with lukewarm water after each feeding.
3. THRUSH Synonyms: Parasitic Stomatitis; Stomatitis Mycosa; Candidiasis A specific fungous disease of the buccal mucous surfaces, characterized by whitish or yellowish deposits, in which are found the saccharomyces albicans. Symptoms: The child is fretful and peevish, the result of the burning pain, and frequently a diarrhea, with greenish stools, occurs. Treatment: Mouth-washes will be selected to correct this condition ; hence the alkalies are used; bicarbonate of sodium, boracic acid, potassium chlorate, etc. After each feeding, the mouth is to be carefully washed, every particle of food being removed. Sweets of all kinds are to be avoided, as they favor fermentation.
3. GLOSSITIS An inflammation of the parenchyma of the tongue, usually terminating in resolution, though suppuration occasionally results. Symptoms: Swelling of the tongue begins rapidly, soon filling the mouth, and even protruding from the lips. Treatment: Where the tongue is badly swollen and tense, soft linen cloths dipped in a solution of glycerin and potassium chlorate and hydrastis, and applied to the tongue, give the greatest relief. Alkaline washes or even cracked ice placed on the mouth may also be used.
DISEASES IN THE SALIVARYGLANDSHypersecretion, Xerostomia andInflammation of the Salivary Glands
1. HYPERSECRETION 2. XEROSTAMIA An excessive secretion of saliva. Dry mouth; a defect or arrest of the - Symptoms: The mouth is salivary and buccal secretions. constantly bathed with saliva, - Symptoms: The mouth is dry, red, which necessitates frequent spitting on the part of the patient. or parched, resulting in difficulty in Where it is very excessive, talking mastication, deglutition, and talking. is carried on with difficulty. The Digestion is more or less impaired, almost constant wetting of the lips and gastric symptoms may be may be attended by chapping and cracking at the angles of the present. mouth.
3. INFLAMMATION OF THE SALIVARY GLANDS A secondary inflammation of the parotid gland, with greater tendency to suppuration than in specific parotitis or mumps. Symptoms: During the course of the primary disease, or following an injury, the gland becomes swollen, tender, and more or less dusky and livid. Treatment: The cause being septic conditions of the blood, the treatment will very naturally be the administration of antiseptics; hence, echinacea, in five to- ten drop doses, will fit many cases.
DISEASES OF THE PHARYNXAngina Symplex (Sore Throat, Pharyngitis),Chronic Pharyngitis, Ulceration of thePharynx
1. ANGINA SIMPLEX (SORETHROAT) 2. CHRONIC PHARYNGITIS An acute inflammation of A chronic inflammation of the the mucous membrane of mucous surfaces of the the pharynx, and pharynx and adjacent tissues. sometimes of the entire pharyngeal structure. Symptoms: The patient experiences a sense of stuffing Symptoms: The up in the upper part of the symptoms of sore throat are characteristic, the throat, and, to get relief, there patient complaining of pain is frequent effort to remove it and fullness in the throat, by hawking, or, where the especially when surface is dry, there is almost swallowing. The surfaces constant swallowing. A short, are dry and swollen, and dry, hacking cough reveals the patient swallows laryngeal complications, and frequently to give relief. the voice is more or less husky.
3. ULCERATION OF THE PHARYNX An indolent ulceration of the mucous membrane and deeper tissues of the pharynx. Symptoms: There is usually slight fever, loss of appetite, a coated tongue, bad breath, and painful deglutition. ANGINA SIMPLEX Chronic Pharyngitis Ulceration of the (sore throat) Pharynx
DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUSEsophagitis, Bleeding Varices, SwallowedForeign Object and Esophageal Spasm
1. ESOPHAGITIS 2. STENOSIS An acute inflammation of the Bleeding veins in the esophagus, mucous membrane of the caused by a liver disease. esophagus, frequently involving the submucous tissues. Symptoms: Blood in the stool or Symptoms: A dull, uneasy vomit, fainting, dizziness, cirrhosis feeling, or sometimes a of the liver burning, smarting sensation. Treatment: a rubber band is Swallowing is difficult, and aggravates the pain. placed on the varicose vein to cut off its blood supply (rubber band Treatment: Only the blandest form of diet should be used. treatment); Milk in some form, either as a sclerosant, usually a chemical whey or malted milk, is or saline solution, is injected into preferable. In some cases the varicose vein to induce a clot small bits of ice are gratefully and block its blood supply. This will received. cause the vein to shrivel and die. (Sclerotherapy)
3. SWALLOWED FOREIGN OBJECT 4. ESOPHAGEAL SPASM Immediate symptoms Pain and difficulty in swallowing of swallowed foreign due to abnormal clenching of the muscles in the esophagus. objects are: pain in the esophagus or chest, choking, Symptoms: Dull or intense pain under the breast bone, difficulty swallowing, vomiting, difficulty swallowing, nausea, pain in the stomach, involuntary regurgitation of food blood in the stool or fever (if Prevention & Treatment: the object is trapped in the swallowing only well-chewed lower intestines) food in small pieces, avoiding Treatment: If the swallowed hot food or hot and cold drinks, reducing stress, or taking in foreign object blocks the psychiatric drugs for panic airways, emergency care attack and depression. such as a Heimlich maneuver needs to be immediately performed.
ESOPHAGITIS STENOSIS OF THE ESOPHAGUS SWALLOWED FOREIGN OBJECT ESOPHAGEAL SPASM
DISEASES OF THE STOMACHGastritis, Gastric Ulcer, Stomach Cancer,Hemorrhage from the Stomach,Hyperacidity, Dyspepsia
1. GASTRITIS 2. GASTRIC ULCER It is the disease where there is A well-defined round or oval severe inflammation of ulcer, due to the action of the stomach lining. It occurs due to gastric juice upon some portion the consumption of too much alcohol, continuous use of of the mucous membrane, drugs like aspirin and ibuprofen which has been weakened bv or infection by bacteria like H. some impairment of nutrition. It pylori. The symptoms of penetrates the mucous gastritis are belching, abdominal bloating and pain. membrane and sometimes the entire gastric wall.
4. HEMORRHAGE OF THE3. STOMACH CANCER STOMACH
5. HYPERACIDITY 6. DYSPEPSIA Increased activity of the secreting It is also known as upset apparatus of the stomach, whereby stomach or indigestion. an undue amount of hydrochloric Indigestion can be caused by acid, more than is required for the various factors the most purpose of digestion, is secreted. common being the abnormality Treatment: The diet should consist of the pancreas or bile duct. of lean meats, eggs, milk, and whole- The symptoms can be fullness wheat bread should be the principal or a heavy stomach before and bill of fare. Acid fruits should be after a meal. restricted. With the exception of milk, the patient does better on a dry diet.
OTHER DIGESTIVE DISEASESHepatitis, Diarrhea, Cirrhosis, LactoseIntolerance, Short Bowel Syndrome,Appendicitis, Constipation, Gallstones,Flatulence and Abdominal Adhesions
1. HEPATITIS 2. DIARRHEA Hepatitis is a viral infection in Diarrhea is the condition of which the liver becomes inflamed having three or more loose or and can lose its ability to function. liquid bowel movements per day. It is a common cause of death in TYPES developing countries and the - Hepatitis A: Hepatitis A is a virus second most common cause of that causes liver disease. It most infant deaths worldwide. The loss commonly comes from of fluids through diarrhea can contaminated food or water. cause dehydration and electrolyte imbalances. - Hepatitis B: Hepatitis A is a virus that causes liver disease. It most commonly comes from contaminated food or water and can be treated through vaccination. - Hepatitis C: Patients with hepatitis C develop a chronic liver infection. It often does not show any symptoms. No vaccine is yet available to prevent hepatitis C.
3. CIRRHOSIS 4. LACTOSE INTOLERANCE It is the condition in which the Lactose, fructose and sucrose intolerance is the body’s inability to liver gradually deteriorates absorb these basic sugars. It is and starts to malfunction, caused by deficiency in the enzyme lactase. This enzyme is blocking the flow of blood produced by the lining of the small through the liver. Caused due intestine, and is responsible in to obesity and excessive breaking down sugars into absorbable forms. alcohol consumption, Most common among Asians, African cirrhosis, can be identified by Americans, Native Americans and fatigue, vomiting, weight loss Hispanics. and loss of appetite.
5. SHORT BOWEL 6. APPENDICITIS SYNDROME Short bowel syndrome is the Appendicitis is a condition extreme loss of small intestine or its function due to disease or characterized by inflammation surgery, to the extent that there of the appendix. isn’t enough of it left to absorb nutrients. Symptoms: diarrhea, steatorrhea or foul-smelling stool, stool that “floats” or are oily and sticky, indigestion and other symptoms of peptic ulcer, fluid retention, fatigue and weakness, severe weight loss, malnutrition Treatment: Vitamin, iron, folic acid, and protein supplements or antacids
7. CONSTIPATION 8. GALLSTONES Constipation is a symptom, Gallstones develop due to which almost every person imbalances in the gall bladder due experiences in his or her life. to excess amount of cholesterol and The most common cause of too little of bile salts. In addition, it constipation are lack of proper can result when gall bladder cannot diet like not enough fiber, milk, empty more often or completely. dehydration, lack of physical Steady pain in the upper abdomen exercise etc. It results in and between the shoulder blades irregular and often painful can be due to the formation of bowel movements. gallstones.
9. FLATULENCE 10. ABDOMINAL ADHESIONS Also known as gas in the Abdominal adhesions cause digestive tract, it is caused by internal tissues and organs to the breakdown of undigested stick together when normally food in the colon by bacteria they have slippery surface. and also through swallowing This results in chronic pelvic air. Gas results in belching, pain, intestinal obstruction, flatulence, abdominal and female infertility. bloating, and pain.
HOW TO TAKE CARE OF OURDIGESTIVE SYSTEM7 Simple Secrets to Taking Good Careof Your Digestive Health
1. Eat foods rich in fiber Fiber is instrumental in ensuring your digestive system runs smoothly. Its a food with a surprisingly large range of digestive health benefits - it helps the body eliminate waste, lowers cholesterol, feeds healthy bacteria and reduces your risks of developing irritable bowel syndrome and colon cancer too. Find your servings of fiber in fruit, vegetables, nuts, beans and whole grains.
2. Eat good amounts of fish Fish contain omega-3 fatty acids which are hailed as being highly beneficial to the digestive system. The essential fatty acids can improve certain digestive problems because of their special anti-inflammatory properties. Choose to eat three to five portions of fish rich in this nutrient each week.
YUMMY FISH DISHES!
3. Cut out fried and high-fat foods Reduce the amount of fried and fattening foods that you eat. These are hard for you to digest and put extra pressure on your digestive functions. Other processed foods may contain ingredients which irritate the stomach. Instead, choose organic foods when possible - they are simpler and kinder to your system.
AVOID PROCESSED FOODS!
4. Take Probiotics Probiotics are good bacteria that live in the gastrointestinal system. They maintain its health by keeping bad bacteria at bay and creating a good harmony in your digestions ecosystem. They have been known to help ease conditions like gastroenteritis, irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. Your probiotic levels will fall dramatically if you are under stress or taking antibiotics. Take a supplement of probiotics for the best support. Doses found in yogurt are minimal at best, and virtually none in flavored yogurts.
THE GOOD BACTERIA
FOOD RICH IN PROBIOTICS
5. Develop good eating habits Its important to chew your food well to help it break down sufficiently before it reaches your stomach. Chewing is actually the first stage of digestion as enzymes in your saliva break down carbohydrates in the mouth. Other good practices which support your digestion is taking enough time to eat without rushing, avoiding large meals and avoiding eating a meal before you go to bed so your stomach can digest its food while youre still upright.
6. Exercise regularly Exercise is great for boosting your bodys natural functions and can improve the natural rhythm of your digestive system, too. It is also great for helping your food move through the digestive tract.
7. Choose healthy hydration Caffeinated drinks like coffee and acid- producing fluids like soda can cause stomach aggravation, especially to sensitive stomachs. Instead, drink lots of water which prevents and alleviates constipation and generally eases the digestive process.