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  1. 1. Climate change is a significant and lasting change in the statisticaldistribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades tomillions of years. It may be a change in average weather conditions or thedistribution of events around that average (e.g., more or fewer extremeweather events). Climate change may be limited to a specific region or mayoccur across the whole Earth.Table of Contents1 Terminology2 Causes Internal forcing mechanisms Ocean variability External forcing mechanisms Orbital variations Solar output Volcanism Plate tectonics Human influences
  2. 2. Physical evidence for and examples of climatic change Temperature measurements and proxies Historical and archaeological evidence Glaciers Arctic sea ice loss Vegetation Pollen analysis Precipitation Dendroclimatology Ice cores Animals Sea level change
  3. 3. The most general definition of climate change is a change in the statisticalproperties of the climate system when considered over long periods oftime, regardless of cause.[1] Accordingly, fluctuations over periods shorterthan a few decades, such as El Niño, do not represent climate change.The term sometimes is used to refer specifically to climate change causedby human activity, as opposed to changes in climate that may have resultedas part of Earths natural processes.[2] In this latter sense, used especially inthe context of environmental policy, the term climate change today issynonymous with anthropogenic global warming. Within scientificjournals, however, global warming refers to surface temperatureincreases, while climate change includes global warming and everything elsethat increasing greenhouse gas amounts will affect.[3]Causes
  4. 4. Climate changes in response to changes in the global energy balance. Onthe broadest scale, the rate at which energy is received from the sun and therate at which it is lost to space determine the equilibrium temperature andclimate of Earth. This energy is then distributed around the globe by winds,ocean currents, and other mechanisms to affect the climates of differentregions.Factors that can shape climate are called climate forcings or "forcingmechanisms".[4] These include such processes as variations in solarradiation, deviations in the Earths orbit, mountain-building and continentaldrift, and changes in greenhouse gas concentrations. There are a variety ofclimate change feedbacks that can either amplify or diminish the initialforcing. Some parts of the climate system, such as the oceans and ice caps,respond slowly in reaction to climate forcings, while others respond morequickly.Forcing mechanisms can be either "internal" or "external". Internal forcingmechanisms are natural processes within the climate system itself (e.g., themeridional overturning circulation). External forcing mechanisms can beeither natural (e.g., changes in solar output) or anthropogenic (e.g.,increased emissions of greenhouse gases).
  5. 5. on climate change, deals, exclusively with the exploration of the causesof climate change. The increase in the emission of green house gasesand the subsequent enhanced greenhouse effect, is the root of thisproblem and the human activities and processes which cause these arequite comprehensively discusses. Trends in the increase in theconcentrations of these green house gases are detailed with the use oftables and graphs and pie-charts have also been included to show thecontribution of different gases to global warming.The scientific chemical processes to show the production of thesegases, also find cover here further illustrations and photographs toascertain the impacts of these gases a are also included. In addition theconsequences of the actions of these causes are discussed and criticalinsights into combating these causes one listed.
  6. 6. 1. Causes of Global Climate Change2. Ozone Depletion3. International Carbon Market4. Global Warming5. Sea Level Rise6. Effects of Climate Extremes7. International Emission Trading8. Climate Change and Health9. Impacts of Climate Change to Coral Reefs10. Climate Change and Adaption11. Climate Change Mitigation12. International Effort against Climate Change