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Yogendra memory

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  • 1. Memory Yogendra Goyal UG2010 11045
  • 2. Content: Introduction Memory Structure Information Processing Model Memory Process Memory and brain Retrieval and Forgetting Improving memory
  • 3. IntroductionIt is an organism’s ability to store, retain and recallinformation and experiencesIt is a set of three different and subsequentprocesses: Encoding, Storage and Retrieval ofinformation and past experiences in human brain
  • 4. Structure of Memory Sensory Memory EpisodicShort Term Memory Memory Explicit SemanticLong Term Memory Memory Procedural Implicit memory
  • 5. Sensory Memory Information typically enters the sensory register Capacity of retention is very less (< 1 sec.) Forgetting takes place very rapidly It refers to items detected by the sensory receptors which are retained temporarily in the sensory registers and which have a large capacity for unprocessed information but are not able to hold the information for a time span. Two types of sensory memory• Iconic Memory (Visual)• Echoic memory (Auditory)
  • 6. Short Term Memory Short term memory is also known as active memory Information comes from paying attention on sensory memories Forgetting take place in15-30 sec. Miller’s magical number (7+-2) tells us that short term memory can only store around 5-9 items. Recalling from short term memory is affected by serial position effect and interferences.
  • 7. Long Term Memory The vast storehouse of information Information can become lost but not destroyed or deleted Despite our everyday impressions of forgetting, it seems likely that long-term memory actually decays very little over time, and can store a unlimited amount of information for a very long time By the process of association and rehearsal, the content of short term memory can be transferred to long-term memory It is divided into two parts: Explicit and Implicit Memory
  • 8. Explicit and Implicit Memory Explicit stand for the memory of consciousness. When we try to intentionally remember something, this information is stored in our explicit memory. This type of memory is also known as declarative memory, since we can consciously recall and explain the information. It’s about “knowing what” or memory of facts and events. It is further divided into two parts: Episodic and Semantic Memory Episodic memory represents our memory of experiences and specific events in time in a serial form, from which we can reconstruct the actual events that took place at any given point in our lives.
  • 9. Continued… Episodic is the memory of autobiographical events that can be explicitly stated. Semantic memory is more structured record of facts ,meanings, concepts and knowledge about the external world that we have acquired. It refers to general factual knowledge. Much of semantic memory is abstract and relational and is associated with the meaning of verbal symbol. Implicit memory is the unconscious memory of skills and how to do things, particularly the use of objects or movements of the body. It’s called procedural memory because all daily work are done by a process which we don’t have to remember.
  • 10. Information Processing ModelBy Atkinson Shiffrin (1968)Information attended to and retained for some time issensory register, is processed for some more time is shortterm memory, processed further is long term memory
  • 11. Memory Process Human memory, like memory in a computer, allows us to store information for later use. In order to do this, however, both the computer and we need to three basic processes involved in memory.1. Encoding2. Storage3. Retrieval Encoding the process we use to transform information so that it can be stores. Storage means holding onto the information that is done in long term memory. Retrieval is about bringing the memory out of storage and reversing the process of encoding. In other words, return the information to a form similar to what we stored.
  • 12. Memory and Brain The hippocampus, a primitive structure deep in the brain, plays the single largest role in processing information as memory. The amygdala, an almond-shaped area near the hippocampus, processes emotion and helps imprint memories that involve emotion. The cerebral cortex, the outer layer of the brain, stores most long-term memory in different zones, depending on what kind of processing the information involves: language, sensory input, problem-solving, and so forth.
  • 13. Retrieval and Forgetting Retrieval includes revisiting the neural pathways. Retrieving power decays as the time pass out (of learning) Forgetting can result from failure to retrieve information from long term memory There might be interference (proactive or retroactive) which cause a bad retrieval In proactive old memories interfere with the new one while in retroactive new memories interfere with old one. The information might not be store in LTM at all
  • 14. Continued… Forgetting refers to apparent loss of information already encoded and stored in long term memory. It is a spontaneous or gradual process in which old memories are unable to be recalled from memory storage Due to forgetting some disorder are occurred like Amnesia, Infantile Amnesia. Hippocampus play an important role in information processing. But it’s activity decreases as age increases. So forgetting occur more in old people case.
  • 15. Improving Memory There are some ways by which we can improve our memory capacity or recalling power: Rehearsal: Reviewing information mentally (silently) Organization: Organizing difficult items into chunks; a type of reordering Spaced Practice: Alternating study sessions with brief rest periods Part Learning: Studying subparts of a larger body of information (like text chapters)
  • 16. Continued…Mnemonics: Memory “tricks”; any kind of memory system or aid - Using mental pictures - Making things meaningful - Making information familiar - Forming bizarre, unusual or exaggerated mental associations Finally a good sleep and healthy food help improving memory.
  • 17. Thank You!!!

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