Content: Introduction Memory Structure Information Processing Model Memory Process Memory and brain Retrieval and Forgetting Improving memory
IntroductionIt is an organism’s ability to store, retain and recallinformation and experiencesIt is a set of three different and subsequentprocesses: Encoding, Storage and Retrieval ofinformation and past experiences in human brain
Structure of Memory Sensory Memory EpisodicShort Term Memory Memory Explicit SemanticLong Term Memory Memory Procedural Implicit memory
Sensory Memory Information typically enters the sensory register Capacity of retention is very less (< 1 sec.) Forgetting takes place very rapidly It refers to items detected by the sensory receptors which are retained temporarily in the sensory registers and which have a large capacity for unprocessed information but are not able to hold the information for a time span. Two types of sensory memory• Iconic Memory (Visual)• Echoic memory (Auditory)
Short Term Memory Short term memory is also known as active memory Information comes from paying attention on sensory memories Forgetting take place in15-30 sec. Miller’s magical number (7+-2) tells us that short term memory can only store around 5-9 items. Recalling from short term memory is affected by serial position effect and interferences.
Long Term Memory The vast storehouse of information Information can become lost but not destroyed or deleted Despite our everyday impressions of forgetting, it seems likely that long-term memory actually decays very little over time, and can store a unlimited amount of information for a very long time By the process of association and rehearsal, the content of short term memory can be transferred to long-term memory It is divided into two parts: Explicit and Implicit Memory
Explicit and Implicit Memory Explicit stand for the memory of consciousness. When we try to intentionally remember something, this information is stored in our explicit memory. This type of memory is also known as declarative memory, since we can consciously recall and explain the information. It’s about “knowing what” or memory of facts and events. It is further divided into two parts: Episodic and Semantic Memory Episodic memory represents our memory of experiences and specific events in time in a serial form, from which we can reconstruct the actual events that took place at any given point in our lives.
Continued… Episodic is the memory of autobiographical events that can be explicitly stated. Semantic memory is more structured record of facts ,meanings, concepts and knowledge about the external world that we have acquired. It refers to general factual knowledge. Much of semantic memory is abstract and relational and is associated with the meaning of verbal symbol. Implicit memory is the unconscious memory of skills and how to do things, particularly the use of objects or movements of the body. It’s called procedural memory because all daily work are done by a process which we don’t have to remember.
Information Processing ModelBy Atkinson Shiffrin (1968)Information attended to and retained for some time issensory register, is processed for some more time is shortterm memory, processed further is long term memory
Memory Process Human memory, like memory in a computer, allows us to store information for later use. In order to do this, however, both the computer and we need to three basic processes involved in memory.1. Encoding2. Storage3. Retrieval Encoding the process we use to transform information so that it can be stores. Storage means holding onto the information that is done in long term memory. Retrieval is about bringing the memory out of storage and reversing the process of encoding. In other words, return the information to a form similar to what we stored.
Memory and Brain The hippocampus, a primitive structure deep in the brain, plays the single largest role in processing information as memory. The amygdala, an almond-shaped area near the hippocampus, processes emotion and helps imprint memories that involve emotion. The cerebral cortex, the outer layer of the brain, stores most long-term memory in different zones, depending on what kind of processing the information involves: language, sensory input, problem-solving, and so forth.
Retrieval and Forgetting Retrieval includes revisiting the neural pathways. Retrieving power decays as the time pass out (of learning) Forgetting can result from failure to retrieve information from long term memory There might be interference (proactive or retroactive) which cause a bad retrieval In proactive old memories interfere with the new one while in retroactive new memories interfere with old one. The information might not be store in LTM at all
Continued… Forgetting refers to apparent loss of information already encoded and stored in long term memory. It is a spontaneous or gradual process in which old memories are unable to be recalled from memory storage Due to forgetting some disorder are occurred like Amnesia, Infantile Amnesia. Hippocampus play an important role in information processing. But it’s activity decreases as age increases. So forgetting occur more in old people case.
Improving Memory There are some ways by which we can improve our memory capacity or recalling power: Rehearsal: Reviewing information mentally (silently) Organization: Organizing difficult items into chunks; a type of reordering Spaced Practice: Alternating study sessions with brief rest periods Part Learning: Studying subparts of a larger body of information (like text chapters)
Continued…Mnemonics: Memory “tricks”; any kind of memory system or aid - Using mental pictures - Making things meaningful - Making information familiar - Forming bizarre, unusual or exaggerated mental associations Finally a good sleep and healthy food help improving memory.