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Infectious & non infectious diseases
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Infectious & non infectious diseases

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  • 1. Infectious & Noninfectious diseases By Georgia O
  • 2. Tetanus  Affects the body's muscles and nerves.  contaminated by a bacteria called Clostridium (found in soil, saliva, dust and manure)  Wounds caused by puncturing the skin, like a nail or needle  Burns  Injuries with dead tissue
  • 3. Symptoms  headaches,  jaw cramping,  sudden involuntary muscle tightening,  painful muscle stiffness,  trouble swallowing,  jerking or seizures,  fever and sweating,  high blood pressure and fast heart rate.
  • 4. Treatment  Immediate treatment with human tetanus immune globulin (TIG) (or equine antitoxin)  Drugs to control muscle spasms  Aggressive wound care  Antibiotics Prevention  Having the Tetanus vaccine and tetanus boosters  Immediate and proper wound care can prevent infection
  • 5. Incidence Tetanus notifications and hospitalisations, Australia, 1993 to 2007 Time does not affect how tetanus is carried, as a person can get an infected wound at any time during the year. Those who are most likely to be affected by the disease include those who have not had the Tetanus vaccination, those who haven’t had the tetanus booster. Tetanus can occur world wide but more frequently in densely populated areas in hot, damp climates with soil rich in organic matter.
  • 6. Incidence Tetanus notifications, hospitalisations and deaths, Australia, 2002 to 2005, by age group Age group (years) Notifications 3 years (2003–2005) n Rate † Hospitalisations 3 years (July 2002–June 2005) ‡ § n () Rate LOS pe Deaths r 2 years admissi (2003–2004) on (days) ‡ § () Median § () n Rate ‡ 0–4 0 0.00 0 (0) 0.00 (0.00) 0.0 (0.0) 0 0.00 5–14 0 0.00 1 (1) 0.01 (0.01) n.p. 0 0.00 15–24 0 0.00 6 (4) 0.07 (0.05) 1.0 (1.0) 0 0.00 25–59 0 0.00 15 (9) 0.05 (0.03) 2.0 (2.0) 0 0.00 60+ 11 0.10 44 (32) 0.43 (0.31) 12.0 (10.0) 0 0.00 All ages 11 0.02 66 (46) 0.11 (0.08) 4.5 (3.5) 0 0.00
  • 7. Down’s Syndrome  A condition is which a baby is born with any extra copy of chromosome 21  During pregnancy, if the female has down syndrome the chance that the child will have condition increases.
  • 8. Symptoms  Every case of Down syndrome is different.  Physical problems  Intellectual problems  Heart disease  Dementia  Hearing problems  Problems with the intestines, eyes, thyroids, skeleton
  • 9. Treatment  Down Syndrome can not be cured, however,  Early treatment is recommended to help to improve skills in speech, physical, occupational and educational therapy Prevention  Doctors don't know how the additional chromosome is created therefore don't know how to prevent the condition
  • 10. Incidence  Down’s syndrome is usually diagnosed during pregnancy or during early year of childhood.  Down’s syndrome is passed through genetically during pregnancy. The older the woman is during pregnancy that more likely the down’s syndrome gene will passed on the the child (see table). Maternal age at term 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Risk of Down’s syndrome 1:1450 1:1450 1:1450 1:1400 1:1400 1:1350 1:1300 1:1200 1:1150 1:1050 Maternal age at term 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Risk of Down’s syndrome 1:940 1:820 1:700 1:570 1:460 1:350 1:270 1:200 1:150 1:110 Maternal age at term 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Risk of Down’s syndrome 1:85 1:70 1:55 1:45 1:40 1:35 1:30 1:30 1:30 1:25
  • 11. References Tetanus  Kidshealth.org (website)  Human Diseases (book) K. Sakker, C. Odlum, R. Garner  Nlm.nih.gov (website) Down’s Syndrome  Kidshealth.org (website)  Human Diseases (book) K. Sakker, C. Odlum, R. Garner  Nlm.nih.gov (website)