Infectious & non infectious case study


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Infectious & non infectious case study

  2. 2. INFECTIOUS DISEASE – TETANUS CAUSES:  caused by bacteria Clostridium Tetani - present in soil, saliva, dust and in animal feces .  These bacteria produces spores that are resistant to heat and disinfectants.  When spores enter the skin (through wound ), it becomes active and produces toxic substances to the central nervous system  This results in Tetanus symptoms
  3. 3. HOW DOES IT PASS ON?  People get tetanus through an infected open wound  e.g. if a person steps on a rusty nail, they could become ill from the spores of tetanus bacteria that went into the wound  As well, wounds that do not have good blood supply or are not exposed to air are more likely to tetanus
  4. 4. SYMPTOMS OF TETANUS  Stif fness of the jaw (lockjaw) – It is most common  Dif ficulty opening mouth  Other muscles become stif f (e.g. back , abdomen, face)  Fever  Per spire heavily  Rapid pulse  Feel restless  Muscle spasms  Noise and light may cause seizures  Infants with tetanus are unable to suck milk
  5. 5. TREATMENT 1.  Doctor diagnosis symptoms of recently open wounds  If patient is diagnosed with Tetanus, he/she is injected with tetanus antitoxin  Tetanus antitoxin contains antibodies which attach and neutralise the tetanus toxin – the patient is immunised  Infected areas are cleaned thoroughly  Antibodies are given to destroy remaining bacteria in the wound 2.  Other drugs are given to control symptoms - in some cases mechanical ventilator are used to regulate breathing
  6. 6. PREVENTION 1.  getting vaccinated against tetanus  This type of vaccine protects a person for 10 years after booster shot 2.  Receive a shot of post-exposure tetanus prophylaxis after an injury that could cause tetanus
  7. 7. INCIDENCE - AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH  Tetanus can occur at any age and time. However, this disease is much more likely to occur in third world countries where people do not have immunisation.
  8. 8. NON-INFECTIOUS DISEASE: ALZHEIMER'S CAUSES  As a person ages, something causes brain cells to die and clumps of plaques develop but in Alzheimer's, it happens quicker  Almost ever yone who has the gene APP, Presenilin – 1 or Presenilin - 2 gets the rare familial form of this disease  The gene APOE (3 forms - APOE2, APOE3 & APOE4) play a role in the more common types of Alzheimer's disease  Researchers are still tr ying to under stand why these changes happen faster in Alzheimer patients (some suggested include minor strokes, Injur y to head, lifestyle factor s and infections from viruses)
  9. 9. SYMPTOMS OF ALZHEIMER'S  memor y loss  Challenges in planning or solving problems  Dif ficulty completing familiar tasks at home, work or at leisure  Confusion with time or place  Trouble under standing visual images and spatial relationships  New problems with words in speaking or writing  Misplacing things and losing the ability to retrace steps  Decreased or poor judgement  Withdrawal from work or social activities  Af fects per son's ability to per form daily activities  Changes in mood and per sonality - confusion, fear, suspicious, anxious
  10. 10. TREATMENT  There are currently no cure for Alzheimer's.  However, drug and non-drug treatments may help ease behavioural and psychological symptoms  As well, researchers are showing interest in therapeutic treatments
  11. 11. PREVENTION  At the present, there is no known way to prevent Alzheimer's  Some study suggests antioxidants like vitamin E may prevent damage to cells including cells in the brain
  12. 12. INCIDENCE  According to Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Alzheime r’s are more likely to occur in people aged 85+.
  13. 13. END.