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Infectious and non infectious diseases

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  • 1. Infectious and Non-Infectious Diseases By Lauren Goodwin
  • 2. Malaria Infectious Disease
  • 3. Cause and Transmission  Malaria is caused a parasite Plasmodium, found in certain types of mosquito  Transmitted by bites of certain types of mosquitoes  The parasites multiply in the liver and infect red blood cells
  • 4. Symptoms            Symptoms include: Fever Headache Vomiting Muscle pain Diarrhoea Tiredness Coughing Symptoms appear 10-15 days after bite If not treated, can become life threatening by disrupting the blood Parasites have developed resistance to many medicines around world
  • 5. Treatment and Prevention        Effective and prompt treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapies Some medicines don't work for malaria from some parts of the world Choice of medicine depends on where you were infected Chloroquine is often used as an anti-malarial medication Use of insecticidal nets by people at risk Indoor residual spraying insecticide to control the vector mosquitoes Wearing insect repellent and long sleeved clothing
  • 6. Incidence         Occurs in over 100 countries and territories Large parts of Central and South America, Hispaniola, Africa, India, Southeast Asia, Middle East, Oceania Occurs in warmer regions of the world- tropical and subtropical, warmer regions allow mosquitoes to thrive More common in the wet season People most at risk are: Pregnant women Infants and children under 5 People with HIV/AIDS
  • 7. Occurrences of Malaria in the World
  • 8. Osteoporosis Non-infectious Disease
  • 9. Causes  Everyone’s bone start becoming lighter and thinner from middle age  Symptoms usually occur when an excessive amount of bone is lost  In other, more rare case, it is caused from other illnesses  In this case, osteoporosis is a secondary disease and the primary illness must be treated first
  • 10. Symptoms  Give rise to bone pain  Backaches  Bones break easier from minor accidents  Loss of height  Bent spine  However, it may not cause any symptoms at all
  • 11. Treatment and Prevention  Osteoporosis can be treated and prevented by:  Eating a nutritious diet that include large amounts of calcium and vitamin D  Regular exercise  Drinking alcohol less  Not smoking
  • 12. Incidence  Higher risk of osteoporosis from 30 onwards  More common in older people  Occurs in most countries  one in two women and one in five men over the age of 50 will break a bone mainly because of poor bone health.  In 2011-12, 3.3% of Australians (726,000 people) reported having osteoporosis.
  • 13. Vitamin D status around the world