5. disease case studies


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5. disease case studies

  1. 1. Disease Case Studies Infectious and Non-Infectious
  2. 2. Infectious - chicken pox Chicken pox is a highly contagious disease that causes red, itchy, blistering bumps on the skin. It is classified as a viral disease.
  3. 3. Cause and transmission Chicken pox is caused by the virus varicella zoster. It is carried in saliva and mucus droplets in the air and can therefore be spread when an infected person coughs or sneezes. The virus is able to be passed on before the infected person has shown any symptoms, and the blisters remain infective until all contained fluid is gone.
  4. 4. symptoms The most apparent symptom is a rash that starts off on the body and scalp and continues to spread to the face, arms and legs. The case may also have a fever, have a cold, feel tired and feel generally ill. When the virus has entered the body but the rash has not yet broken out, cases can feel ill, have a slight fever and lose their appetite.
  5. 5. treatment Due to chicken pox being caused by a virus, it cannot be treated with medicine as it is up to the immune system to rid of it. However, a physician can prescribe lotions and creams to help reduce the itchiness of the rash and dry out the blisters. Antihistamines, which are drugs used to stimulate the bodies reaction to allergies, are also used to relieve the skin. Pain relieving medicine can be used if blisters form within or near openings of the body, such as the mouth and eyes.
  6. 6. prevention Good personal health habits such as covering the nose and mouth when sneezing and coughing help prevent transmission. There is also a vaccine available to help prevent the contraction of chicken pox. Young children require a single dose when they receive their other immunisations, and when children who have not had the disease reach the age of 12 a single dose is also recommended. Adults who have not had chicken pox should get two doses of the vaccine, four to eight weeks apart. This vaccine protects more than 70% of people from contracting chicken pox.
  7. 7. Incidence Chicken pox is one of the most common viral infections of children. As it is highly contagious, approximately 90% of those exposed to it become infected. It is highly prominent in the United States, with 150,000 to 200,000 cases being reported each year. The largest number of cases occur during winter and early spring, and most children are infected between the ages of six and ten. Australia, 1991 - 2000:
  8. 8. Non-Infectious anorexia nervosa People who habitually starve themselves even though they are marginally underweight are classified as having anorexia nervosa. People who suffer from anorexia nervosa are called anorectics. It is classified as a psychological disease.
  9. 9. Cause Although a specific cause has not been identified, the disease can stem from cultural, biological and psychological factors.
  10. 10. Cultural cause Our society's emphasis on dieting and being thin causes anorectics to be overly focused on their weight. The media's portrayal of impossibly thin models, which only look this way because of digital altering, triggers these cases to believe they are overweight even if they are in fact severely emaciated. This distorted sense of self image and society's false expectations lead to anorectics becoming terrified of being fat no matter how thin they are.
  11. 11. Biological cause By refusing to eat, an anorectic may be attempting to keep her preadolescent shape and withhold her body from sexually maturing. The case may be scared to develop in this way due to an early or uncomfortable sexual experience. Another example stems from an anorectic's family situation. If their domestic life is overly protected, controlled and rigid, anorexia nervosa may be an extreme form of rebellion against authority.
  12. 12. Psychological cause Underlying psychological problems are associated with most cases of anorexia nervosa. Cases can suffer from diseases such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and therefore need acute control over what, when and how much they eat.
  13. 13. Noticeable symptoms Anorectics tend to eat less than the average person and continue to eat smaller amounts as time progresses. They are likely to act unusually energetic about food and be obsessive over it. Cases can be keen to prepare food for others but always make excuses as to why they aren't eating themselves. Physically they look thin, sickly and waxy. In severe cases other medical problems and an aura of depression can be evident. Other symptoms include losing weight, excessively exercising, wearing bulky clothes to hide thinness, continually directing conversation to food, hyperactivity and social isolation.
  14. 14. Symptoms observable by a physician Anorectics carry physical symptoms alike those present in patients suffering from chronic starvation. These include a slower heartbeat, lower blood pressure, below normal body temperature, constipation, decrease of menstruation, and the emergence of fine, silky body hair. Cases also show psychological symptoms such as a distorted perception of their bodies, obsessivecompulsive behaviour, hysteria and depression.
  15. 15. symptoms
  16. 16. Treatment Hospitalisation Hospitalisation offers the best hope of a successful recovery as all aspects of the patients life are able to be closely managed. Doctors and dieticians propose a healthy eating plan to help the case put back on lost weight in a safe matter. Individual and group therapy sessions help mend underlying personal problems that may have contributed to the onset of the disease.
  17. 17. Treatment - monitored recovery Once anorectics have shown a definite start to recovery and progressed in dealing with both their physical and mental problems they are usually dismissed. However, physical and psychiatric check ups continue on a regular basis for a substantial period of time to ensure the patients stay in their recovered state. Approximately 40% of cases return to their previous state within six years of being diagnosed.
  18. 18. prevention As mentioned before, there is no one exact cause of anorexia nervosa, and therefore a certain method of preventing it had not been found. However there are several strategies already in place. Parents should take care to make sure that their children have a healthy attitude towards themselves, their bodies and their eating habits. By looking for early signs of the disease, cases can be steered in the right direction before physiological and physical symptoms become advanced.
  19. 19. Incidence Statistics 90 to 95% of anorectic cases are young females from middle or upper class families. The disorder usually begins when cases are in their teens. It is estimated that 1 in every 250 women between the ages of 12 and 18 is an anorectic. However, females as young as 11 or as old as 60 may have the disease. Approximately 5 to 10% of anorectics are men. Conversely, their families are likely to be less affluent and many cases are often extremely overweight before developing the disease.
  20. 20. Incidence history Anorexia nervosa was previously very rare, but since it gained media attention during the 1970's cases have more than doubled. Therefore, experts believe that the disease is related to our modern culture. This is supported by the fact that it only occurs in the United States, Canada, Japan, Great Britain, and other highly industrialized societies.
  21. 21. Incidence