3   infectious and non-infectious disease rebecca
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Infectious and Non-Infectious Diseases: Tetanus and Parkinson's Disease

Infectious and Non-Infectious Diseases: Tetanus and Parkinson's Disease

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  • 1. Infectious and NonInfectious Diseases Tetanus and Parkinson’s Disease By Rebecca Castor
  • 2. Tetanus : Terms O Lockjaw: another name/nickname for Tetanus O Toxins: poison produced by an organism such as bacteria. O Clostridium tetani: the specific bacteria which creates the toxin which causes Tetanus. O Incubation period: the period of time between infection of antibodies and the appearance of symptoms. O Antitoxin: an antibody which counteracts a toxin O Bacillus: specific type of bacteria.
  • 3. Cause and Transmission O Caused by toxins produced in the bacteria Clostridium Tetani. O Enter the body through open cuts/wounds O Clostridium Tetani grows in dust and dirt, thriving in conditions with minimal air flow. Clostridium Tetani bacteria Common locations for Clostridium Tetani are old nails and rusty objects
  • 4. Symptoms O Symptoms can occur after 8-10days or several weeks after infection. This period of time is called the ‘incubation period’ Including: O Initially: trouble operating the mouth  swallowing (Hence the nickname Lockjaw) O Shortly after: all muscles in the body tighten and spasm which may interfere with breathing. O If untreated: victim may die from heat exhaustion or suffer from suffocation from not being able to breath sufficient oxygen.
  • 5. Minor Symptoms O Sore throat O Irritability O Restlessness O Fever O Exaggerated reflexes O Profuse sweating O Headaches O Feeling depresses O Chills
  • 6. Treatment O If tetanus develops antitoxin injections can be administered which contains antibodies to kill the original invading toxin. O Muscle relaxants such as Diazepam to reduce spasms O In severe cases a tracheotomy can occur: artifically opening the trachea to ensure the patient can breath (as mouth doesn’t function correctly).
  • 7. Prevention O Immunization: injections of tetanus toxoid: specifically treated toxins. Common Vaccine name called DTaP (Diptheria, Tetanus and Pertussis (Whooping cough)). O Thoroughly cleaning and treating wounds also reduces the risk of infection from bacteria.
  • 8. Incidence Per 100,000 inhabitants of a country
  • 9. Tetanus notifications and hospitalisation, Australia 1993-2005
  • 10. Tetanus notifications, hospitalisations and deaths, Australia 2002-2005 – by age category • 0% Death rate in Australia • Low rates of infection • Highest rates for 60years and over
  • 11. Parkinson’s Disease : Terms O Dopamine: neurotransmitter  Chemical that carries messages from nerve cell to nerve cell. Essential for smooth, coordinated body movements. O Substantia Nigra: region of the brain which contains neuronal cells to create Dopamine. O Parkinsonism: the group of disorders which contain similar symptoms. However as there is no set cause for Parkinson’s Parkinsonism covers all stages of the disease. O Early Onset Parkinson’s: the name given to people who suffer from Parkinson’s below the age of approx. 50
  • 12. Cause and Transmission Substantia Nigra O Neuronal cell degeneration. These cells create Dopamine. O Dopamine is created in the Substantia Nigra, a region of the brain. O Loss of Dopamine disrupts communications pathways among nerves which control movement.
  • 13. Symptoms O Common Symptoms: O Tremors O Walks with a shuffle O Slowness in movement O Accompanying symptoms: O Difficulty with certain movements O Face growing rigid: masklike expression O Trouble rising from a chair O Physiological effects: depression and dementia O Serious disability O Postural instability
  • 14. Treatment Once the degeneration of neurons has begun, Parkinson’s cannot be stopped or removed from the body, only controlled and minimised. O Replacing lost dopamine by a drug called Levodopa which converts surviving nerve cells to dopamine O Provides a dramatic improvement to symptoms O Effectiveness of Levodopa reduces after time O Troubling side effects: abnormal movement, changes in muscle control, sleepless, vivid nightmares, hallucinations, confusion.
  • 15. Prevention O No definite cause for Parkinson’s disease O Cannot be prevented through immunization or procedures due to unknown causes O Parkinson’s disease can only be treated after the process of degeneration has begun in the body, to control symptoms and slow the progress of the disease.
  • 16. Incidence Cases of Parkinson’s disease per 100000 residents of a
  • 17. Incidence Statistics O Age related illness, which generally effects people between 50-70 years old O Early Onset Parkinson’s – people below 40-50 O Across Australian studies there is a general trend for makes to suffer Parkinson’s rather than females O It is estimated to effect between 38300-64000 people in Australia – exact numbers are unavailable due to symptoms sometimes being ‘invisible’ to diagnostic testing.
  • 18. Projected worldwide prevalence
  • 19. Resources Used O Tetanus: O World Book Online - Tetanus O Geographical Distribution of Tetanus in the O O O O O World, 1951-60, by B. Bytchenko Continuing Education in Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain - Tetanus Centres for Disease Control and Prevention Wikipedia New Scientist www. health.gov.au O Parkinson’s Disease: O www.parkinsons.org.au O World Book Online O Australia's Health 2012, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (Australian Government)