3 infectious and non-infectious disease rebecca


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Infectious and Non-Infectious Diseases: Tetanus and Parkinson's Disease

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3 infectious and non-infectious disease rebecca

  1. 1. Infectious and NonInfectious Diseases Tetanus and Parkinson’s Disease By Rebecca Castor
  2. 2. Tetanus : Terms O Lockjaw: another name/nickname for Tetanus O Toxins: poison produced by an organism such as bacteria. O Clostridium tetani: the specific bacteria which creates the toxin which causes Tetanus. O Incubation period: the period of time between infection of antibodies and the appearance of symptoms. O Antitoxin: an antibody which counteracts a toxin O Bacillus: specific type of bacteria.
  3. 3. Cause and Transmission O Caused by toxins produced in the bacteria Clostridium Tetani. O Enter the body through open cuts/wounds O Clostridium Tetani grows in dust and dirt, thriving in conditions with minimal air flow. Clostridium Tetani bacteria Common locations for Clostridium Tetani are old nails and rusty objects
  4. 4. Symptoms O Symptoms can occur after 8-10days or several weeks after infection. This period of time is called the ‘incubation period’ Including: O Initially: trouble operating the mouth  swallowing (Hence the nickname Lockjaw) O Shortly after: all muscles in the body tighten and spasm which may interfere with breathing. O If untreated: victim may die from heat exhaustion or suffer from suffocation from not being able to breath sufficient oxygen.
  5. 5. Minor Symptoms O Sore throat O Irritability O Restlessness O Fever O Exaggerated reflexes O Profuse sweating O Headaches O Feeling depresses O Chills
  6. 6. Treatment O If tetanus develops antitoxin injections can be administered which contains antibodies to kill the original invading toxin. O Muscle relaxants such as Diazepam to reduce spasms O In severe cases a tracheotomy can occur: artifically opening the trachea to ensure the patient can breath (as mouth doesn’t function correctly).
  7. 7. Prevention O Immunization: injections of tetanus toxoid: specifically treated toxins. Common Vaccine name called DTaP (Diptheria, Tetanus and Pertussis (Whooping cough)). O Thoroughly cleaning and treating wounds also reduces the risk of infection from bacteria.
  8. 8. Incidence Per 100,000 inhabitants of a country
  9. 9. Tetanus notifications and hospitalisation, Australia 1993-2005
  10. 10. Tetanus notifications, hospitalisations and deaths, Australia 2002-2005 – by age category • 0% Death rate in Australia • Low rates of infection • Highest rates for 60years and over
  11. 11. Parkinson’s Disease : Terms O Dopamine: neurotransmitter  Chemical that carries messages from nerve cell to nerve cell. Essential for smooth, coordinated body movements. O Substantia Nigra: region of the brain which contains neuronal cells to create Dopamine. O Parkinsonism: the group of disorders which contain similar symptoms. However as there is no set cause for Parkinson’s Parkinsonism covers all stages of the disease. O Early Onset Parkinson’s: the name given to people who suffer from Parkinson’s below the age of approx. 50
  12. 12. Cause and Transmission Substantia Nigra O Neuronal cell degeneration. These cells create Dopamine. O Dopamine is created in the Substantia Nigra, a region of the brain. O Loss of Dopamine disrupts communications pathways among nerves which control movement.
  13. 13. Symptoms O Common Symptoms: O Tremors O Walks with a shuffle O Slowness in movement O Accompanying symptoms: O Difficulty with certain movements O Face growing rigid: masklike expression O Trouble rising from a chair O Physiological effects: depression and dementia O Serious disability O Postural instability
  14. 14. Treatment Once the degeneration of neurons has begun, Parkinson’s cannot be stopped or removed from the body, only controlled and minimised. O Replacing lost dopamine by a drug called Levodopa which converts surviving nerve cells to dopamine O Provides a dramatic improvement to symptoms O Effectiveness of Levodopa reduces after time O Troubling side effects: abnormal movement, changes in muscle control, sleepless, vivid nightmares, hallucinations, confusion.
  15. 15. Prevention O No definite cause for Parkinson’s disease O Cannot be prevented through immunization or procedures due to unknown causes O Parkinson’s disease can only be treated after the process of degeneration has begun in the body, to control symptoms and slow the progress of the disease.
  16. 16. Incidence Cases of Parkinson’s disease per 100000 residents of a
  17. 17. Incidence Statistics O Age related illness, which generally effects people between 50-70 years old O Early Onset Parkinson’s – people below 40-50 O Across Australian studies there is a general trend for makes to suffer Parkinson’s rather than females O It is estimated to effect between 38300-64000 people in Australia – exact numbers are unavailable due to symptoms sometimes being ‘invisible’ to diagnostic testing.
  18. 18. Projected worldwide prevalence
  19. 19. Resources Used O Tetanus: O World Book Online - Tetanus O Geographical Distribution of Tetanus in the O O O O O World, 1951-60, by B. Bytchenko Continuing Education in Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain - Tetanus Centres for Disease Control and Prevention Wikipedia New Scientist www. health.gov.au O Parkinson’s Disease: O www.parkinsons.org.au O World Book Online O Australia's Health 2012, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (Australian Government)