1. diseases case studies

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1. diseases case studies

  1. 1. Diseases Case Studies Julia Wehbe
  2. 2. Infectious Diseases Chicken Pox
  3. 3. Cause and Transmission  Chickenpox is caused by the varicella-zoster virus.  It is carried in saliva and mucus and can be spread when an infected person coughs or sneezes.  It becomes contagious from about 2 days before the rash appears, up until all the blisters are crusted over.  Chickenpox can also be contracted from a person suffering from shingles - however they will not catch shingles itself  Chickenpox causes a red, itchy skin rash that usually appears first on the abdomen or back and face, and then spreads to almost everywhere else on the body.
  4. 4. Symptoms  Chickenpox often begins with a fever, headache, sore throat, or stomach ache. Common Symptoms Include:  Fever that lasts for more than 4 days or rises above 38.8°C  Severe cough or trouble breathing  An area of rash that leaks pus (thick, yellowish fluid) or becomes red, warm, swollen, or sore  Severe headache  Unusually drowsy or has trouble waking up  Trouble looking at bright lights  Difficulty walking
  5. 5. Treatment Treatment Form 1:  An antiviral medicine can be prescribed for people suffering from chickenpox. This decision will depend on a child's age and health, the extent of the infection, and the timing of the treatment. Treatment Form 2:  A physician can prescribe lotions or creams to reduce the itchiness of the rash and help dry it up. Antihistamines may be used to relive some of the itchiness caused by the blisters.
  6. 6. Prevention Prevention Strategy 1:  Kids can be protected by getting the chickenpox (varicella) vaccine. The chickenpox vaccine is 99% effective at preventing the disease. Vaccinated kids who do get chickenpox tend to have a mild case and are able to have a quicker recoveries. Prevention Strategy 2:  Keep your distance from those who are suffering from the chickenpox until their rashes have dried up.
  7. 7. Incidence  Chickenpox is one of the most common viral infections of children. Almost 90% of those exposed become infected. The largest number of cases occur in winter and early spring. Most children become infected between the ages of six and ten.
  8. 8. http://kidshealth.org/parent/infections/bacterial_viral/chick en_pox.html# Diseases - Bones-Dermatitis - Volume 2 http://www.medinfo.co.uk/conditions/chickenpox.html
  9. 9. Non-Infectious Diseases Down’s Syndrome
  10. 10. Cause and Transmission  Down's syndrome is a genetic disease and is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities.  It is caused by an excess of chromosomal material. The nucleus of each body cell contains all or part of an extra chromosome called number 21, instead of the normal 23 pairs of chromosomes.  The extra chromosomal material originates more often in the mother's egg than in the fathers sperm, but it may come from either one.  Down’s Syndrome can be developed at either birth or shortly after due to complications in development and growth.
  11. 11. Symptoms  Individuals with Down's Syndrome usually have a very distinctive look. Some of characteristics are likely to be evident at birth: • Small head, flattened at the back • Broad, flat face, with low brow ridges above the eyes, cheekbones, and nose • Relatively small eyes, turned up at the outer corner • Short stature, with short limbs and stubby fingers • Low resistance to infection • Poorly functioning endocrine glands, which do not produce the right balance of hormones for normal growth and other physical processes
  12. 12. Treatment Treatment Form 1:  Until recently, Down Syndrome children had a short life expectancy, with more than half dying in their first year from infections or heart disease. Heart and gastrointestinal defects if present can be surgically repaired. Treatment Form 2:  Poorly functioning endocrine glands, which do not produce the right balance of hormones for normal growth and other physical processes Endocrine gland malfunctions can be relieved with special diet and drugs.
  13. 13. Prevention  Due to Down’s Syndrome being a genetic disease, it is unpreventable.
  14. 14. Incidence  1 birth in 2000 for women 20 years old are likely to give birth to a down syndrome child.  1 birth in 100 for women who are 40 or older, are likely to give birth to a down’s syndrome child.
  15. 15. Diseases - Detached Retina-Gallstones - Volume 3 http://www.cyh.com/HealthTopics/HealthTopicDetailsKids. aspx?p=335&np=282&id=2266#3 http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/downsyndrome.html

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