Drugs and the Body

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Learn how drugs work in the body!

Learn how drugs work in the body!

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  • 1. Drugs & Body Workshop
    TRIP! Outreach Training
    Spring 2011
    Nick Boyce: nboyce@ohsutp.ca
    Wende Wood: wendewood@hotmail.com
  • 2. Before we start…
    All of us have different experiences and insights.
    Back to basics.
    Questions as we go.
    For some stuff, you will know more than us.
    If we’re not sure about something we can look it up later.
    What we know changes.
    New issues; new science.
    Do your homework!
  • 3. Introductions
    Group Guidelines
    Safe Space & Confidentiality
    “I” statements
    Step up / Step back
    Cell phones
    Who you are
    Name; how long you have been “partying”; when you heard of/got involved with TRIP!
    Something you are hoping to take away from the training
    Specific drug(s) you want to find out/know more about?
    Can you think of a situation with yourself or a friend that presented a problem (e.g., bad trip; OD; wrong drugs; etc.)
  • 4. Workshop Overview
    Drug: Set : Setting
    Things to think about
    Body & Brain:
    Effects of drugs on body
    Effects of body on drugs
    Neuro-Physiology
    Interactions
    Ways drugs are taken:
    How drugs get into the body
    Risks and benefits
    Where are people at?
    The continuum of use
  • 5. Workshop Overview
    What are people saying?
    TRIP! Survey Data
    Specific substances:
    What they are
    How they work
    Immediate risks
    Longer-term concerns
    Risk reduction strategies
    Resources & Referrals
  • 6. What are some…?
    Drugs…?
    Prescriptions…?
    Medications…?
  • 7. Medications, Drugs, Pills…
    “The term ‘drug’ means one thing to politicians trying to get elected, another thing to high school students, and yet another to physicians.”
    - “Buzzed”, Chapter 14
    Drugs could be:
    • Mega doses of vitamins
    • 8. Herbal medications from health food stores
    • 9. Birth control pills
    • 10. Over-the-counter cold remedies
    • 11. Tylenol
    • 12. Beer
    • 13. Prescribed medicines
    • 14. Recreational drugs
  • Medications, Drugs, Pills…
    SSRIs Ecstasy
    Prozac Cocaine
    Ritalin Crystal meth
    Zoloft Ephedrine
    Paxil Speed
    Wellbutrin GHB
    Effexor Ketamine
    Valium Alcohol
    Tylenol DMT
    Percocet Nicotine
    Codeine Salvia
    Oxycontin Psilocybin
    Insulin Cannabis
    Methadone Poppers
    ARVs Viagra
    : :
    SUBSTANCE USE
  • 15. Drug : Set : Setting
    Three interrelated factors affecting a person’s experiences and risks:
    Drug
    The drug, medication, pill being consumed.
    Set
    The person taking the substance.
    Setting
    The context in which it is taken.
  • 16. DrugWhat substance(s)?
    The specific pharmacology of the substance(s)
    Effects on physiology and neurochemistry.
    Half-life: How long does it take the body to eliminate it?
    How much is taken
    Potency.
    For some drugs you can take tiny amounts, others require a lot.
    How it is taken (route of administration) affects:
    How quickly the feeling “comes on”.
    How intense it feels.
    How long it lasts.
    Quality of illicit substances
    It may be hard to know what you’re getting; the ingredients can include anything. What are they cut with?
    A dealer may say a substance is one thing but sell something else.
    It may look like the stuff from last time but it might be stronger or weaker, or have different ingredients.
  • 17. Classes of Substances(primarily illicit substances listed)
  • 18. Prescription Medications
    Opioids include pain medications with active ingredients such as morphine, oxycodone and codeine.
    Tylenol 3s; Percocets; Oxycontin
    Tranquillizers are often prescribed to reduce stress and panic attacks.
    benzodiazepines such as diazepam (Valium®) and alprazolam (Xanax)
    Stimulants are often used to treat ADD/ADHD.
    dextroamphetamine (Adderall); methylphenidate (Ritalin)
  • 19. Prescription Medications
    Antidepressant are used to alleviate mood disorders, such as major depression and dysthymia.
    selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs: Celexa; Zoloft; Prozac); serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs: Effexor); monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)…
    Barbiturates treat anxiety, sleep disorders and seizures
    pentobarbital sodium (Nembutal) and mephobarbital (Mebaral).
    Anitpsychotics are primarily used to manage psychosis particularly in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder:
    haloperidol (Haldol) olanzapine (Zyprexa), quetiapine (Seroquel), risperidone (Risperdal), and aripiprazole (Abilify)
  • 20. SetWho’s taking the substance?
    Size and body weight.
    Physical, mental, psychological state.
    How tired they are.
    Their mood before they use.
    Their reason(s) for using.
    Genetics.
    How does their body metabolize drugs?
    Experiences with this or other substances.
    Tolerance; Habituation; Sensitization
    Expectation, or anticipation, of how the substance will feel or effect them.
    Did they eat recently if swallowing a drug?
    Are they using other substances at the same time?
  • 21. SettingWhat’s the context?
    Where are they?
    Alone; with friends; with strangers?
    Indoors or outdoors?
    Quite setting or lots of people and noise?
    What time of day?
    What type of music is playing?
    Rules and regulations.
    Community and social attitudes towards certain substances or ways or taking them.
    The legal status of different substances.
  • 22. Drugs and Body
    Classes of drugs
    Stimulants
    CNS Depressants
    Opioids
    Sedatives/Hypnotics
    Hallucinogens
    Dissociative Anaesthetics
    Entactogens
    Effects of drugs on body
    Effects of body on drugs
  • 23. Drugs on Body
    Effects of drugs on body
    What is the high like?
    What receptors does it attach to?
    What physiological effects will it have?
    What psycho-behavioural effects will it have?
    What interactions will it have with other drugs and medications? (common receptors)
    What happens if you OD?
    Why do we get high anyway?
    Neurotransmitters
    Receptors
    Reuptake Pumps
  • 24. Body on Drugs
    Effects of body on drugs
    Getting drugs in
    Routes of administration
    Getting drugs around
    Getting drugs out
    How long do they last?
    Half life
    Interactions with other drugs and medications? (metabolism)
    Adaptation; tolerance; withdrawal
  • 25. Body Physiology
    Key organs and processes of the body
    Heart
    Kidneys
    Liver
    Brain
    Temperature
    Blood pressure
    Heart rate
  • 26. Brain Physiology
    What does it do
    Major regions
    Neurotransmitters
    Neuroreceptors
    Reuptake Pumps
  • 27. Neurotransmitters
    Amines
    Serotonin
    Dopamine
    Norepinephrine
    Epinephrine
    Acetylcholine
    Tyramine
    Octopamine
    Phenylethylamine
    Tryptamine
    Melatonin
    Histamine
    Pituitary Peptides
    Circulating Hormones
    Hypothalamic Releasing Hormones
  • 28. Neural Pathways
  • 29. Brain Physiology 101
    Neurons: brain signals and messages
    axon dendrite
  • 30. Brain Physiology 101
    Synapse: site of communication
  • 31. Brain Physiology 101
    Synapse: normal communication
  • 32. Brain Physiology 101
    Synapse: under the influence
  • 33. Brain Physiology 101
    Synapse: after the influence - reuptake
  • 34. Brain Physiology 101
    Synapse: site of communication
  • 35. Brain Physiology 101
    Synapse: normal communication
  • 36. Brain Physiology 101
    Synapse: under the influence
  • 37. OVERDOSE RISK
    DEPRESSANTS
    CNS Depression, respiratory depression, coma
    Highest risk with opioids (heroin, oxycontin), barbiturates, alcohol, GHB
    Benzodiazepines in high doses especially combined with alcohol &/or other depressants
    STIMULANTS
    unpredictable
    dehydration, overheating, cardiovascular problems, seizure
    paranoia, agitation, hallucinations
    HALLUCINOGENS
    Not much direct risk from overdose per se, however psychiatric effects can lead to dangerous situations (i.e. a “bad trip”), or trigger underlying disorder
  • 38. Interactions
    When two or more substances are taken at or near the same time an interaction may occur
    This may create new effects that are different than those from either drug taken alone
    They may:
    Act independently of each other
    Enhance each other's effects
    Potentiation: multiplying the effects of two drugs rather than simply doubling the dose
    Have an antagonistic effect
    some drugs block the effects of other
  • 39. Drug interactions may occur when combining recreational drugs with:
    Other recreational drugs
    Prescribed psychotropic medications
    Other prescribed drugs (including medications prescribed for medical conditions)
    Over-the-counter medications
    Herbal and natural products
    Alcohol
    Tobacco
  • 40. Anticipating Interactions - Challenges
    Drug potency, strength, dose
    Drug purity – contaminants, adulterants
    Research studies lacking, inconclusive, unethical
    Drug interaction information based on unproven theories or case reports with incomplete data
    Person not forthcoming or doesn’t know all that they have taken
    Over-the-counter drugs, herbal products and grapefruit juice not often reported
  • 41. Anticipating Interactions….
    DEPRESSANTS
    2 bottles Oxycontin
    12 Vicodin (hydrocodone + acetaminophen)
    2 bottles of Nyquil (doxylamine, pseudoephedrine, acetaminophen, DM)
    18 chlorpheniramine antihistamines
    10sleeping pills (benzodiazepines?)
    Vodka
    STIMULANTS
    6 Ritalin (methylphenidate)
    20 clenbuterol (beta-2-agonist used as diet pill)
    18 herbal uppers (ephedra?)
    energy drink (caffeine?)
    GI MEDS
    8 antacid reflux tabs
    1 bottle of stomach upset mixture PeptoBismol
    10 Zantac (ranitidine) tablets
  • 42. Dave
    Started his night at friend’s drinking vodka cranberry. Before they left for the party he did a couple lines of blow. At the party he dropped a pill, did some shots and drank a Vodka Redbull. Later, he took a cap of MDMA and did some bumps of K. Becoming nauseous, he left the party and went to a friend’s to chill. Feeling better, he crushed some speed and they each did a rail before heading home to crash. He couldn’t find any G, so said he might knock himself out with some Ativan, or a couple of Gravols and a joint.
  • 43. John
    Has been partying nearly every weekend for over a year, since moving to Toronto from a small town. His partying usually involves late nights including some drinking, 1-2 ecstasy pills each weekend, and some K once or twice a month when sketching at home. He has maintained a job in retail, has been going to the gym 3 times a week and seeing his friends on weekdays to hangout and have dinners. For the three months he has been trying to quit smoking and has been taking Zyban on and off. Six weeks ago he went to his doctor and said he was feeling down; he was prescribed him Celexa. For the last two weeks he has missed several days of work, has not gone to the gym and has only seen his friends out clubbing.
  • 44. Kate
    Does not like to drink but smokes weed occasionally. She had never done any party drugs but recently she was introduced to Ketamine and enjoys snorting it at home with a couple of friends. She likes the feeling and enjoys K-holing. Last week, after people left her place, she found a baggie of powder on the coffee table. Assuming it was K she snorted a big line and hoped to K-out. Instead she felt a rush of energy and was very anxious for about an hour.
  • 45. Ways drugs are taken…
    Different methods of administration affect how quickly you get high, the intensity and duration of the high, and pose different advantages and risks.
    • Smoking / Inhaling
    • 46. Injecting
    Intra-venous
    Intra-muscular
    Subcutaneous
    • Snorting (up the nose) / Hooping (up the bum or vagina)
    • 47. Sublingual (under the tongue)
    • 48. Transdermal (through the skin)
    • 49. Swallowing / Ingesting
    • 50. Placebo effect / Contact high
  • Smoking / Inhaling
    Concerns:
    • Burns to lips and mouth (with certain drugs e.g., crack).
    • 51. Damage to lungs and airways.
    • 52. Quick ‘come-on’ can increase the ‘rush’ and potentially makes using more addictive.
    Advantages:
    • Easier to titrate dose.
    • 53. Effects felt rapidly.
  • Injecting
    Concerns:
    • Infection through re-using or sharing equipment.
    • 54. Abscesses.
    • 55. Easier to overdose.
    • 56. Finding a safe space.
    Advantages:
    • More “bang for buck”.
    • 57. (More intense high.)
  • Snorting / Hooping
    Concerns:
    • Sharing straws, bills and bumpers can transmit all types of germs from the common cold and flu to Hepatitis C.
    • 58. Damage to nasal/anal passages.
    Advantages:
    • Quicker and easier to administer.
  • Swallowing
    Concerns:
    • Harder to measure dose.
    • 59. Drugs are absorbed more slowly through the gut therefore the positive and negative effects of the drugs tend to be less extreme; however, they tend to last longer.
    Advantages:
    • The risk of getting HIV or Hepatitis C is greatly reduced (almost no risk) from swallowing a drug.
  • Routes of Administration(e.g., crystal meth)
    Effects FeltDuration
    Inject < 1 min 3-7 hrs
    Smoke < 1 min 3-7 hrs
    Snort / rectal 5-10 mins 4-10 hrs
    Swallow 20-60 mins 5-12 hrs
    Intensity of high /
    “Euphoric Rush”
    Image source: learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addiction/drugs/delivery.html
  • 60. Continuum of use
    • No Use - the person does not use particular substances.
    • 61. Experimental Use - the person tries a substance and may or may not use it again.
    • 62. Social or Occasional Use - the person uses the substance in an amount or frequency that is not harmful (e.g., drinks on a social occasion; ceremonial use).
    • 63. Medication (prescribed) - the person uses a medication as directed, under medical supervision. Risks are minimized.
    • 64. Problematic Use - the person experiences negative consequences from using a substance (e.g., health, family, school, work, financial, legal problems).
    • 65. Dependence - the person is psychologically and/or physically dependent on a substance and continues using, despite experiencing serious problems. Withdrawal symptoms may exhibit if use stops.
  • Notes about the Continuum of Use
    • People do not automatically move along the continuum.
    • 66. Some people may stay social users for their entire lives.
    • 67. Some people can move around the continuum over time.
    • 68. People can be at different points of the continuum for different substances.
    • 69. Where a person is on the continuum, does not necessarily impact her/his ability to manage and minimize risks. For example:
    • 70. Someone that is “heavily addicted” may still use new equipment every time.
    • 71. A long time cocaine user may overdose.
    • 72. A social user may overdoes or spend too much.
    • 73. For people struggling with dependency, not using for a while, then using again (sometimes referred to as “relapse”) is the norm.
    • 74. The reason(s) people start to use are not always the reason(s) they continue to use.
  • Reasons Why People Use Drugs
    TRIP! survey data 2008.
    Participants were asked to rate how much a set of questions described them on a scale of 1-5.
    1 2-3 4-5
    They help me relax when I feel stressed 25% 35% 40%
    They are fun, I feel happy/excited 10% 30% 60%
    They help me feel confident with friends 35% 65% - %
    To get a different view on life 15% 20% 65%
    To help me work/study 45% 45% 10%
    Spiritual growth/meditation 10% 15% 75%
    Makes music/dancing more enjoyable 15% 30% 55%
    Makes me feel better when depressed 45% 35% 15%
    Helps me sleep 55% 30% 15%
    Keep going on nights out 30% 50% 20%
    Forget problems/worries 65% 25% 10%
  • 75. Signs of “Problematic Use”
    Some risks are acute; others are chronic
    Psychological / physical dependency
    CAGE
    Have you ever felt you should cut down on your use?
    Have people annoyed you by criticizing your use?
    Have you ever felt bad or guilty about your use?
    Have you ever used first thing in the morning to steady your nerves or get rid of a hangover (eye-opener)?
    Physical / mental health, spiritual, emotional, financial, social, driving, legal consequences…
  • 76. 5 Risk Reduction Tips
    Self-directed harm reduction strategies to help avoid overdosing, bad highs, missing work, dehydration, or other consequences after use:
    Rationing
    Rules for selecting and mixing
    Controlling quality
    Maintaining a healthy lifestyle
    Following guidelines during use
    Adapted from: “Greenspan, N.R., et al. “It’s not rocket science, what I do”: Self-directed harm reduction strategies among drug using ethno-racially diverse gay and bisexual men. International Journal of Drug Policy (2010), doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2010.09.004”
  • 77. Rationing
    Limiting or regulating the quantity and/or frequency of use in a particular setting, or over a given time period.
    “I limit myself to two pills a night.”
    “I don’t party every weekend.”
    “I need time to recover before work on Monday.”
  • 78. Rules for selecting and mixing
    Which drugs you will use.
    Certain characteristics maybe reasons to choose or avoid specific drugs:
    “It doesn’t leave me hung-over.”; “I can afford it.”
    “I won’t do that because it’s illegal.”; “I don’t like speedy drugs.”
    How you will take them.
    Method of consumption can be a deterrent:
    “I would never stick anything up my nose.”
    Which drugs you can use at the same time.
    Physical harms are often reason to avoid specific drugs or combinations:
    “If I mix these two I could pass out.”
    “This drug won’t mix well with my prescription.”
  • 79. Controlling quality
    To ensure, as best you can, the quality of drugs used.
    Obtaining drugs from a “reliable source”
    Get to know your dealer
    Using drugs that have been (safely) used by others
    Ask around: “Peer Reviews”
    Trial & error and inspection
    Get to know how drugs look, taste, smell
    Become familiar with how they feel in the body and how long the effects last
  • 80. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle
    Eating, resting, sleeping
    Drinking water
    Not sharing water bottles
    Taking vitamins and other supplements
  • 81. Following guidelines during use
    Drinking water when partying
    Especially in hot environments or when physically exerting yourself
    Using with people you trust and have experience
    They can help if you have a problem
    Not sharing drug use equipment
    To avoid HIV and Hep C but even common cough and cold viruses
    Watch out for your drinks
    To prevent deliberate or accidental contamination
  • 82. Rave Drugs / Club Drugs
    1970’s - 1980’s:
    New York and Chicago discos
    Ibiza, Spain (UK Tourists)
    1980’s - 1990’s:
    Underground Raves (U.K.); Warehouse Parties (New York, Chicago, Detroit, Toronto); Gay Nightclubs
    1990’s - 2000’s:
    Nightclubs (U.K.)
    Raves, Nightclubs, Gay Circuit Parties (North America)
    2000’s:
    Nightclubs; Gay Clubs; all-ages-all-night events
    “Parties”
  • 83. “Party Drugs”
    A generalized term for substances that have historically been associated with raves and all night dance-clubs.
    These drugs are used by many kinds of people in all kinds of settings.
    Some of these drugs are illegal, some have no classification
    Examples:
    Ecstasy, Ketamine, GHB, Acid, Cocaine, Crystal Methamphetamine
    Newer Classes and Research Chemicals
  • 84. “Party-Drugs”
  • 85.
  • 86. TRIP! survey data 2008
  • 87. Trends
    Of greatest concern was the re-emergence of crystal meth use over the past year. In 2007, only 15% of respondents identified using this substance in the last year or month. In 2008, the number rose to 26%.
    Also of concern was the number of people using prescription medication for psychoactive purposes. This question was not asked in the previous survey and has not been a focus for TRIP! in the past, but with more than 20 percent of people using these substances, more work needs to be done to address this in the coming year. Other than Oxycodone and Codeine, respondents identified using Adderal, Ritalin, Dexedrine, Diluadid, Concerta, Valium and Morphine.
  • 88. Trends
    Small numbers of people indicated use of research chemicals such as DOB, DOI, DOC, 2CE, 2CC, 2CB, 2CI, 5-MeO-MiPT, and AMT, nitrous oxide, poppers, pcp, hasish, over the counter disassociative DXM, a variety of plant based hallucinogenics such as Kratom, Salvia, DMT, morning glory seeds, Mugwort T. Peruvianus (a cactus), and other amphetamines such as TMA, BZP, and MDA.
  • 89. Drugs to talk about…
    Alcohol
    Amphetamine-type substances
    MDMA; Ecstasy Pills; Speed; Meth; Dexedrine; Ritalin
    Hallucinogens
    Phenylethamines; LSD; Mushrooms; Ketamine
    Benzos
    Atavan; Xanax; Clonazepam
    Opiates
    Oxies; percs; T3s
    Marijuana
    GHB
    Cocaine
  • 90. Alcohol
    Neurotransmitters:
    GABA (inhibits brain activity)
    Alcohol stimulates GABA receptors, making them more inhibitory and further inhibiting brain activity
    Glutamate (brain’s general purpose excitatory transmitter)
    Binds to glutamate receptors preventing glutamate from exciting the cell
    Alcohol particularly effects areas involved in memory formation, decision making and impulse control
  • 91. Alcohol Risk Reduction
    Alcohol does not mix well with many substances.
    Be cautious, and better to avoid, the following:
    Alcohol + Benzos
    Alcohol + Ketamine
    Alcohol + Opiates
    Alcohol + GHB
    This can be a particularly dangerous combination
  • 92. Alcohol Risk Reduction
    Eat something before drinking
    Pace yourself
    Hydrate as you drink
    Prearrange transportation; leave car keys behind
    Take only the money you intend to spend
    Make your own drinks
    Only accept drinks from people you trust
    Monitor how often you’re drinking; take breaks
    “Liquor before beer, you’re in the clear; beer before liquor, never been sicker”
    (Nearly all liquor is quality and potency assured)
  • 93. Non-palatable alcohol
    • Initiate a non-judgmental, factual discussion about the harms of using these substances.
    • Encourage the use of safer alcohols – beer, wine and liquor.
    • Discuss the use of less harmful, non-palatable alcohols (e.g., mouthwash rather than hand sanitizer).
    • Discuss options to reduce the amount of non-palatable alcohol consumed, and other strategies to reduce the potential for harm,
  • 94. Ecstasy
    E, X, pills, disco biscuits
    Specific pills named based on colour, size, shape, stamp/logo
    Can come as powder in a gel cap
    $5-$20 a pill (Toronto 2009)
    Predominately swallowed
    Pills may be crushed in to powder and snorted
    Rarely hooped or smoked
  • 95. Ecstasy
    Main neurotransmitter: Serotonin
    Though with adulterated pills others maybe effected (e.g., more dopamine if methamphetamine is in pills)
    Primarily stimulant effects; “upper”
    Though overwhelming sense of “bliss” may leave you feeling lethargic
    Physical effects:
    Increases in heart rate, body temperature and energy
    Jaw clenching/tightening, dilated pupils, nausea
    Psycho/behavioural effects:
    +ve: empathy, openness, peace, caring, open-hearted communication
    –ve: anxiety, paranoia, “bad mood”
  • 96. Ecstasy
    Immediate risks:
    Not knowing what you get
    Ecstasy pills are one of the most adulterated illicit substances
    Dehydration; overheating; stroke
    Particularly when used in hot nightclubs and parties
    Say or do something you regret
    Tendency to talk openly and “feel connected” may not last the next day
    Rough comedown
    Can be hard to fall asleep
    You may feel sad, blue, and easily irritated for a couple of days after
  • 97. Ecstasy
    Longer-term concerns:
    Tolerance
    Many longer-term users report taking more to get a similar effect (e.g., “½ a pill used to get me high, now I take 2 in a night”).
    Psychological Dependency
    If you have always taken ecstasy when going out dancing, it may be hard to not think about using when going out, even though your body isn’t physically needing it.
    Depression
    What goes up, must come down. Serotonin, one of the neurotransmitters ecstasy effects, is part of your eat/sleep patterns and mood cycles - it may be depleted after use.
    Anxiety & panic attacks
    Stimulant drugs can create a sense of urgency or paranoia in some people, especially with the more you take or the longer you stay high.
  • 98. Ecstasy: Pills vs. MDMA
    MDMA = “pure” Ecstasy.
    Historically found pressed into a pill form.
    Pills are usually “cut” with other drugs.
    Never know what you are getting!
    Each pill is different, even if it looks the same.
    • Duration of high: 4-6hrs (pure MDMA), 2-10 hrs (Ecstasy pills)
  • Ecstasy Pills
    Observations and conversations with partiers and clubbers using E, show a wide variety of experiences.
    Toronto, 2004:
    7 of 21 Ecstasy users showed methamphetamine in hair samples.
    BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS and UBC Dept. of Health Care and Epidemiology, 2004:
    94 pills
    44 (47%) contained methamphetamine
  • 99. Ecstasy Pills
    The Pink Heart or the Orange Pig?
    Ketamine; DXM; Caffeine; Crystal Meth; BZP
  • 100. Ecstasy – Before You Use
    Remember, ecstasy is illegal and has tough penalties for possession.
    You can also be charged for trafficking if you buy for friends.
    Ask around… Try to get the latest buzz on good and bad E’s circulating.
    Pill websites and pill testing may help be useful.
    • Buy from someone you know, or someone whose pills you’ve tried and like.
    Be careful if you are feeling down before using.
    Be very careful if you are using anti-depressants; better to avoid using.
    Be cautious if mixing with other drugs.
    Eat and sleep lots before and after partying.
  • 101. Good to see the variety of pill contents.
    Cost prohibitive.
    • Lots of local reports.
    • 102. Subjective experiences can vary – be careful!
    • 103. Similar looking pills can vary.
  • Ecstasy – When You Use
    It’s nearly impossible to know the purity and quality of the pill until after you take it.
    Kicks in, 20-60 minutes when swallowed – wait to get high
    Start with half a pill. Wait about 45 minutes after you’ve dosed before deciding to do more.
    Less is more. You will likely feel worse after using if:
    You do more at one time (e.g., 2 ½ pills vs. 1 pill)
    You stay high longer (e.g., 20 hrs vs. 7 hrs)
    Stay hydrated:
    YES: water; Gatorade
    NO: alcohol; energy drinks
    If dancing, take breaks and chill out for a while.
    Fruits (esp. bananas), protein shakes, juices, yogurt, are all good (and easier) to eat.
  • 104. What goes up, must come down…
    Lack of sleep. Lack of food. Physically exhausted.
    Accept the comedown; chill out with friends.
    Depressed; irritable; cranky
    Need time for recovery
    Eat! Sleep!
    Spread out the partying… not every weekend.
    Serotonin takes a few weeks to be replaced.
  • 105. Cocaine (powder)
    Coke, Blow, Charlie, Whitney
    White to cream chunks or powder
    $40 ½ gram; ~$240 8-ball [3.5 grams] (Toronto 2011)
    Typically snorted up the nose
  • 106. Cocaine (powder)
    Main neurotransmitter: dopamine
    Stimulant
    Physical effects:
    Increase in heart rate, body temperature, blood pressure
    Numbs tissues it touches (nose, gums, lips)
    Jaw grinding, dilated pupils, upset stomach
    Psycho/behavioural effects:
    +ve: increased wakefulness; confidence; chatty
    -ve: cravings; anti-social; anxious; “edgy”
     or  sex drive
  • 107. Cocaine biochemistry
    Peak blood cocaine levels in approximately:
    30 to 45 minutes (snorted)
    5 minutes (smoked)
    Almost instantly (injected)
    Duration of action: 45 to 90 minutes
     Short half life (1-2 hours)
    Short high… Quick come down  desire to do more and to keep going
  • 108. Cocaine biochemistry
  • 109. Cocaine
    Immediate risks:
    Stroke; heart attack (esp. with high concentrations from high doses or extended “runs”)
    Anxiety / panic attacks
    Dehydration
    Push boundaries and take unintended risks
    Spend more than you intend
    Disease (esp. with snorting)
  • 110. Cocaine
    Longer-term concerns:
    Tolerance
    Psychological / physical dependency
    Sinus infections
    Weight loss or gain
    Finances
  • 111. Cocaine Risk Reduction
    Use a new straw
    Don’t snort with dirty dollar bills and keys.
    Avoid sharing straws or bumpers.
    Try colour coding or marking your straws when using with other people.
    Having a nasal spray of clean water, that you could use shortly after snorting each line.
    This can help reduce the damage to your nose.
    Leave money and bank cards at home.
  • 112. Cocaine (crack)
    Rock; Free base cocaine;
    Powdered cocaine dissolved and boiled in a mix of ammonia or baking soda.
    Looks like rocks or chunks
    Price: varies by region; 1 hit for <$5
    Smoked or injected
    Makes a cracking sound when burned
  • 113. Cocaine (crack)
    Taken from erowid.org
  • 114. Crack Risk Reduction
    Use your own equipment:
    Pipes, needles, cookers, filters, tourniquets… etc.
    Find a safe space to use.
    Carry condoms / lube.
    Moisturize lips with non-oil based products.
  • 115. Safer Crack Kit
    Video: Step-by-step demonstration of safer crack smoking: http://hepcinfo.ca/videoplayer_e/safer_smoking_e.flv
  • 122. Cocaine – New Concerns
    Cocaine is notoriously cut with adulterants; it is rarely good quality.
    Recently an adulterant known as Levamisole is showing up in many samples throughout North America.
    This is of particular concern for people who are already susceptible to autoimmune disorders:
    Levamisole can significantly reduce the number of white blood cells in the body, a condition called agranulocytosis.
    Symptoms include fever, swollen glands, painful sores in the mouth and anus, and an infection that won't go away.
    Because many of the symptoms of the illness are the same as the flu, it is important that people who are using cocaine be aware that they aren't sick with something more serious than influenza.
  • 123. Cocaine – New Concerns
    If you use cocaine watch out for:
    High Fever
    Chills
    Painful anal, oral sores
    Skin abscess / lung infection that appears to be developing more rapidly than usual.
    Seek Medical Attention Immediately!
  • 124. Mephedrone
    Mephedrone, 4-MMC, Meow, M-Cat, Bubbles
    2-Methylamino-1-p-tolylpropan-1-one
    Stimulant; Euphoriant
    A synthetic stimulant with empathogenic effects that some people report being a “cross between ecstasy and cocaine”.
    Between 2007 and 2009, it became available for purchase online, was used increasingly in Europe, Australia, and New Zealand, associated with several deaths, and then controlled in some countries as a result.
  • 125. UK Mephedrone Ban May Have Done More Harm Than Good
    http://whyprohibition.ca/blogs/jesse-wentzloff/uk-mephedrone-ban-may-have-done-more-harm-good
    The [ban], which came after mephedrone had been linked to a number of deaths, which were later found not to be attributable to the drug, could be driving demand for other new drugs.
    It comes after recent research revealed that 40 new synthetic drugs have flooded into the UK during the past year
  • 126. "One of the dangers of the approach that has been taken is that if we ban every new drug without a balanced view, then people will keep making more new drugs to replace them and eventually they will make something that is extremely toxic which, when kids take it, they will die.”
    • Professor David Nutt, Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs
  • Methamphetamine
    Crystal, Meth, Jib, Crank, Ice, Tina
    Price = $ 50-60 / bag (0.25 – 0.3 gram)
    White to off white powder; crystal shards (like glass)
  • 127. Methamphetamine
    It can also look like…
  • 128. Methamphetamine
    Strong stimulant; “upper”
    Releases dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine (adrenalin)
    Long half-life (12 hours)
    Physical effects:
    Increase in heart rate, body temperature; decreased appetite and sleep; dry mouth; loss of erection
    Psycho/behavioural effects:
    Increase in alertness, confidence, euphoria
    Paranoia; anxiety; decreased self control / inhibitions
  • 129. The Role of Dopamine
    While all stimulants release some dopamine, crystal meth releases much larger amounts:
    Cocaine releases 400% more dopamine
    Crystal meth releases almost 1500% more dopamine
  • 130. Methamphetamine
    Immediate risks:
    Dehydration
    Lack of food / sleep
    Loss of inhibitions
    Paranoia / psychosis
  • 131. Methamphetamine
    Longer-term risks:
    Physical/psychological dependency
    Weight loss
    Tooth decay
    Strains on heart
    Depression
    Loneliness
    Loss of friends, school, job
  • 132. Methamphetamine Risk Reduction
    Plan ahead before partying; you may need a few days to recover.
    Try to eat something while you're high
    Protein shakes or fruit juices with healthy supplements are better than nothing. Feed your body the fuel it needs.
    Limit what you buy.
    The longer you party the rougher you’ll feel.
    Use extra lube if having sex.
    Lack of sleep. Lack of food. Physically exhausted.
    Accept the comedown
    Spread out the partying… not every week.
    Dopamine and all those other neurotransmitters take time to be replaced.
  • 133. GHB
    G, GHB
    Price = ~ $10 / vial
    Clear liquid with slight “chemically” smell and taste which can easily be masked in a drink
  • 134. GHB
    Sedative; depressant; “downer”
    Lower dose:
    similar effect to alcohol… relaxed, happy sociable
    Higher dose:
    dizzy, sleepy, vomiting, muscle spasms, loss of consciousness (“G-d out”), depressed breathing
    Duration of high: 1-4 hours
  • 135. GHB
    Immediate risks:
    Very dose dependant
    Can be extremely dangerous when mixed with alcohol
    Vomit pass out  aspiration
    Coma
    Longer-term risks:
    Psychological dependency
    Physical dependency
  • 136. GHB Risk Reduction
    Store liquid G in a container that could never be mistaken for drinking water.
    Colour the mixture BLUE using food colouring, so as to avoid it being mistaken for water, juice or alcohol.
    Shake that bottle!
    GHB is heavier than water.
  • 137. Ketamine
    Special K, K, kitty
    Price: $20 - $30 / vial
    White powder
    Looks similar to table salt or a fluffy powder
    Typically snorted
    Can be smoked or injected (IM)
  • 138. Ketamine
    Source: wikipedia
  • 139. Ketamine
    Anesthetic; “downer”
    Lower dose:
    mild, dreamy effect; numbness in extremities
    Higher dose:
    difficult to move; hallucinogenic effect: out of body feeling; separation of mind and body (“K-hole”)
    Duration of high: 30-60 minutes (K-hole) but after effects last longer
  • 140. Ketamine
    Immediate risks:
    Falling (breaking a limb)
    Assault
    Nausea (aspiration)
    Disease (esp. with snorting)
  • 141. Ketamine
    Longer-term risks:
    Tolerance
    Psychological/physical dependency
    Sinus infections (if snorting)
    Bladder infections
    Kidney problems
    “k-pains”
  • 142. Ketamine Risk Reduction
    Caution should be exercised when measuring doses.
    It is best to start with very small doses, working your way toward the desired levels.
    Caution with eating before using.
    Anesthetics often make people throw-up.
    Avoid mixing with alcohol.
    Many users report getting sick this way.
  • 143. Viagra
    Sildenafil®
    Tablets come in doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg.
    Other similar substances:
    Levitra, Cialis,
    Physical effects:
    Blood vessels relax; erection; lowered blood pressure
    Immediate risks:
    Stroke / heart attack
    Duration high:
    drug lingers in body for several hours
  • 144. Viagra
    Symptoms of Viagra, Cialis or Levitra toxicity:
    Chest or jaw pain
    Irregular heartbeat
    Nausea
    Respiratory problems
    Visual disturbances (blue colour)
    Prolonged erection > 4 hours
    Get to emergency room!
  • 145. Viagra Risk Reduction
    Use the smallest dose necessary
    Be extra cautious if using blood pressure medications
    Don’t take with grapefruit juice
    Be careful when - or try to avoid - mixing with poppers
    If erection lasts longer than 4 hours, go to emergency room
  • 146. Viagra
  • 147. Viagra?
    Off-prescription “Viagra”, Fall 2007, Toronto, Canada
  • 148. Poppers
    bolt, climax, poppers, rush, Zbest, and others
    Butyl / amyl nitrite; vapor inhaled
    Physical effects:
    Relaxation of blood vessels and smooth muscle tissue
    Drop in blood pressure; flushed face
    Psychological effects:
    +ve: head rush; horny; less inhibited
    -ve: anxiety; nausea
    Duration high: 30-60 seconds
  • 149. Poppers
    Immediate risks:
    Flammable; chemical burns
    Nausea; headaches
    Stroke (esp. mixed with other substances that lower blood pressure such as Viagra)
    Long-term risks:
    Psychological addiction; carcinogenic?
  • 150. Alcohol
    Neurotransmitters:
    GABA (inhibits brain activity)
    Alcohol stimulates GABA receptors, making them more inhibitory and further inhibiting brain activity
    Glutamate (brain’s general purpose excitatory transmitter)
    Binds to glutamate receptors preventing glutamate from exciting the cell
    Alcohol particularly effects areas involved in memory formation, decision making and impulse control
  • 151. Alcohol Risk Reduction
    Alcohol does not mix well with many substances.
    Be cautious, and better to avoid, the following:
    Alcohol + Benzos
    Alcohol + Ketamine
    Alcohol + Opiates
    Alcohol + GHB
    This can be a particularly dangerous combination
  • 152. Alcohol Risk Reduction
    Eat something before drinking
    Pace yourself
    Hydrate as you drink
    Prearrange transportation; leave car keys behind
    Take only the money you intend to spend
    Make your own drinks
    Only accept drinks from people you trust
    Monitor how often you’re drinking; take breaks
    “Liquor before beer, you’re in the clear; beer before liquor, never been sicker”
    (Nearly all liquor is quality and potency assured)
  • 153. Cannabis
    Marijuana, pot, weed.
    Commonly smoked or eaten.
    Concentrated resinous form called hashish, and as a sticky black liquid called hash oil.
    Synthetic (pharmaceutical) versions.
    Three distinct species
    Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis
    The term 'hemp' is generally used to describe low-THC varieties of cannabis which are grown for industrial uses.
  • 154. Cannabis
    Price = ~ $40 for 1/8 ounce (a “half quarter”, 3.5 grams)
    Green leaf plant with buds, with orange/brown fibers and sometimes coated in crystals.
  • 155. Cannabis
    The active ingredients are called cannabinoids
    THC (Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) is thought to be responsible for most of the psychoactive effects.
    Effects
    Onset: When smoked, the effects of cannabis begin almost immediately. When eaten the effects can take 1 to 2 hours to manifest.
    Duration: Effects of smoked cannabis peak after about 20 minutes and last for 1-2 hours. When eaten, the effects will peak more slowly and primary effects may last for 3-4 hours.
  • 156. Cannabis Experience
    Primary effects with recreational use:
    Euphoria, relaxation, and changes in perception.
    Effects vary depending on dosage.
    Low doses:
    Sense of well-being, mild enhancement of senses (smell, taste, hearing), subtle changes in thought and expression, talkativeness, giggling, increased appreciation of music, increased appetite, and mild closed-eye visuals.
    Higher doses:
    Visuals may become more prominent, sense of time is altered, attention span and memory are frequently affected, and thought processes and mental perception may be significantly altered.
  • 157. Cannabis Experience
    Primary reasons for medicinal use:
    Appetite stimulation
    Pain reduction
    Many other benefits reported for a wide variety of conditions.
    Can get a federal permit:
    To possess
    To grow
    To be a designated grower
  • 158. Cannabis Concerns
    Negative effects can include:
    Paranoia, dry mouth, respiratory problems and nervousness/racing heart.
    Reduced ability to concentrate, impaired memory, tiredness, and confusion.
    Side effects tend to increase with lifetime use.
  • 159. Cannabis Concerns
    Relative potential for dependency:
    Regular use can lead to psychological habituation making it difficult to quit.
    Most people do not experience signs of physical addiction.
    Withdrawal somewhat difficult but in no way dangerous.
    Benzodiazepines can be used to treat withdrawal.
  • 160. Cannabis Concerns
    Long Term Health Problems:
    Smoking: lung and throat problems: coughing; increased throat and lung infections; reduced lung capacity; carcinogenic effects.
    Amotivational syndrome.
    Not (or slightly) toxic to the liver, but…
    Increasing concern around heavy/chronic use and HepC.
  • 161. Cannabis Concerns
    Heart Issues:
    Because cannabis increases heart rate, it could potentially increase risks of heart problems in those at risk of heart disease.
    Mental Illness:
    Can precipitate neuroses or psychoses in those who are already at risk.
  • 162. Cannabis Risk Reduction
    Know your source.
    Be careful about mould and bacteria.
    Eating poses lowest health risks, though harder to titrate (manage) dose.
    Use with people you trust.
    Be mindful of smoking public spaces.
    Avoid getting high and driving.
    Smoking increases risks of pulmonary disease.
    Try a vaporizer instead of smoking.
  • 163. Cannabis Risk Reduction
    Vaporizers offer and alternative to smoking.
    Cannabis is heated to the point THC vaporizes but the plant material is not burned.
    Cannabis before (left) and
    after (right) vaporization.
    This vaporizer relies on convection rather than conduction.
  • 164. Vaporizer vs. Smoking
    Vaporizer after 2 months use (left)
    Pipe after 2 weeks use (right)
  • 165. Synthetic (prescription) THC
    Synthetic THC, available on prescription
    Cesamet (nabilone); Marinol (dronabinol)
    Reduced psychoactive effects.
  • 166. LSD (d-lysergic acid diethylamide)
    Potent hallucinogen
    White crystalline powder that dissolves in water, is odourless, and has a slightly bitter taste.
    An effective dose is too small to see. (20 - 80 micrograms)
    It is usually packaged in squares of LSD soaked papers (blotters) or miniature powder pellets called microdots
    Usually taken by mouth and held on the tongue or swallowed
  • 167. LSD
    • Examples of LSD blotter paper
    • 168. colourful designs often added to mask impurities
    • 169. street names may vary according to blotter designs
  • LSD
    LSD trips are unpredictable
    Produces vivid visual effects
    Affects your senses, mood and thoughts
    People can become paranoid and feel a loss of control which can lead to a state of panic
    Judgement is affected and people may put themselves in danger
  • 170. LSD
    Alters the persons perception of reality.
    Can vividly distort the senses.
    “Trip” - perceptual changes, altered time sense, feeling detached from self, synesthesia (“hearing” colours), dizziness, “pins and needles”
    Not addictive
    Can cause flashbacks
  • 171. PsilocybinStreet names: Magic Mushrooms, shrooms
    Hallucinogen, similar to LSD
    Mushrooms or in powder capsules
    Sniffed, smoked or injected, or ingested orally
    Onset 1/2 hour
    Effects last 4 to 5 hours
  • 172. Effects of Psilocybin
    Sensations of relaxation or fatigue; separation from surroundings; heaviness or lightness
    Perceptual distortions, visual hallucinations, dizziness, shivering
    Can cause tension and anxiety shortly after ingestion
  • 173. Is Psilocybin Dangerous?
    One danger is misidentification, as some mushrooms are poisonous
    PCP and LSD are often sold as psilocybin
    Can impair judgement
    Can trigger underlying mental health problems and cause schizophrenic-type symptoms
    User can have “bad trips”
  • 174. Tryptamines - AMT
    (Alpha-methyltryptamine)
    Lasts 16 hours
    Effect like combining MDMA & LSD
    Wide range of experiences
    Comes in a white powder
    Can be swallowed, snorted or smoked
    $20 – 25
    Only a small amount needed
    Narrow dose range 10 – 15 mg.
    Can cause unpleasant trips
  • 175. Tryptamines 5-MEO-DIPT
    Foxy-methoxy
    White powder or tablet
    5 – 12 mg. Dose
    $30 – 40 per dose
    Causes body buzz, mood lift, euphoria, increased sex drive, and enhanced visuals
    Long lasting
    Can cause acute vomiting, long come down (12 hours), diarrhoea, a widely varied experiences.
  • 176. Tryptamines - 2CB
    White powder or tablet
    $30 per dose
    MDMA/LSD effect
    Open and closed eye visuals
    Mild stimulant and mood enhancer
    Can cause cramps and diarrhoea
    Lasts 4 to 6 hours
    Life altering
    Tolerance develops quickly
  • 177. Tryptamines - 2CT7
    Powder or tablet
    7 mg tabs sometimes sold as “E”
    Change in perception & time
    Increased sociability
    Dissociative effect
    May cause anxiety, confusion or panic attacks
    Nausea and vomiting
    Has resulted in death
  • 178. Research Chemicals
    Substances used in medical research
    Popularized by fringe scientist and doctor, Alexander Shulgin
    2CI, 2CB, 2CT2, 2CT7, 5-meo-DiPT. 5-meo-AMT, BZP, TFMPP, mephedrone
    Many are legal, some are scheduled substances
    Can easily be obtained over the internet
    The ones with psychedelic properties are sought
  • 179. Research Chemicals
    Scheduling of these substances causes ‘blow-out sales’ by manufacturers, who are eager to get rid of them to anyone with a credit card
    Come in ‘waves’ through the dance music scene
  • 180. Research Chemicals
    Little is known of these substances, their long-term effects, potential contraindications with medications and other drugs
    Not a very high success rate: with several of the substances, only 50% of users will get the desired high, the other 50% will have vomiting and diarrhea
  • 181. Opiates
  • Heroin
    • Poppy derivative
    • 193. Mainly administered IV
    • 194. Also snorted and smoked
    • 195. ± $50 a point (1/10 of a gram)
    • 196. Intense feeling of euphoria and well-being
    • 197. Sedation, analgesia
    • 198. Tolerance builds and ceasing use may result in withdrawal symptoms
  • Opiates - Canada
    • Heroin use has become an increasingly marginal form of drug use among illicit opioid users in Canada, particularly outside of Vancouver and Montréal.
    • 199. Prescription opioids are the predominant form of illicit opioid use.
    • 200. “Opioid-rich" environment - a world per capita consumer of a number of opioids.
  • Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey 2009
  • 201. Oxycontin
    • OxyContin contains oxycodone in a controlled-release tablet (5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg, and 80 mg)
    • 202. 12-hour pain relief.
    • 203. In Canada, OxyContin is manufactured by Purdue Pharma.
    • 204. Introduced in 1996; Oxycodone-based products have been used illicitly for the past 30 years.
    • 205. When used illicitly, OxyContin can be taken in pill form, or crushed and then ingested, snorted, or injected
  • Fentanyl
    • Extremely potent pain medication
    • 206. Usually prescribed as a trans-dermal time release patch
    • 207. 5 strengths with 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10 mg
    • 208. Delivers 12, 25, 50, 75, 100 mcg/hr for 72 hours
    • 209. People will scrape the patch and inject the fentanyl
    • 210. One patch can give about 10 injections
    • 211. People can easily inject too much and overdose
  • Opiate Risk Reduction and Treatment
    • Basic risk reduction strategies, particularly using new equipment.
    • 212. Medications can assist with detoxification in combination with other therapeutic interventions.
    • 213. In Canada, methadone maintenance has increased five-fold since the mid-1990s
    • 214. Methadone; Buprenorphine; Naloxone; Suboxone
  • Methadone Maintenance Programs
    Some heroin addicts are unable to maintain a state of abstinence. Prolonged methadone treatment can lead to:
    • A decrease and often the cessation of heroin use.
    • 215. A decrease in the use of other substances.
    • 216. A substantial decrease in crime and prostitution.
    • 217. Improved health (except for preexisting infections).
    • 218. An improvement in living conditions.
    • 219. Better conditions for the continuation of pregnancy.
  • Buprenorphine
    Buprenorphine hydrochloride is one of the first new treatment options for opioid dependence since methadone was introduced in Canada over 40 years ago.
    Physicians do not have to obtain a section 56 methadone exemption1 from Health Canada in order to prescribe buprenorphine.
    While international clinical evidence indicates that buprenorphine is a much safer drug than methadone, it is important to keep in mind that the opioid-dependent patient population presents special risks and challenges.
    Two formulations of buprenorphine – Subutex® and Suboxone® – have been approved by Health Canada for use in treating opioid dependence.
    Suboxone was introduced to the Canadian market in fall 2007.
  • 220. Pharmaceutical Drugs
    The following few slides come from: not4me.org
    We have divided the pharmaceutical facts into three common categories:
    Opioid Painkillers
    Stimulants
    Tranquilizers, Barbiturates
  • 221. Pharmaceutical Opioid Painkillers
    What it is
    Category: Opioid analgesic
    Examples of generic names (and their respective trade names) include: codeine (Tylenol III), meperidine (Demerol), hydrocodone (Vicodin), oxycodone (OxyContin, Percocet) and morphine.
    Pharmaceutical painkillers are usually prescribed medically for the purposes relieving pain, but they are also used recreationally or outside of their prescribed use. Most opioid painkillers that are used recreationally are diverted from prescription use, rather than being illegally manufactured.
    Most come in pill form in various dosages, which can be taken orally, ground up and snorted nasally or diluted into a liquid and injected. Snorting and injecting result in a quicker and stronger effect (though these methods can be very dangerous as they release several hours worth of opioid painkillers into your body at once).
  • 222. Pharmaceutical Opioid Painkillers
    What will likely happen *Reactions and experiences may vary dramatically from person to person.*
    Effects on brain:
    Short term:Opioid painkillers activate opioid receptors in the brain, increasing the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine, interfering with the transmission of pain signals to the brain and causing feelings of intense happiness, warmth and pleasure.
    Effects on body:
    Short term: Possible immediate effects include (pain relief), sleepiness, constricted pupils, sweating, loss of appetite, constipation, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, itchiness, dry mouth, fatigue, weakness, insomnia, fever, diarrhea, difficulty urinating, abdominal pain, rash, difficulty breathing and convulsions. When snorted, nasal discomfort or damage can occur.
    Long term: Possible long term effects include physical addiction and withdrawal symptoms if drug use is stopped. Some opioid painkillers (such as codeine and hydrocodone) also contain acetaminophen, which can cause liver toxicity with regular use and high doses.
    Effects on behaviour:
    Short term: Possible immediate effects include improved mood, euphoria, feelings of relaxation, unfocused thoughts, confusion, and nervousness.
    Long term: Possible long-term effects include cravings for more opioid painkillers and decreased interest in sex.
  • 223. Pharmaceutical Opioid Painkillers
    Dependency
    Addiction: Opioid painkillers can be both physically and psychologically addictive. The addictive potential is strong in recreational users as well as in medical users, especially if the drug is used on a daily basis.
    Tolerance: Tolerance to opioid painkillers can develop over a matter of weeks, with higher doses needed to achieve the same desired effect (both recreationally and medically).
    Withdrawal Symptoms: Symptoms can occur when regular pharmaceutical painkiller use is stopped, and include insomnia, restlessness, muscle spasms, muscle aches, tremors, sweating, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and anxiety.
  • 224. Pharmaceutical Opioid Painkillers
    If you choose to use... Harm Reduction Tips
    Recreational use of pharmaceuticals is illegal; therefore if you are caught possessing pharmaceuticals without a prescription from your doctor, or exchanging, buying or selling them, it can result in criminal charges.
    Drug use affects the developing mind and body differently than developed ones. Waiting until your mind and body have more fully developed before using substances can have long term health and mental benefits.
    Opioid painkillers have very strong addictive potential! Do not assume that a drug prescribed by a doctor to a friend will be safe for you to take as well. Opioid painkillers are prescribed only for individuals who need it, and can have adverse and dangerous effects on individuals for whom they are not prescribed.
    Similarly, if you have been prescribed opioid painkillers, avoid taking more than the prescribed dosage. Always talk to your doctor or a health professional before taking prescribed painkillers with other substances.
    Some of the negative effects of opioid painkillers can be alleviated by lying down. Negative side effects generally increase with higher doses.
  • 225. Pharmaceutical Opioid Painkillers
    Some opioid painkillers (such as codeine and hydrocodone) also contain acetaminophen, which can cause liver toxicity with regular use and high doses.
    If injecting, use new, clean syringes and equipment. Prepare your shot on a clean surface. Clean the area you are planning to inject with soap and water or an alcohol pad. You can get clean injection supplies from a syringe exchange, a pharmacy, or your local health department. If you can’t get new needles, try snorting instead. Cleaning needles and works is not risk-free; it’s a last resort. Rinse with cool water 3 times, bleach for 30 seconds, then clean water 3 times.
    Regular injection can cause abscesses, collapsed veins, infections and other complications.
    Regular snorting can cause serious damage to the nose such as a chapped, runny nose, sinus infections, nose bleeds and developing a hole in the cartilage wall between nostrils.
    Avoid sharing equipment (straws, syringes, spoons) since this could lead to transmission of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV
    Snorting and injecting opioid painkillers can result in a quicker and stronger effect. These methods can be very dangerous as they release several hours worth of opioid painkillers into your body at once.
    Avoid using opioid painkillers with other substances, particularly depressants such as alcohol and narcotics.
  • 226. Pharmaceutical Stimulants
    What it is
    Category: Stimulants
    Examples of chemical names (and their respective trade names) include: amphetamine (Adderall) and methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta). Pharmaceutical stimulants are most commonly prescribed in the treatment of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD), but they have also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and mild depression. Pharmaecutical stimulants are also used recreationally or outside of their prescribed use by many individuals.
    For more information about amphetamines, click here.
  • 227. Pharmaceutical Stimulants
    What will likely happen *Reactions and experiences may vary dramatically from person to person.*
    Effects on brain:
    Short term: Stimulants cause an increased release of the neurotransmitter dopamine which causes increased feelings of pleasure.
    Long term: can cause permanent changes to some areas of the brain, though the brain is quite adept at rewiring and compensating for changes
    Effects on body:
    Short term: Possible immediate effects include sweating, dilated pupils, decreased appetite, difficulty sleeping, tremors, increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, narrowing of blood vessels causing decrease in blood flow and flow of oxygen to the heart.
    Long term: Possible long term effects include weight loss, insomnia, exhaustion, heart problems, seizures, physical addiction and withdrawal symptoms is drug use is stopped.
    Effects on behaviour:
    Short term: Possible immediate effects include increased concentration, panic, anxiety, aggression, hostility, violence and paranoia.
    Long term: Possible long-term effects include paranoia, aggression, panic, hostility, violence and triggering of underlying psychological problems.
  • 228. Pharmaceutical Stimulants
    Dependency
    Addiction: Physical and psychological addiction can occur.
    Tolerance: can develop tolerance
    Withdrawal Symptoms: Withdrawal symptoms occur when stimulant use is stopped and include, depression, loss of appetite, difficulty sleeping.
  • 229. Pharmaceutical Stimulants
    If you choose to use... Harm Reduction Tips
    Recreational use of pharmaceuticals is illegal; therefore if you are caught possessing pharmaceuticals without a prescription from your doctor, or exchanging, buying or selling them, it can result in criminal charges.
    Drug use affects the developing mind and body differently than developed ones. Waiting until your mind and body have more fully developed before using substances can have long term health and mental benefits.
    Do not assume that a drug prescribed by a doctor to a friend will be safe for you to take as well. Pharmaceutical stimulants are prescribed only for individuals who need it, and can have adverse and dangerous effects on individuals for whom they are not prescribed.
    Similarly, if you have been prescribed pharmaceutical stimulants, avoid taking more than the prescribed dosage. Always talk to your doctor or a health professional before taking prescribed stimulants with other substances.
    Avoid sharing equipment (straws, syringes, spoons) since this could lead to transmission of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV
    If injecting, use new, clean syringes and equipment. Prepare your shot on a clean surface. Clean the area you are planning to inject with soap and water or an alcohol pad. You can get clean injection supplies from a syringe exchange, a pharmacy, or your local health department. If you can’t get new needles, try smoking or snorting instead.
    Cleaning needles and works is not risk-free; it’s a last resort. Rinse with cool water 3 times, bleach for 30 seconds, then clean water 3 times.
    Regular injection can cause abscesses, collapsed veins, infections and other complications. Regular snorting can cause serious damage to the nose such as a chapped, runny nose, sinus infections, nose bleeds and developing a hole in the cartilage wall between nostrils.
  • 230. Pharmaceutical Tranquilizers, Barbiturates
    What it is
    Category: Sedative, tranquilizer
    Examples of generic names (and their respective trade names) include: diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), alprazolam (Xanax), clonazepam (Klonopin), amobarbital (Amytal) and pentobarbital (Nembutal).
    Pharmaceutical tranquilizers and barbiturates are usually prescribed medically for the purposes of treating anxiety, sleep problems, muscle spasms and seizures, but they are also used recreationally or outside of their prescribed use. Most tranquilizers and barbiturates that are used recreationally are diverted from prescription use, rather than being illegally manufactured.
    Most come in pill form in various dosages, which can be taken orally, ground up and snorted nasally or diluted into a liquid and injected.
  • 231. Pharmaceutical Tranquilizers, Barbiturates
    What will likely happen *Reactions and experiences may vary dramatically from person to person.*
    Effects on brain:
    Short term: Pharmaceutical tranquilizers and barbiturates increase the activity of the neurotransmitter GABA, resulting in decreased brain activity and causing feelings of calmness and drowsiness.
    Effects on body:
    Short term: Possible immediate effects include dilated pupils, drowsiness, slurred speech, loss of coordination, fatigue, irregular breathing, decreased heart rate, decreased blood pressure.
    Long term: Possible long term effects include slower reflexes, chronic tiredness, problems with vision, difficulty sleeping, sexual dysfunction, respiratory difficulties and liver damage.
    Effects on behaviour:
    Short term: Possible immediate effects include feelings of calmness and relaxation, lowered inhibitions, impaired judgment and paranoia.
    Long term: Possible long-term effects include mood swings and aggression.
  • 232. Pharmaceutical Tranquilizers, Barbiturates
    Dependency
    Addiction: Pharmaceutical tranquilizers and barbiturates can be both physically and psychologically addictive. The addictive potential is strong in recreational users as well as in medical users, especially if the drug is used on a daily basis.
    Tolerance: Tolerance to pharmaceutical tranquilizers and barbiturates can develop very quickly, for both medical and recreational use, particularly when taken on a daily basis.
    Withdrawal Symptoms: Withdrawal symptoms do occur when regular use or high doses are stopped and include restlessness, insomnia, anxiety, depression and delirium. One severe withdrawal symptom is brain activity rebound, as the tranquilizers or barbiturates wear off, resulting in the brain racing out of control. This can sometimes cause seizures.
  • 233. Pharmaceutical Tranquilizers, Barbiturates
    If you choose to use... Harm Reduction Tips
    *Disclaimer! Nothing you do can make using unprescribed pharmaceuticals completely safe. All drug use has inherent risks and dangers. The suggestions in this section can only help you reduce some of the associated risks. The best way to avoid the harms related to drug use is to not take the drug at all.*
    Recreational use of pharmaceuticals is illegal; therefore if you are caught possessing pharmaceuticals without a prescription from your doctor, or exchanging, buying or selling them, it can result in criminal charges.
    Drug use affects the developing mind and body differently than developed ones. Waiting until your mind and body have more fully developed before using substances can have long term health and mental benefits.
    Avoid sharing equipment (straws, syringes, spoons) since this could lead to transmission of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV
    If injecting, use new, clean syringes and equipment. Prepare your shot on a clean surface. Clean the area you are planning to inject with soap and water or an alcohol pad. You can get clean injection supplies from a syringe exchange, a pharmacy, or your local health department. If you can’t get new needles, try snorting instead.
    Cleaning needles and works is not risk-free; it’s a last resort. Rinse with cool water 3 times, bleach for 30 seconds, then clean water 3 times.
    Regular injection can cause abscesses, collapsed veins, infections and other complications. Regular snorting can cause serious damage to the nose such as a chapped, runny nose, sinus infections, nose bleeds and developing a hole in the cartilage wall between nostrils.
    Do not assume that a drug prescribed by a doctor to a friend will be safe for you to take as well. Tranquilizers and barbiturates are prescribed only for individuals who need it, and can have adverse and dangerous effects on individuals for whom they are not prescribed.
    Similarly, if you have been prescribed tranquilizers or barbiturates, avoid taking more than the prescribed dosage. Always talk to your doctor or a health professional before taking prescribed medications with other substances.
  • 234. Pharmaceutical Risk Reduction
    Harm Reduction Guide to Coming Off Psychiatric Drugs:
    http://theicarusproject.net/downloads/ComingOffPsychDrugsHarmReductGuide1Edonline.pdf
  • 235. Interactions with HIV meds
    Many recreational drugs may be dangerous when combined with HIV medications, based on individual case reports, and what we know about how the body processes these drugs. Most interactions between recreational drugs and HIV medications have not been scientifically studied, nor are they likely to be, given that most are illegal substances. However, people have shown through experience that “safer partying” is possible, and there are some specific tips that can help make drug use safer and healthier.
    Drug Interaction Tables
    Immunodeficiency Clinic
    Toronto General Hospital
    www.hivclinic.ca/main/drugs_interact.html
  • 236. Resources
    General:
    www.erowid.org/psychoactives/psychoactives.shtml (all about every drug)
    www.tripproject.ca (Toronto based “party drug” harm reduction)
    www.not4me.org (Fear and abstinence only drug education?It's not enough 4 me.)
    www.torontovibe.com (AIDS Committee of Toronto’s party drug info page)
    www.dancesafe.org (U.S. based “party drug” harm reduction info)
    www.cssdp.org (Canadian Students for Sensible Drug Policy)
    Ecstasy:
    www.ecstasy.org
    www.ecstasydata.org (chemical analysis of pills)
    www.pillreports.com (qualitative user reports of pills)
    Crystal Meth: (gay/bi men focused)
    www.himynameistina.com
    www.tweaker.org / www.crystalneon.org
    www.knowcrystal.org
  • 237. Existing Supports
    Detox, pre-treatment, treatment, post-treatment, complementary approaches
    DART (info about treatment)
    www.dart.on.ca
    1.800.565.8603
    24 hrs; anonymous; confidential
    Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH)
    Assessment: 416.535.8501 X 6616
  • 238. Existing Supports
    YSAP – Youth Substance Abuse Program at YMCA
    Counselling and Education
    http://www.ymcatoronto.org/en/who-we-work-with/educators/substance-abuse/index.html
    Mississauga151 City Centre Drive, Suite 800905-276-9322
    Brampton8 Nelson Street, Suite 306905-450-9001
    Toronto485 Queen Street West, 3rd Floor 416-504-1710
    Scarborough230 Town Centre Court416-296-9907 ext. 401
  • 239. LGBT Resources
    Prevention and safer using info for gay men
    • www.himynameistina.com
    • 240. www.knowcrystal.org
    - www.tweaker.org
    - www.crystalneon.org
    - www.torontovibe.com
    Rainbow Services – CAMH (LGBT addictions counselling)
    Weekly meetings; 3 week sessions; 416.535.8501 x 6784
    AIDS Committee of Toronto Counselling Staff
    Primarily if concerned about behaviour but not looking to change use