Rome Conference Maria Kelo

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Mobility and Motivation

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  • Rome Conference Maria Kelo

    1. 1. Mobility and motivation Contextual notes
    2. 2. <ul><li>Current mobility patterns: some indications and observations </li></ul><ul><li>Why mobility? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences between groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual vs. institutional vs. national motivations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main obstacles to mobility </li></ul><ul><li>The role of Bologna experts in supporting mobility </li></ul>Structure
    3. 3. <ul><li>Mobility in Europe is still very European: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3% of European students are mobile (575 000), 82% of these mobile within Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic proximity and language play a role (  cultural experience?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other outgoing students go to US and Australia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Half of foreign students in Europe are Europeans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of incoming students from Asia, especially China (top country of origin) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After decades of attention on credit mobility, degree mobility is regaining in importance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before mainly development cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now (also) brain gain and revenue creation </li></ul></ul>Mobility patterns: indications and observations
    4. 4. <ul><li>There is no such thing as mobility pure and simple </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobility of students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobility of faculty/researchers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary mobility = credit mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobility for study of a full degree = degree mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They follow different logics, different patterns, and are driven by different motivations and expectations </li></ul><ul><li> different main destination countries! </li></ul>What mobility?
    5. 5. <ul><li>Often vertical in nature: flows are from HE systems with too little or too poor provision into quality systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to gain a better degree, of a better quality, at a better institution, or a degree not available ‘at home’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve job/career prospects and salary expectation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Range of other motivations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Added value to CV, improving language skills, study with a known professor/at a know instituion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adventure, will to escape, individual growth… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobility promotes mobility: good experience in previous mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Important differences between countries </li></ul>Why mobility? – Degree students
    6. 6. <ul><li>Mainly horizontal in nature: between institutions of similar standard </li></ul><ul><li>Driven by desire for cultural learning and enrichment (experience or human growth) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fun and sun (?), adventure, finding a boy/girl friend… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interesting/attractive lifestyle, food, landscape, climate… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also academic considerations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work with a know expert e.g. for thesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expose oneself to a new academic experience and methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn/improve language skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve job/career prospects; adding value to the CV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Are these expectations matched in reality? </li></ul></ul>Why mobility? – exchange students
    7. 7. <ul><li>National level objectives on mobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internationalisation of HE, work force, society… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boosting research (HE quality) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain gain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutional motivations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internationalisation of institution (incoming and outgoing exchange students) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boosting research/recruitment of high talent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting international cooperation at other levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BUT: no institution wants to lose their best students at master or doctoral level! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Is mobility having the expected impact? </li></ul></ul>Motivations at other levels 3
    8. 8. <ul><li>Personal level disincentives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family, work, character (lack of courage or initiative), etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Practical and financial disincentives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of sufficient resources/scholarships, (non)portability of grants and loans, high living expenses in destination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VISA problems and combining study and work (permits) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complicated administrative procedures (‘red tape’, also at institutional level) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of information on mobility opportunities and benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural obstacles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of language skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of previous experience abroad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of cultural preparation, openness… </li></ul></ul>Obstacles and disincentives 3
    9. 9. <ul><li>Academic disincentives and obstacles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulties in recognition of degrees or credits (both ways)  risk of losing time, or gaining a ‘useless’ degree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Negative) attitudes of professors and other staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree structure: no time and scope for mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobility not relevant for own field of study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Mobility restricted to a limited number of institutions and countries </li></ul></ul>Obstacles and disincentives 3
    10. 10. <ul><li>Motivating mobility – the role of the Bologna Experts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What kind of concrete activities are taken and could be taken to motivate more students to go abroad? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to motivate students to go to less usual destinations, be it for fun or for academic reasons? How to get more students to go to Africa, for example? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have there been observable reductions in mobility due to the Bologna structure? What to do about it? </li></ul></ul>Questions for discussion 3
    11. 11. <ul><li>Thank you! </li></ul><ul><li>Maria Kelo </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Cooperation Association ACA </li></ul><ul><li>Rue d’Egmontstraat 15 </li></ul><ul><li>1000 Brussels </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>www.aca-secretariat.be </li></ul>The end… 3
    12. 12. <ul><li>Motivations of different student groups and actors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are motivations clearly different for full degree students and exchange students? What needs to be taken into account in motivating different kinds of students? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the main purposes of mobility to individuals, institutions, countries? How can these be matched? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is eventual lack of motivation most often related to lack of resources, lack of information about opportunities and benefits, or some other reason? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the perceived most important obstacles for mobility (incoming and outgoing, as well as short - and long-term)? </li></ul></ul>Questions for discussion 3
    13. 13. <ul><li>Changing motivations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have mobility patterns changed significantly in the last 5 years, and if yes, does this correspond to a change in motivations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How - if at all - do you think motivations have changed in the last years? </li></ul></ul>Questions for discussion 3
    14. 14. <ul><li>Motivating mobility – the role of the Bologna Experts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What kind of concrete activities are taken and could be taken to motivate more students to go abroad? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to motivate students to go to less usual destinations, be it for fun or for academic reasons? How to get more students to go to Africa, for example? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have there been observable reductions in mobility due to the Bologna structure? What to do about it? </li></ul></ul>Questions for discussion 3

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