Raimonda Markeviciene Introducing Lo

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  • Raimonda Markeviciene Introducing Lo

    1. 1. Introducing the Concept of Learning Outcomes Raimonda Markeviciene Zagreb 16/17.06.2008
    2. 2. EQF Helsinki Recommendations Dublin descriptors NQF QA Curricula design LO+student workload Recognition LO+student workload Comparability of cycles (I, II, III) Periods of study Joint degrees ECTS for accumulation and transfer Bologna process – in a nutshell
    3. 3. ECTS – from transfer to accumulation <ul><li>Credit was: </li></ul><ul><li>Relative value – allocated to each course unit by the institution to reflect its workload as a proportion to the total workload of the academic year. </li></ul><ul><li>Credit became a building block : </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute value . </li></ul><ul><li>1 credit – 2 5 -30 hours of student workload (1500-1800); </li></ul><ul><li>Credit remained : </li></ul><ul><li>Relative value: Conventionally 60 credits measure the workload of a full-time student during one academic year (30 – per semester) </li></ul>
    4. 4. Why Learning Outcomes/Competences? <ul><li>Credits are (were) insufficient indication for the learning achievement; </li></ul><ul><li>Comparability and competitiveness require more transparency (LO); </li></ul><ul><li>Based on LO credits are an important tool for curricula design; </li></ul><ul><li>Different pathways lead to comparable LO allowing to maintain the diversity of European HE systems; </li></ul><ul><li>Credit accumulation and transfer is facilitated by clearly defined LO. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Implicit student : Time Workload LO ( Competences ) Teacher’s workload And time Before Bologna
    6. 6. After Bologna Study programme in credits Stud. time + workload = Learning outcomes Competences
    7. 7. ECTS – two parameters <ul><li>WORKLOAD (ECTS Credits) </li></ul><ul><li>LEARNING OUTCOMES (Competences) </li></ul><ul><li>The European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) is a student-centred system based on student workload required to achieve the objectives of a programme of study. These objectives should preferably be specified in terms of learning outcomes and competences to be acquired. </li></ul>
    8. 8.   Accumulation Transfer Informal/experiential learning Recognition Quality assurance EQF Elements LO+workload=Credits NQF level descriptors Institutional grading   1. Credits (LO+ workload) 2. Institutional grading 3. ECTS grading interpretation scheme 1. LO - credit   1. Credits (LO+workload2. NQF level descriptors 3. Dublin descriptors   1.LO+workload=credits 2. NQF level descriptors 1. Credits’ range 2. Dublin descriptors 3. EQF for LLL descriptors   Documents/Tools 1. IP/CC 2. Institutional regulations on credit allocation 3. Institutional academic regulations 4. Institutional application form 5. Institutional agreement 6. ToR 7. Diploma supplement     1. IP/CC 2. ECTS application 3. ECTS LA 4. ToR 5. Institutional rules on recogn ition 6. Diploma Supplement 1. Regional recognition agreements 2. Sectoral recognition agreements 3. Institutional recognition agreements 4. Institutional regulations 5. Application form 6. Applicant’s portfolio 1. Diploma supplement 2. NQF 3. EQF 4. IP/CC 1. Institutional regulations on credit allocation 2. National regulation on degrees 3. Institutional regulations on degrees 1. Dublin descriptors 2. EQF for LLL descriptors 3. NQF descriptors 4. Sub-level descriptors Main implementers HE institutions Mobility co-ordinators; HE institutions HE institutions; Other nominated authorities HE institutions; ENIC/NARIC Other nominated authorities HE institutions; External accreditation bodies National authorities; HE institutions
    9. 9. DEGREE Degree profile = Aims + LO QA: Needs and consultation LO(competences) Level Credits and workload Resources Monitoring Updating Responsibility Information (Info-pack;DS) NQF and EQF: LO(Competences) Level Credits and workload Updating Information (Info-pack; DS) Recognition: Information LO(Competences) Level Credits and workload
    10. 10. Learning outcomes and Workload: their relationship <ul><li>Learning outcomes: Statements of what a learner is expected to know, understand and/or be able to demonstrate after completion of learning. They can refer to a single course unit or module or else to a period of studies, for example, a first or a second cycle programme. Learning outcomes specify the minimum requirements for award of credit. </li></ul><ul><li>Workload: The estimated time required to complete the activities foreseen for each course unit / module. Workload includes all learning activities, i.e. lectures, practical work, information retrieval, private study, placements, fieldwork, preparation of examinations, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning outcomes defined for a unit / programme should match the available workload required by a typical student. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Factors influencing learning time and level of achievement <ul><li>Diversity of traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum design and context </li></ul><ul><li>Coherence of curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching and learning methods </li></ul><ul><li>Methods of assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Organization of teaching and teaching process </li></ul><ul><li>Ability and diligence of the student </li></ul><ul><li>Financial support </li></ul>
    12. 12. Categories of LO <ul><li>The qualification Descriptor or professional Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Programme Descriptor (related to Dublin Descriptors) </li></ul><ul><li>Level (sub-level) Descriptors (could be included into cycle) </li></ul><ul><li>Course unit descriptor (LO most subject specific) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Classification of types of LO in Dublin Descriptors (DD) <ul><li>Knowledge and understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Applying knowledge and understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Making judgement </li></ul><ul><li>Communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>Learning skills </li></ul>
    14. 14. Tuning approach to LO - Generic and Subject Specific
    15. 15. Tuning generic competences - Instrumental <ul><li>Capacity for analysis and synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity for organisation and planning </li></ul><ul><li>Basic general knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Grounding in basic knowledge of the profession </li></ul><ul><li>Oral and written communication in your native language </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of a second language </li></ul><ul><li>Elementary computing skills </li></ul><ul><li>Information management & skills (ability to retrieve and analyse information from different sources). </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Decision-making. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Tuning generic competences -Interpersonal <ul><li>Critical and self-critical abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Teamwork </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal skills </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to work in an interdisciplinary team </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to communicate with experts in other fields </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciation of diversity and multiculturality </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to work in an international context </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical commitment. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Tuning generic competences -Systemic <ul><li>Capacity for applying knowledge in practice </li></ul><ul><li>Research skills </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity to adapt to new situations </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity for generating new ideas (creativity) </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of cultures and customs of other countries </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to work autonomously </li></ul><ul><li>Project design and management </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative and entrepreneurial spirit </li></ul><ul><li>Concern for quality </li></ul><ul><li>Will to succeed. </li></ul>
    18. 19. Example of DD translated into programme LO – Master degree in Euroculture <ul><li>Generic competences: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge and understanding – understand and critically integrate the knowledge and insights from interdisciplinary courses </li></ul><ul><li>Judgements - critically judge academic research in the field of Europe and European unification </li></ul><ul><li>Communication: 1. give written and oral presentations on European issues (+ organise time); 2. communicate in another foreign language near native level; 3. use IT skills; 4. transfer knowledge to larger audiences </li></ul><ul><li>Learning: 1. make efficient use of libraries, bibliographical material and academic research; 2. work in an interdisciplinary team in an international context </li></ul>
    19. 20. Example of DD translated into programme LO – Master degree in Euroculture <ul><li>Subject specific competences: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge and understanding: 1. use theoretical and methodological approach used in the programme; 2. interpret and describe identity as a process; 3. demonstrate familiarity with push and pull factors in the process of European identity </li></ul><ul><li>Apply knowledge and understanding: 1.identify the European dimension of social problems and distinguish these problems at different levels; 2. manage projects and communicate the results; 3. collect and process relevant information of European institutions; 4. understand and apply European processes </li></ul><ul><li>Judgements: 1. identify topics in the public debate in a reflective way and with an eye for cultural sensitive matters; 2. reflect on leading political, scientific and religious discourse in a critical way… </li></ul><ul><li>Communication - transfer knowledge related to current problems in European integration process to relevant bodies. </li></ul>
    20. 21. Learning outcomes and competences in study programmes (Tuning) X X X Unit 4 X X X Unit 3 X X X Unit 2 X X Unit 1 J I H G F E D C B A Competences Course unit LO
    21. 22. Steps for course unit design <ul><li>I. Find out prerequisites: modularized or non-modularized system, level and level descriptors </li></ul><ul><li>II. Write LO </li></ul><ul><li>III. Keeping in mind time available and LOs, develop: modes of instruction, types of learning, types and criteria of assessment </li></ul><ul><li>IV Check the estimated workload and LO though student questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>V. Adjust educational activities LO to be compatible within the given time frame </li></ul>
    22. 23. Some Vocabulary for Writing LO: I <ul><li>Activities giving evidence of knowing: </li></ul><ul><li>Define, describe, identify, label, list, name, outline, reproduce, recall, select, state, present, be aware of, extract, organise, recount, write, recognise, measure, underline, repeat, relate, know, match. </li></ul><ul><li>Activities giving evidence of comprehension: </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret, translate, estimate, justify, comprehend, convert, clarify, defend, distinguish, explain, extend, generalise, exemplify, give examples of, infer, paraphrase, predict, rewrite, summarise, discuss, perform, report, present, restate, identify, illustrate, indicate, find , select, understand, represent, name, formulate, judge, contrast, translate, classify, express, compare. </li></ul><ul><li>Activities giving evidence of knowledge / understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Apply, solve, construct, demonstrate, change, compute, discover, manipulate, modify, operate, predict, prepare, produce, relate, show, use, give examples, exemplify, draw (up), select, explain how, find, choose, assess, practice, operate, illustrate, verify. </li></ul>
    23. 24. Some Vocabulary for Writing LO: II <ul><li>Activities giving evidence of analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise, distinguish between, evaluate, analyse, break down., differentiate, identify, illustrate how, infer, outline, point out, relate, select, separate, divide, subdivide, compare, contrast, justify, resolve, devote, examine, conclude, criticise, question, diagnose, identify, categorise, point out, elucidate. </li></ul><ul><li>Activities giving evidence of synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Propose, present, structure, integrate, formulate, teach, develop, combine, compile, compose, create, devise, design, explain, generate, modify, organize, plan, re-arrange, reconstruct, relate, re-organise, revise, write, summarise, tell, account for, restate, report, alter, argue, order, select, manage, generalise, precis, derive, conclude, build up, engender, synthesise, put together, suggest, enlarge. </li></ul><ul><li>Activities giving evidence of evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Judge, appraise, assess, conclude, compare, contrast, describe how, criticise, discriminate, justify, defend, evaluate, rate, determine, choose, value, question. </li></ul>
    24. 25. Example: Aspects of Marital Law and Practice in the 17 th Century (by R. de Lavigne) <ul><li>A student who successfully completes this module will be expected to be able: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. To demonstrate detailed knowledge of both the legal and the social framework of marriage in Western Europe in this period. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. To analyse the reasons for variations in legal frameworks and of social practice in both space and time. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. To explore the link between marriage, on the one hand, and natality and mortality, on the other hand, as determinants of population trends. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. To display the analytical tools and skills of the socio-legal historian, with particular reference to the selected legal and social texts of the period. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. To deploy statistical information using information and communication technology where appropriate. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6. To demonstrate an ability to work both independently and in groups in order to propose solutions to problem areas within this field. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7. To work in more than one European language. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 26. Example: Calculation of the workload <ul><li>The planned third-year tutorial model comprises 10 ECTS (250-300 hours): </li></ul><ul><li>Tutorial: 2 hours per week x 14 weeks (25/30 hours = 1 ECTS credit ) </li></ul><ul><li>Studying a textbook (500 pages) and sitting exam – 6 paged per hour = 83 hours = 3 ECTS credits </li></ul><ul><li>Writing a 7-10 page paper (700-1000 pages of literature must be read) = 140 hours = 5 ECTS credits </li></ul><ul><li>Reading and commenting on assignments written by group members (critical reflection) – (2 hours per week x 14 weeks = 28 hours = 1 ECTS credit ) </li></ul><ul><li>1+3+5+1 = 10 ECTS credits </li></ul>
    26. 27. Assessment Methods and Criteria <ul><li>Assessment method should allow to test the acquisition of the LO either directly or indirectly </li></ul><ul><li>Not all seven LO might be tested (demonstration of at least 5) </li></ul><ul><li>Devise assessment criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>At threshold level </li></ul><ul><li>At other grade levels </li></ul><ul><li>4. Make sure that the programme enables the student to reach LO </li></ul><ul><li>5. Make sure that course unit LOs are comensurate with level descriptors </li></ul>
    27. 28. <ul><li>&quot;When you come to the edge of all the light you have known, and are about to step out into darkness, Faith is knowing one of two things will happen: </li></ul><ul><li>here will be something to stand on, or you will be taught to fly.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Bach </li></ul>
    28. 29. Thank you for your attention!

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