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Modernising Higher Education   Philippe Ruffio Modernising Higher Education Philippe Ruffio Presentation Transcript

  • Tempus – Modernisation in Higher Education Philippe Ruffio – Unit A5 Modernising Higher Education: challenges and approaches Tempus Seminar for Higher Education experts, Brussels 14-15 April 2008
    • Key drivers of the HE evolution
    • The challenges for HE reform
    • Europe in move
          • The European approach
          • The Modernisation agenda
          • The Bologna process
    • Concluding remarks
    Outline
    • 4 key drivers:
    • Demographic changes
    • Global competition
    • Changes in science and technology
    • Societal challenges
    The HE evolution key drivers
    • Number of people potentially having access to HE
        • Impact on the size and scope of the HE systems
    • Age structure
        • Impact on the training needs of pop. and willingness / capacity to invest in education
    • Migration flows
    • Educ. = leverage for integration, for offering new opportunities for mobile people, to prepare native people to leave in open and multicultural societies
    Key drivers – demographic changes
    • Challenges in Europe:
    • Ageing society and need for social cohesion
    • Attract more young people in HE (% age cohort)
    • Offer training opportunities for older people (low skilled) (LLL)
    • Attract talented and skilled people from 3C
    • Retain high skilled workers (brain drain to US and emerging economies)
    • Integrate the increasing number of immigrants
    Key drivers – demographic changes
    • A considerable shift in the distribution of the economic powers in the world
    • Companies and investments are moving to new areas
    • New opportunities for growth and jobs
    • New threats in particular because of impact on labour market (quantitative and qualitative terms)
    Key drivers – global competition
    • Challenges in Europe:
    • Europe is poor in raw material and labour (in relative terms)
    • Strategy to develop comparative advantages on the basis of high value added products and services (capital and knowledge intensive goods)
    • Exploit the potential of innovation and of the Knowledge society (Lisbon strategy)
    Key drivers – global competition
    • Impact on HE:
    • HE has to contribute to the competitiveness of the economies (HE is recognised as a major player)
        • Generate new knowledge and technologies
        • Increase the number of scientifically and technically educated people
        • Improve the connection between educ & labour market (mobility, adaptability)
        • Contribute to LLL to improve the skills and competences of the work force
        • Improve the cooperation capacity of the work force (intercultural & language education)
    • HE is becoming a field of competition itself
        • Internally, Europe itself is already becoming an arena for competition and is promoting an open area for mobility but beyond…
        • Debate on liberalisation of education services (WTO negotiations in 90s)
        • Liberalisation is achieved for “privately financed education”
        • Marginal part of education is concerned but potential impact on activities such as: distance learning, mobility of people, off-shore campuses…
    Key drivers – global competition
    • Shorter and quicker technology life cycles
    • Increasing exchanges among disciplines and sectors
    • Expansion of digital technologies
    • Diversification and increasing number of information sources
    • Emergence of new S&T challenges
    • From technological innovation … to organisational and societal innovation
    • From industry … to service sector
    • Shift to a new paradigm of innovation in the post-industrial society
    Key drivers – changes in S&T
    • Impact on HE: …. new focus and priorities….
    • basic and transversal skills
    • encourage creativity, research and innovation skills
    • transdisciplinarity and systemic approaches
    • entrepreneurship
    • critical mind
    • adaptability and flexibility
    Key drivers – changes in S&T
    • World is confronted to increasing complex challenges
    • Prominent topics for the decades to come, among others:
      • global warming and energy issue
      • food and poverty
      • security and stability (terrorism and political tensions at global level)
    Key drivers – societal challenges
    • Impact on HE:
    • Contribute to innovation (including social innovation)
        • Imagine new ways of doing things
        • Improve efficiency of existing technologies
    • Educate people and help them to adapt to new labour requirements (LLL)
    • Contribute to social cohesion, respectful relationships with other cultures and religions, development of common values and human rights
    Key drivers – societal challenges
    • All the aspects analysed before are mutually overlapping
    • In brief, 3 main challenges:
    • create a framework to enable the modernisation of HE
      • 4 main issues in the EU context:
        • excess of public control on universities
        • fragmentation of HE
        • lack of funding
        • incentive mechanisms to stimulate and reward competition, innovation, risk taking, etc.
    • develop ambitious development strategies for HE institutions
      • 3 main objectives in the EU context:
        • more excellent universities needed – more differenciation
        • more flexibility in terms of structural organisation, management and human resource
        • better integration of the knowledge triangle
    • adapt and redefine the content of the curricula
    The challenges for HE reforms
    • Shared consensus in Europe about the analysis and the main priorities
    • HE and Research have never been so high in the EU agenda (Lisbon strategy)
    • Most of the MS have launched ambitious reform programmes
    • A common approach and common priorities have been defined: the “Modernisation agenda”.
    • The European Commission has no direct power – Education is not a “common policy” (content & organisation of education is under the sole responsibility of MS)
    • The EC has a catalytic role:
          • Promote policy dialogue and exchange of practices
          • Support financially projects and initiatives
          • Encourage the development of new tools and approaches
    The European approach
    • The Modernisation agenda for universities includes 3 big reforms:
    • Governance Reform
    • Funding reform
    • Bologna / Curricular Reform
    • Part of an integrated framework action plan, the Education and Training 2010 work programme
    • Within the broad Lisbon strategy for Growth and Jobs (Knowledge Society by 2010)
    The modernisation agenda for HE
  • The modernisation agenda for HE
    • Governance Reform
    • A new deal between governments and HEI
    • State guidance of HE sector as a whole (no micromanagement / overregulation)
    • Institutional autonomy and full accountability
    • Strategic priorities to be set by institution
    • Professional management of resources
    • Building and rewarding of management and leadership
    • Appropriate working environment for students & staff (flexible, attractiv, rewarding)
    • Partnerships between Univ. and business
  • The modernisation agenda for HE
    • Funding reform
    • 2% of GDP to modernised HE sector
    • Output financing / appropriate funding mix
    • Diversification of research funding portfolio
    • More income from private sources
    • Tuition fees an option, only if accompanied by grants/loans
    • Increasing access = increasing income
  • The modernisation agenda for HE
    • Curricular Reforms
    • Bologna reforms in place by 2010
      • 3 cycle system
      • Modernised curricula
      • Trustworthy QA
    • Increase the level of mobility of students and researchers
    • Speed up academic recognition
    • learning outcome approach (EQF)
    • Optimize regulatory framework for university-enterprise cooperation
    • Develop generic skills and entrepreneurial mindset
    • Reinforce links with society
  • The Bologna process
    • Intergovernmental process in higher education
    • Aim: to create a European Area of Higher Education by 2010
    • Focus on curricular reform
    • Based on the experience of the EU in terms of University cooperation
    • Began in Sorbonne in 1998 (DE, FR, IT + UK)
    • Bologna Declaration in 1999: 29 countries joined
    • Now encompasses 46 countries
  • The Bologna process
    • System of easily readable and comparable degrees
    • System with three cycles (undergraduate/graduate/postgraduate)
    • System of credits ( ECTS ) (transfert & accumulation)
    • Diploma supplement (DS) (joint UNESCO/Council of Europe/ EC initiative)
    • Promote mobility by overcoming obstacles (incl. pension arrangements, incentives for joint degrees)
    • European co-operation in quality assurance (comparable methods and criteria, Eur. standards & guidelines, Eur. register for QA agencies)
    • Promote European dimensions in higher education
    • Reforms are needed to allow universities to play their full role in contributing to the social and economic development of our countries
    • Despite the great variety of local situations major trends are common and priorities are very similar
    • A long way ahead of us. Beyond organisations and structures, it is a matter of changing minds and individual behaviors
    • Countries and systems have their own internal logics and coherences. Each country may find its own solutions because education is embedded in society. Education is a social reality.
    Conclusive remarks
  • Tempus – Modernisation in Higher Education Thanks a lot for your attention…!