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Workshop 1 Writing Learning Outcomes

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  • 1. Workshop 1 Writing Learning Outcomes Training Seminar Bologna Experts Madrid June 30th - July 1st 2008
  • 2. Introductory Questions
    • Do we need this workshop?
    • Why can´t we write learning outcomes right away?
    • What is really different?
    • Just rhetorics – or?
    • Who are we in here? Let´s introduce ourselves
    • Why do we meet? What are our expectations?
    • Is the objective of the session suitable, acceptable, feasible, sustainable?
  • 3. Introductory Questions
    • What kind of material could help?
    • Would a case study help at this time?
      • Which information do we require about a case?
    • Possible Examples
      • National Framework
      • Sectoral Framework
      • Institutional Framework
      • Module description
  • 4. Session 1 From the identification of social and employability needs to profile definitions
  • 5. Why to start and how to start an academic programme?
  • 6.
      • Tuning
      • Profile (of a degree programme)
      • Developed from awareness of social needs
      • Outcomes of consultation process of stakeholders
      • Diversity based on institutional strengths
      • In dialogue with European reference points
      • Described in competences and learning outcomes
  • 7. The Strategic Position Europeanisation (Internationalisation) of curriculum The Environment Bologna Declaration EU + 46 Countries Expectations and Purposes Stakeholders: Action Lines Do it right first time Resources and competences European diversity of Structures, processes, Outcomes EU-Programmes… Strategic Choices Implementation
  • 8. The Environment
        • Macro-
        • Environment: PESTEL
        • Industry: Porter´s Five Forces
        • Markets: geographic / product
        • HE institution: SWOT
  • 9. PESTEL
    • Political governments withdraw
    • Economic globalisation – skill shortage
    • Social LLL – continuous updating
    • Technological job enrichment, new jobs (cutting across)
    • Ecological awareness – new industries
    • Legal federalism – fragmentation?
  • 10. Porter´s Five Forces
    • Industry: education and training
    Competitors HE institutions Apprenticeships Foreign HEI Suppliers Formal Informal non-formal education Buyers Industry Higher education Substitutes Corporate universities Barriers to entry Legal permission Accreditation
  • 11. Markets
    • In geographic terms
        • DAAD
          • Brasilia, Jordan, Mexico, Namibia, Russia, Singapore, South Africa, Turkey, Vietnam
          • What does this mean?
        • EU
          • Through their programmes – not only of the General Directorate Education and Culture: the world
    • In product terms
        • Bologna
          • Overarching European Qualification Framework
          • National Frameworks
          • Third countries (Asia, South America, Australia, Africa…)
        • Individual Institution
          • Their interpretation of the Qualification Framework / Profile
  • 12. Ressources and Competences
    • Bologna,
    • a unique selling point?
  • 13. SWOT
    • European higher education institutions:
    • Strengths
      • Grants, living costs
      • Variety of cultures….
    • Weaknesses
      • Not one language (EAIE experience)
      • No transparency
    • Seen in the light of the analyses of the environment, expectations and purposes
    • to arrive at
    • Opportunities and Threats
  • 14. Critical Success Factors
    • Unique resources?
      • European diversity
      • European QA
      • European QFW
    • Core competences?
      • Mobility
      • Joint development of curricula
      • Academic recognition
    Bologna Declaration Brugges / Copenhagen Process ECTS/ ECVET Diploma Supplement Information Packages Learning Agreements
  • 15. Strategic Choices Strategic Choices Institutional level Departmental level Development- Directions and Methods The strategtic position Implementation
  • 16. Why / When should consultation of stakeholders take place?
  • 17. Ideas
    • Scenario technique might help:
      • Highest impact - most unlikely
  • 18. Scenario
    • Highest impact
      • EHEA
      • Quality Assurance
      • Qualification Framework
      • Academic Recognition
      • Credits
      • LLL
      • Governance
      • Market
      • WTO – education is a public good?
      • Education and training merge
      • Australia / US will penetrate the European market
      • Increasing concentration of suppliers
      • Increasing power of HE institutions of various type
      • Substitutes: corporate universities
      • The growth of education and training in developing market (Africa, Asia -----see DAAD)
      • Beginning of mergers and acquisitions, not just strategic alliances across countries, leading to more rapid concentration in the industry of education and training
  • 19. Scenario
    • Scenario 1: Benign
      • Education is a public good
      • Education and training merge
      • Australia and US will not penetrate the EU
      • Corporate universities will not be able to substitute
      • Growth of education and training in developing areas
      • No increase in concentration
  • 20. Scenario
    • Scenario 2: Hostile
      • Education is a market good / service
      • Education and training do not merge
      • Australia and US will penetrate the EU
      • Corporate universities will be able to substitute
      • No growth of education and training in developing areas
      • Increase in concentration
  • 21. Scenario
    • Scenario 3:„Industry wisdom“
      • Education is a market good / service
      • Education and training merge
      • Australia and US will not penetrate the EU
      • Corporate universities will not be able to substitute
      • Growth of education and training in developing areas
      • No increase in concentration but in cooperation (platform, hub-and-spoke, one-stop-shop)
  • 22. Consequences: Example cooperation
    • Types
      • Partnerships
      • Networks
      • Joint ventures
      • Strategic alliances
      • Franchising
  • 23. Consequences: Example cooperation
      • Forms of cooperation
        • Strategic Alliances
        • „ Dual“ Study-Programmes
      • Models for Curricula design
        • Platform
        • Hub-and-spoke
        • One-stop-shop
        • Screwdriver institution
  • 24. Common Platform – plus customised modules = individual study-programmes
  • 25. One-stop-shop FH OS Regional E&T Center Uni OS BA Lingen Bereich Nordhorn Bereich Bramsche Bereich Quakenbrück Bereich Melle
  • 26. HUB LH HUB UA Atlantik Hub-and-Spoke Code Sharing Berlin FMO Düsseldorf Hannover LA New York Dallas Spokes Spokes Spokes Spokes
  • 27. Consequences: Example cooperation
    • WTO
      • Dumping
      • Local content
      • Rule of origin
  • 28. Consequences: Examples of concentration
    • Mergers (floated on the Stock Exchange, Humboldt Berkeley University)
    • Acquisitions (floated, Chelsea Abramovitch University)
    • Corporate Universities (floated, Microsoft Intel Google University) …..
    • The issue: Shareholder value
  • 29. Which methods of consultation might be applied?
  • 30.
    • Regular platform
    • Questionnaire
    • Events
    • Teaching
    • Projects
    • Dissertations…..
    Examples
  • 31. How to choose the relevant stakeholders and about which issues should consultation take place?
  • 32. Expectations and Purposes
    • Stakeholders / Tool: Stakeholder mapping
      • Students
      • Parents
      • Economy
      • Society
      • Enterprises
      • Government
      • Teachers
      • The institution
  • 33. Stakeholder Mapping Teachers Friends Low Society Parents Enterprises High Low High Impact / Power
  • 34. Exercise: Prepare a profile (Each of you)
    • Write a short profile of one of the bachelor study programme in which you are involved: pp 135-139
  • 35. Group reflection
  • 36. Session 2 From profile description to identification of critical competences and learning outcomes for the degree programme
  • 37. Which methods can be applied to select the main generic and subject specific competences?
  • 38. When of relevance, to what extent should particular professions play a role in this selection process?
  • 39. Who should play a role in the selection of key competences? What should be their role?
  • 40. How can progression of learning outcomes be secured regarding the competence development of students in degree design?
  • 41. Exercise: Prepare a set of learning outcomes
    • LO can be written for a study-programme as well as for individual modules or course units
    • pp154-155
    • pp147-159
  • 42. Group reflection
  • 43. Workshop 2 Using Learning Outcomes Training Seminar Bologna Experts Madrid June 30th - July 1st 2008
  • 44. Session 3 From learning outcomes to a suitable structure and a fair workload weight of the degree programme units
  • 45. Which methods can be applied to programme the learning units ?
  • 46. If thought useful, how to decide on a modular structure ?
  • 47. Module
    • Definition
      • A module is a self-contained, formally structured learning experience with a coherent and explicit set of learning outcomes and assessment criteria.
    • Require
      • Define learning outcomes
      • Allocate credits
    • Facilitate
      • Design of individual study-programmes (profiles)
      • modularisation
      • Different routes to identifiable degrees, certificates, profiles etc.
  • 48. ECTS Good Practice to the advantage of LLL
      • Modules are not a prerequisite for the introduction of ECTS but they facilitate it.
      • A module carries credit as a whole. It is not possible to achieve credits for parts of a module.
  • 49. Good Practice
    • It is advisable that
        • a module lasts for a specified period of time
        • preferably for no longer than one semester
        • A module should neither be too small nor too large
        • It is suggested that a module should not carry less than 5credits.
        • It is also proposed that a module should carry 5 or a multiple of 5 credits.
  • 50. Which methods can be applied to decide on the appropriate weight of ECTS credits ?
  • 51.
    • Student-centred system
    • Based on workload required to achieve learning outcomes
    • “ Convention” that 60 credits represents an annual workload of a full-time student
    • Allocated to all aspects of study programme
    • Based on completion + assessment
    • Respects the Learning Agreement between student and institutions (transfer + accumulation)
    ECTS - Key Features
  • 52. ECTS – Key Features
    • About 40 weeks of full-time learning
    • Workload of 1,500 – 1,800 hrs per year
    • Normally 1 credit equals 25-30 hours
    • Time to be invested by the learner to achieve the learning outcomes, including independent studies
    • Credits are allocated in such a way that the first academic degree can be obtained on the basis of 180-240 credits predetermined in a respective study-programme
    • This has to be stated in the ECTS documents
  • 53. ECTS and Qualifications Framework
    • By the „ percentage“, „analytical“ or „determination“ method and by formative evaluation . A requirement is to know the profile of the learner or have at least an idea about him or her.
  • 54. Which leading criteria should play a role in the credit allocation ?
  • 55. Terminology
    • Workload
    • A quantitative measure of all learning activities that may be feasibly required for the achievement of the learning outcomes
    • Credit
    • A quantified means of expressing the volume of learning based on the achievement of learning outcomes and their associated workload
  • 56. Workload in detail
    • In ECTS the workload comprises the time spent for lectures, seminars, self-directed studies, preparation for and participation in examinations, etc. with the objective to learn
  • 57. ECTS - Links
    • Workload = Learning
    • Learning assessed = Credits
    • Requirement = Learning has to be assessed this must be possible)
    • „ Assessability“ = by defining the learning outcomes
    • Need = adequate method of assessment
  • 58. Exercise: Outline of a degree programme
    • Prepare an outline of a degree programme in terms of units/modules with their appropriate weight of ECTS credits
      • One for the degree programme Chapter 2
        • Should be developed with the LO to be achieved and the competences to be developed in mind. It should contain possible course unit titles and/or topics to cover.
      • One in which the units are related to the competences to develop Chapter 42 pp 88
        • Identify the competences to be developed for one course unit and write the set of related LO
  • 59. Group reflection
  • 60. Session 4 From learning outcomes to best strategies for teaching, learning and assessment
  • 61. In how far does the new paradigm of student centred learning have an impact on the teaching, learning and assessment approaches to be applied?
  • 62. Can new approaches be identified in your field which suits this new paradigm better?
  • 63. Can convincing arguments be identified to move from more traditional approaches to the new identified ones?
  • 64. Should the design of a course unit start with the identification of the method to assess the learning outcomes identified for the unit?
  • 65. Exercise: Prepare a document in which the ideal teaching, learning and assessment methods/ strategies for one educational unit are described
    • Tuning planning form
  • 66. Group reflection