Patrick Tolan, Ph.D. - "Positive Youth Development and Physical Health and Well-Being"
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Patrick Tolan, Ph.D. - "Positive Youth Development and Physical Health and Well-Being"

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Tolan is Professor at the University of Virginia in the Curry School of Education and the Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences in the School of Medicine. He is director of Youth-Nex: ...

Tolan is Professor at the University of Virginia in the Curry School of Education and the Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences in the School of Medicine. He is director of Youth-Nex: The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development.

Wrap-Up Panel -
This panel kicked off the final discussion of the conference's two day dialogue. Panelists suggested directions for public policy to help promote physical activity, health and well-being in children and adolescents.

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Patrick Tolan, Ph.D. - "Positive Youth Development and Physical Health and Well-Being" Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development PYD Approach To Development Into the Third Decade of Life Patrick Tolan Ph.D. University of Virginia, Youth-Nex Center October 23, 2012
  • 2. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development YOUTH-NEX Mission • Promote Healthy/Effective Youth Development • Enhance Potential of Youth as Healthy Productive Citizens • Reduce Developmental Risk – Through Focused Research, Training and Service
  • 3. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development Transition to Adult Status & Roles (Outcomes) • Key Functional Outcomes (Education, Marriage, Parenting, Work) • Key Social Roles (Community Involvement, Ownership, Conventional Roles) • Key Self-Definition Changes • Behavioral Continuity Horney, J., Tolan, P.H., & Weisburd, D. (in press). Contextual Influences. In R. Loeber & D. Farrington (Eds.), From Juvenile Delinquency to Adult Crime: Criminal Careers, Justice Policy and Prevention. Oxford University Press.
  • 4. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development Transition or Further Trajectory? • Past Predicts But Not Well • Enter At Different Age With Different Supports, Possibilities • Different Opportunities • For Many Transition is Transitional • Co-Occurring Development of Family, Friends, Society All are Same (Transition), All are Similar to a Subgroup (Variations), All are Unalike (Individual Variations)
  • 5. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development Transition or Further Trajectory? • • • • • • • Genetic/Inherited Propensities Gene Environment Correlation, Interactions, etc. Assortative Mating, Luck of the Draw Access to Social Resources Exposure to Social Risks Access to Family and Community Support, Role Mattering
  • 6. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development
  • 7. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development Community Community Neighborhood Neighborhood Family Family Child Child Multiple Influences Interacting Over Development
  • 8. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development Chicago Youth Development Study Patrick H. Tolan, Deborah Gorman-Smith, David B. Henry, Michael Schoeny, Susan Scrimshaw, Co-PI, Ethnography Funded by NIMH, NSF, NICHD, CDC-P and W.T. Grant Foundation
  • 9. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development SAMPLE • 341 African American and Hispanic adolescent males (148 African American, 193 Latino • Recruited from 17 Chicago public schools • high poverty, high crime communities • Half of the sample were selected because they had already displayed above average for community (95th% for US) levels of aggression • Mean age was 12.31 at the beginning of the study (range 10-15 years), first 4 waves annual • Seven Waves over 17+ years
  • 10. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development How Adolescent Trajectories Can Relate to Early Adolescent Functioning
  • 11. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development Delinquency Clusters/Trajectories Based on 4 annual waves of data from Self-Report of Delinquency ► ► ► ► Non-offenders: those with no or minimal aggression, but no delinquent behavior (24.3%). Chronic-minor offenders: those consistently involved in minor offenses over each of the four waves (34.4%). Escalators: those starting delinquent involvement at a later wave and escalate to serious offending (frequent & violent) (13.5%). Serious-Chronic: involved in serious and frequent (including violent) offending at every wave (27.4%).
  • 12. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development Delinquency Trajectories Distribution Non-Delinquent Chronic Minor Escalators Serious, Chronic, Violent
  • 13. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development Deceased? 10 8 Percent 6 4 2 0 Minimal Chronic Minor -2 ns for any comparison Escalator Serious, Chronic, Violent
  • 14. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development High School Graduate? 100 90 80 Percent 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Minimal Chronic Minor χ2(3,N=178)=11.70, p < .01 Escalator SCV < Others Serious, Chronic, Violent
  • 15. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development In a Stable Relationship? 70 60 Percent 50 40 30 20 10 0 Minimal Chronic Minor χ2(3,N=178)=2.35, ns Escalator Serious, Chronic, Violent
  • 16. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development Father by Age 25? 90 80 70 Percent 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Minimal Chronic Minor Escalator χ2(3,N=178)=2.78, ns, But, Escalators < Others Serious, Chronic, Violent
  • 17. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development Employed? 100 90 80 Percent 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Minimal Chronic Minor Escalator Serious, Chronic, Violent χ2(3,N=178)=4.41, ns overall But SCV < Minimal & CM
  • 18. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development Self Report Crime (Serousness Weighted Frequency) 3 Average Level 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Minimal Chronic Minor Escalator Serious, Chronic, Violent F(3,172)=4.66, p < .01 Escalators and SCV > Minimal and Chronic Minor
  • 19. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development Neighborhood Effects on Trajectory Relation to Functioning as Young Adult
  • 20. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development • Community Structural Characteristics: characteristics that reflect the economic and political/civic viability of the community • Neighborhood Social Organization: social processes or organization for support, regulation, aid
  • 21. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development Effects for Logistic Regression of Neighborhood Social Organization and Adolescent Trajectories on Young Adult Functioning • Community Structural Characteristics is not a main effect • Neighborhood Social Organization is not main effect in multivariate prediction model, controlling for Structural Characteristics • Primary Finding is interaction of neighborhood with trajectories for some outcomes
  • 22. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development 1 2 3 4 Non-delinquent (ND) Chronic Minor (CM) Serious, Chronic, Violent (SCV) Escalators (E) 0 Weighted Frequency Level 5 Crimes Committed -2 -1 0 1 Neighborhood Social Organization (W1-4) SCV vs ND, B = 0.60, χ2(1, N=208) = 5.24, p < .05 2
  • 23. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development 5 1 2 3 4 Non-delinquent (ND) Chronic Minor (CM) Serious, Chronic, Violent (SCV) Escalators (E) 0 Odds of a Stable Relationship (W7 Report) Stable Relationship -2 -1 0 1 2 Neighborhood Social Organization (W1-4) Slope: SCV vs ND, B = -0.87, χ2(1, N=208) = 3.80, p < .10
  • 24. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development Simplified Presentation of Trajectories on Crime by Neighborhood More Criminal Better Organization Intercept: SCV vs ND, B = 0.85, χ2(1, N=208) = 11.29, p < .01 Slope: SCV vs ND, B = 0.60, χ2(1, N=208) = 5.24, p < .05
  • 25. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development Applying a PYD/Youth as Manager of Resources Approach
  • 26. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development Moderated Model – Conceptual Diagram *All moderators inter-correlated (arrows not shown in diagram), Control for ethnicity
  • 27. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development Measures – Outcomes and Stressful Life Events • Outcome (Waves 4 and 5 ages 16-19) • • • • • School Attachment Endorsement of Prosocial/Responsible/Optimism Values Depressive symptoms Externalizing behaviors Stressful Life Events – Average numbers across types (wave 2) 1. 2. 3. 4. Health-related Economic-related Loss Exposure to crime and violence
  • 28. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development Moderated Model - Results School Attachment Prosocial Values CBC Externalizing Depression Age -0.033* -0.003 -0.307 -0.068 African American 0.109* 0.045 -2.542 -0.842 Baseline Aggression -0.004 0.001 0.096 -0.027 Stress Coping -0.004 -0.003 -0.007 0.050 1.134* 0.506 0.910* 0.105 Family Functioning -0.016 0.019 0.184 0.089 Prosocial Activities 0.062* 0.090* -0.567 -0.367 Stress*Coping -0.074* -0.132* 0.572 -0.202* Stress*Family Functioning -0.011 -0.023 0.666 0.506 Stress*Activities 0.028 0.049 -0.125 -0.002 Measure
  • 29. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development Effects Moderated by Coping Effectiveness Coping and School Attachment
  • 30. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development Effects Moderated by Coping Effectiveness Coping and Prosocial Values
  • 31. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development YOUTH-NEX 3 Major Tasks/Areas of Study for PYD and Youth Development Conference on PYD & Intervention Evaluation Youth-Nex Center, University of Virginia April 2, 2012
  • 32. The U.Va. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development To Map Youth Development from PYD Approach 1. Identify Functional and Process Outcomes (Consensus) 2. Methodology for Multitudinal Programs (Development) 3. Formulate and Test Theories of Transition vs. Subgroup Variation a. Dynamic-Systems Theory b. How Local/Ecological GOAL: TO PRODUCE YOUTH AS CAPABLE APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT INTO THIRD DECADE OF LIFE