Randy Bird - "Game Breaking Nutrition: Athletic & Academic Development of the Young Athlete"

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The Youth-Nex Conference on Physical Health and Well-Being for Youth, Oct 10 & 11, 2013, University of Virginia

"Game Breaking Nutrition: Athletic & Academic Development of the Young Athlete" - Randy Bird

Bird is the Director of Sports Nutrition for the University of Virginia.

Panel 3 - As we understand more about what defines good nutrition for youth, we are also increasingly understanding the importance of instilling healthy eating habits for youth in the context of family, school, and sport. This varied panel covers major topics within this under-considered but important area of youth development.

Website: http://bit.ly/YNCONF13

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  • I’d like to share some of the most frequently asked questions sports nutritionists hear from athletes. Maybe some of these questions are ones you have yourself.
  • Most low carb diets come up short in delivering enough calories and carbohydrates – two important components for athletes to achieve peak performance. Carbohydrates provide energy as glucose to the brain and muscles. Carbohydrate foods are stored in muscle and liver as glycogen.
    Many people on low carb diets suffer from negative side effects. Athletes need at least 50% of calories from carbohydrate throughout the day to keep muscle energy stores full. There are no “bad” carbohydrate foods, but some are better fuel sources than others. Optimizing glycogen stores means more fuel will be available for working muscles.
    The optimal “sports diet” should include a variety of foods to supply the appropriate fuel for exercise without being overly restricted in any one area. Young athletes especially need a balanced diet to meet increased nutrient demands. The way you eat should be a healthy eating pattern you can follow the rest of your life.
    Try this tip to get a balance of foods at your next meal. Picture a peace sign on your plate – fill two thirds of the plate with high carbohydrate foods, like whole grains, vegetables and fruit, and one third with protein foods, like lean meats, eggs, low fat dairy products or soy products. Include some fat since fat is a source of fuel for endurance exercise and is necessary to transport fat soluble vitamins.
  • Take a look at these sample body weights and dietary protein recommendations. Think about how many grams of protein you should eat per day. When you are in a muscle-building stage and strength training, aim for the upper range 0.8 g protein per pound of body weight.
    Protein is used to repair and rebuild working muscles and it is needed for a healthy immune system. But protein is not an efficient fuel source for exercise.
    Eating too much protein may lead to increased body fat, dehydration and an inadequate amount of carbohydrate.
    Manore M et al. J Am Diet Assoc 100:1543-1556, 2000
  • Look at these common foods and their protein content. Try to include one protein food at every meal and in most snacks.
    Ounce for ounce, all types of meat (red meat, pork, poultry, fish) have about the same amount of protein.
    Plant foods such as dried beans, soy products, nuts, seeds and legumes are excellent sources of protein.
    Dairy foods such as milk, yogurt and cheese provide protein and calcium for muscle and bone health.
  • Recovery after exercise is an important yet neglected part of the sports diet. It’s an ideal opportunity to restore the body’s glycogen or energy stores and refuel for the next game or practice.
    The best time to replace used energy stores in the form of carbohydrate is within 30 minutes of finishing exercise. The longer you wait, the longer it takes your body to replenish stores.
    Eating for recovery is especially important if you have more than one practice or game per day, such as in tryouts or tournament situations.
    Having some sports drinks, salty snacks and a variety of foods in your recovery plan will help you meet your body’s electrolyte needs.
  • Randy Bird - "Game Breaking Nutrition: Athletic & Academic Development of the Young Athlete"

    1. 1. Game Breaking Nutrition: Athletic & Academic Development of the Young Athlete 1
    2. 2. 2
    3. 3. 3
    4. 4. Nutrition Foundations… 4 1. Drink Early and Often. 2. Eat a Variety of Foods. 3. Eat Early and Often.
    5. 5. Eat a Variety of Foods 5 Red Yellow/Orange White Cherries Craisins Cranberries Raspberries Red Bell Peppers Red Cabbage Strawberries Tomatoes Watermelon Butternut Squash Canola Oil Cantaloupe Carrots Grapefruit Oranges Peaches Pineapples Pumpkin Sweet Potatoes Tangerines Yellow Bell Peppers Apples Bananas Cauliflower Onions Pears White Peaches White Potatoes
    6. 6. Eat a Variety of Foods 6 Green Blue/Purple Brown Asparagus Broccoli Brussels Sprouts Collards Green Bell Peppers Green Olives Guacamole Kale Mustard Greens Romaine Lettuce Spinach Black Olives Blackberries Blueberries Plums Prunes Purple Grapes Raisins Almonds Walnuts Peanuts Pecans Sunflower Seeds Wheat Germ Olive Oil
    7. 7. What are Carbohydrates? 7 The primary fuel source for athletes! Carbohydrates are NOT fattening. They get used for energy, leaving little to be converted to body fat.
    8. 8. What about low-carbohydrate diets? 8 None. Athletes need carbohydrates to provide energy to working muscles. Without carbohydrates, your performance and health can suffer. Consider these side effects: Fatigue – Limited menu choices  Irritability – Bad breath  Nutrient deficiencies  Diminished athletic performance 
    9. 9. Carbohydrate Sources Slow/Moderate: Eat Daily Fast: Eat Only on “Intense” Days Fresh Fruit Beans, All Varieties Lentils Corn Peas Squash Sweet potatoes Whole grain breads/rolls High fiber cereals (4 grams or more) Brown, wild, or black rice Pasta Quinoa Oatmeal Milk (Plain or Chocolate) Yogurt Cereals (less than 4 grams of Fiber) Poptarts Cereal bars Doughnuts Pancakes Waffles White rice White bread Bagels White potatoes Hashbrowns Pretzels Corn chips Crackers Rice cakes Ketchup Honey Molasses Sports drinks Fruit drinks Maple syrup Soda Candy 9
    10. 10. What about Protein? 10 Protein builds and repairs muscle. Protein produces hormones. Protein supports the immune system. Protein replaces red blood cells.
    11. 11. How much protein do athletes need? 11 Most people get enough protein. You need about 0.55 to 0.8 grams of protein per pound of body weight each day. Weight 100 lb 115 lb 130 lb 150 lb Protein g/day 55 – 80 g 65 – 95 g 70 – 105 g 80 – 120 g
    12. 12. What are the best ways to get protein in foods? 12 Food 5 oz. chicken breast (one half) 4 oz. lean sirloin steak 4 oz. turkey slices 1 cup mixed nuts 1 large hamburger 2 cups milk 2 eggs 2 Tbsp. peanut butter 1 oz. cheese 1 slice cheese pizza Protein (grams) 42 g 34 g 25 g 23 g 22 g 16 g 12 g 8g 7g 7g
    13. 13. What about Fat? 13 Fat is a substance in many hormones. Fat helps control satiety (fullness after eating). Fat stores our fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K). Fats deliver our essential fatty acids.
    14. 14. Fat continued 14 Fats that should be eaten regularly: Fatty fish (salmon) Nuts Olive Oil Canola Oil Flax Seeds Sunflower Seeds Oil-based dressings Fats that should be limited: Butter Fried Foods Saturated Fats (mostly animal fat) Trans Fats (partially hydrogenated oils)
    15. 15. Omega-3 Fat Necessary for Brain Development:  DHA plays a role in neurogenesis, neurotransmission, and protection against oxidative stress Studies done on rats show potential protection from concussions Food Sources:      Salmon Tuna (cans only have 20% of tuna steaks) Walnuts Seeds (Flax & Chia) Supplements: Fish Oil, Krill Oil, Algal DHA Oil
    16. 16. Iron Necessary for:  Hemoglobin & Myoglobin formation (Transporting oxygen to all cells)  Electron transfer (creating energy) Needs increase during adolescence Food Sources:      Meat Beans Whole grain products Spinach Dried fruit (Raisins, Figs, Dates)
    17. 17. Vitamin C Besides it’s antioxidant activity, Vitamin C is important for formation of connective tissue, wound healing, immune function, iron absorption, & formation of epinephrine Food Sources:      Peppers Citrus Fruits Green Leafy Vegetables Strawberries Broccoli
    18. 18. Eat Early and Often 18 Bigger Meals (3 per day) = Insulin Spikes, larger fluctuations in blood sugar Smaller Meals (5-6 per day) = Insulin Steady, stable blood sugar
    19. 19. When to Eat 19 Begin with Breakfast On a daily basis, you should eat every 3-5 hours (except for when you are sleeping) 2 – 4 hours before practice ASAP after a workout
    20. 20. Pre-Workout Fueling 20 1. Eat 2 to 4 hours before a workout. This may mean planning your meals at different times to accommodate your workout schedule. 2. Choose high-carbohydrate foods that are low in fat with a moderate amount of protein. A whole grain bagel topped with tomato slices and low-fat cheese, or breakfast cereal and fruit with 2% milk or soymilk, are both excellent choices.
    21. 21. Recovery: Don’t Miss the Window As soon as you finish lifting weights, you need a combination of protein & carbohydrates If you can tolerate it, you should get carbohydrates & protein 1-hour before lifting. Chocolate milk is a good choice. 21
    22. 22. Foods that can hurt Performance: 22 1. 2. 3. 4. Alcohol Energy Drinks Soft Drinks Fried Foods
    23. 23. Rules to Live By: 23 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Eat breakfast daily Eat every few hours (5-6 times daily). Try to choose the least processed foods. Eat a variety of colors. Include a lean protein source at every meal. Consume a combination of carbs and protein before and after workouts. Stay hydrated! Get adequate sleep!

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