IntroductionWe describe environmental forcesthat are requiring managers toimplement comprehensive changeprograms. We also consider whypeople and organizations often resistchange and how this resistance canbe overcome. We review variousprocesses for managingorganizational change.
FORCES FOR CHANGENature of the WorkforceTechnologyEconomics shocksCompetitionSocial trendsWorld politics
Managing planned changeChange: Making things differentPlanned changeUnplanned changeChange agents
What can change agents change? Changing structure Changing technology Changing the physical setting Changing people
Resistance to changeIndividual resistanceOrganizational resistance
Individual ResistanceHabitSecurityEconomic factorsFear of unknownSelective information processing
Organizational ResistanceStructural InertiaLimited focus of changeGroup inertiaThreat to expertiseThreat to established powerrelationshipsThreats to established resourcesallocation
Overcoming Resistance to change Education and communication Participation Facilities and support Negotiations Manipulation and cooperation Coercion