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‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬
‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬
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‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠ...
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬
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‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻴﺫﻴل‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ...
‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬
‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬
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‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻤﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭ...
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬
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‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴـﻁ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺩﺜﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﻌﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺄﺜﻴ...
‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬
‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬
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‫ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﻴﺸﻤل‬ ‫ﻟﻸﺭﺽ‬ ...
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬
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‫ﻗﺼ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺅ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻓ...
‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬
‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬
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‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁ...
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬
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‫ﻤﻌﻭﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻭﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺝ‬:‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﻭﻓﻕ‬‫...
‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬
‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬
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‫ﻴﺭﻯ‬)‫ﺭ‬.‫ﺒﺎﻟﻡ‬" (‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻼ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻁ...
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬
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‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺼﺎﺼـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺸـﺎﺭﻜﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒ...
‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬
‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬
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)Geosphere(‫ﺠﻤﻴـﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ...
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬
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‫ﻭﻨﻬـﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻐﻤﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻬﺭ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻴﺠﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺘﻴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺤﻴﺭﺘﻲ‬ ،...
‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬
‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬
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‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍ...
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬
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‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻭﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺸﻜل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺠ...
‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬
‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬
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‫ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ...
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬
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‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺩﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻌﺔ‬‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﺭﻨﻭﺒﻴل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻟ...
‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬
‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬
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‫ﻟﻠﺘﺼﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻀﻬﺎ‬.‫ﺘﻤ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬‫ﻴ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫...
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬
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‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺴـﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﻟ...
‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬
‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬
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‫ﺘﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﻓﻼ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻓﻌ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺯﺭﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ...
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬
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‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺼل‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺴﻁﺢ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻴﺔ‬...
دور الجغرافية في حل المشكلات البيئية المعاصرة.
دور الجغرافية في حل المشكلات البيئية المعاصرة.
دور الجغرافية في حل المشكلات البيئية المعاصرة.
دور الجغرافية في حل المشكلات البيئية المعاصرة.
دور الجغرافية في حل المشكلات البيئية المعاصرة.
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دور الجغرافية في حل المشكلات البيئية المعاصرة.

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Transcript of "دور الجغرافية في حل المشكلات البيئية المعاصرة."

  1. 1. ‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬ ١٦٣ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ‬‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬* ‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻤﻠﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻴﺒﻴﻥ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﺘﺭﺸـﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﺴﺘﻐﻼﻟﻬﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻘـﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺨ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻗﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻅﻬﺎﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬‫ﻭﺼـﻴﺎﻨﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ،‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬‫ﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﻭﻤﺠﺎ‬ ،‫ﻟﻺﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬‫ﻭﻏﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻭﺴﻁ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﺍﻥ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻩ‬‫ﺌﻨﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺔ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴـﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﺴـﺒﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤـﺭﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻀﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺨﺎﻁﺭ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﻜﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺭﻤﻲ‬‫ﻭﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒـﺅ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁـﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬)‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬(،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺴـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺠـل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺘﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﻭﺤﻤﺎﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺼـﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺠﺯﺃ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺠﺯﺀ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﻷﻥ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻁﺎﺭ‬. * ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻡ‬-‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺩﺍﺏ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬-‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬
  2. 2. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ١٦٤ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻴﺫﻴل‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺙ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬: ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬)‫ﺍﻻﻴﻜﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬(‫ﻤﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬ ،‫ﻤﺤﺩﺩ‬،‫و‬‫ﻫـﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻥ‬‫ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﺭ‬‫ﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻌﻅﻤﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻑ‬)‫ﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬(،‫ﺸﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬‫ﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﺘـﺭﺘﺒﻁ‬‫ﻟﻤﻜـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺄﺜﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺯﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻋﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺼﺒﺢ‬ )Ecosystem(‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﺩﺓ‬‫ﻴ‬،‫ﺔ‬‫ﺘﺸ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻜل‬‫ﻤﻌﻅﻤﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺼـﺭ‬ )Geosystem(‫ﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺸﻜل‬ ،‫ا‬‫ﺇﺫ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻼ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺇ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﻥ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺭﻯ‬ ،‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻬﻭﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺸﺎﺒﻪ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻥ‬)Geosystem( ‫ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬)Ecosystem()١( .‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺎﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻏﻡ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺎﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺒﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺼل‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺤـل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﻜﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻜل‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻋﻠﻤ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻋﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻴﻜﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠـﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻨـﺏ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬.‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺤﺙ‬‫ﺴ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻭﺀ‬ ‫ﻠﻴﻁ‬‫ﺘﺅﺩﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺴﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬: ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﻤﺠـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁـﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺠﺢ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻰ‬ ،‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻴ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻴـﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻤﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁـﻴﻁ‬ ،‫ﺒﻤﺴـﺘﻘﺒﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺅ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ (١) ‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ،‫ﻋﻴﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻅﻡ‬ ،‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ـ‬٩٩‫ـ‬٢٠٠٠‫ﺹ‬ ،١٧.
  3. 3. ‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬ ١٦٥ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻤﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺘﻬﺎ‬)٢( .‫ﻭﺘﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺸﺩﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬‫ﻭﺴﺭﻋ‬‫ﺘﻪ‬‫ﻭﻤﻘﻴﺎﺴ‬‫ﻪ‬‫ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻁﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻭﺍﻗﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻨﺘﻘﺎﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺭﻜﻴﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻭﻋﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺩﺍﺌﻤ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﻩ‬ ،‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﻴﻤﺔ‬‫ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬ‬ ،‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺘﻌﺭﻀﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺄﺨـﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺴـﺎﻋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﺎﺒﻜﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﻌﻘﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻜﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺴ‬)‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻜﻭﻨﻴ‬(‫ﺃﺜﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ،‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬‫ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬)‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻭﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬(‫ﻭﻤـﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻅ‬‫ﺍﻻﻨﻔﺠـﺎﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻠـﻭﺙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺯﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺎﻫﺭ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟـﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺴﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻭﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻉ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻤﻭﻏﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻅﺎﻫﺭ‬. ‫ﻭﻭﻅﻴﻔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺭﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺅﺍل‬‫ﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫؟‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ‬‫ﻥ‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻬﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺴﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺅﺍل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬‫ﺍﻟـﺭﻏﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻜﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻗﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻌـﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺤـل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻭل‬ ‫ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻓـﺈﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺼﺒﺤﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴـﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ،‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺇﻟﺤﺎﺤ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ‬‫ﻴﺌـﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﻅـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻁـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬ )‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬(. ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴـ‬ ‫ﻭﻫـﺫﺍ‬ ،‫ﻭﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ،‫ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺓ‬‫ﺭ‬ (٢) ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﻘﻕ‬ ‫ﻫل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﻥ‬ ‫ـ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒـﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬٢٠٠٢‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﻡ‬٢٠.
  4. 4. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ١٦٦ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴـﻁ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺩﺜﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﻌﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﺍﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻘﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩﺭﺓ‬. ‫ﺭﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﻓﻕ‬)‫ل‬.‫ﻥ‬.‫ﻜﺎﺭﺒﻭﻑ‬(‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬: ١‫ﻟﻠﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤل‬ ‫ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ‬ ‫ـ‬‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺒل‬ ،‫ﻤﻌﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬‫ﺒﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬‫ﺘﺸﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ﺜﻴﺭ‬‫ﺓ‬،‫ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﻨﻅﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬)‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬(‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻨﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻨﻬﺠﻴ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﺃﺴﺎﺴ‬ ‫ﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬. ٢‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻀﻡ‬ ،‫ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ـ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨـﺭﺍﺌﻁ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴـﺢ‬ ‫ﻜﺴﺠﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺒﺤﺎﺙ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻁـﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻁﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤـﻭﺙ‬‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜـﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺴﻴﻌﻬﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬. ٣‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴـﺔ‬ ،‫ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺸﻙ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺎﻟﻴﻡ‬)٣( . ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻜﺜﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻭل‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻠـﻙ‬ ‫ﻷﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐـﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸـﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺤﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺴـﺒﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺨـﺫﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻐـﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ (٣) ‫ـ‬ Geography Science And Art, p. ١٤٥. ٠p.Cit.
  5. 5. ‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬ ١٦٧ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﻴﺸﻤل‬ ‫ﻟﻸﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬:،‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴـﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﻩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬:،‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴـﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬‫ﻴـﺔ‬:‫ﻨﻤـﻭﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﻫﻨﺩﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬ ،‫ﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬ ،‫ﺒﻴﻭﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺇﻴﻜﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﻅﻬﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻨﻅـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼل‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ،‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺭﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟـﻙ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻤـﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺌﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺎﺘﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬)٤( . ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺯﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﺭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺅ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺱ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻴﺏ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺩ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺼـﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ )‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬(‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺸﻴﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻬﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻏﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬.‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻀﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻅﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻤﺜ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻨﺒﺄ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﻭﺍﻫﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺜﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬)٥( . (٤) ‫ـ‬ Smirnov , L.E , Geographical - Ecological Problems And Cartography Are Considered , Geology – Geography Magazine ,Leningrad University , Cycle ,٧ ,N ٣ , ١٩٩٠ , p.٥٠ ( )‫ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬ . (٥) ‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬ ،‫ﻭﺃﻫﺩﺍﻓﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻨﺎﻫﺠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺨﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺼﻔﻭﺡ‬ ‫ـ‬٣٧٧.
  6. 6. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ١٦٨ ‫ﻗﺼ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺅ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻷﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻁﻴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴـﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺘﻭﺍﺠﻬﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻨﺒﺅ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﻟﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤـﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴـﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻭل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺭﺍﺡ‬ ،‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻗﺏ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺨﻁﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬. ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺩﺃ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺸﻙ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴـﺏ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻱ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﺃﺨﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺎﻟﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﺍﺌﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﺤل‬،‫ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﺔ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩ‬ ً‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺠﺯﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻬﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬.‫ﻭﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻁﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﻭﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﺒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ‬‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻐﻼل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻯ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﺍﻵﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬. ‫ﺍﻹﻴﻜﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜـﻭﺍﺭﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀـﺎﺌﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻀـﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴ‬‫ﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺭﺍﺡ‬ ،‫ﻭﻨﺘﺎﺌﺠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﺯﻋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻯ‬‫ﺍﻟﻀـﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻠﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻔﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺠـﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺁﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺸﻙ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺩﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻤﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﻌﻜﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬‫ﻟـﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴـﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻭل‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻴﻜﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺴـﺒﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺄﺨـﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻁﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﻅﻬﺭﺕ‬
  7. 7. ‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬ ١٦٩ ‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‬‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻁﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ‬ ‫ﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻊ‬. ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬: ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻅﺎﻫﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﺄﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺎﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ‬ ،‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩﻫﺎ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻤـﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻭﻨﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺸـﻴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺸﻴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﺼﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻤﻰ‬٣٣ )٦( . ‫ﺒﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺼﻨﻑ‬‫ﺍﺌ‬‫ﺜﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ،‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻓﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬٤٣ )٧( : ‫ﻭﻤﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺠﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻤﺘﺠﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺩ‬:‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﻭﻓﻕ‬‫ﺍﻟـﺫﺍﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﺭﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻤﺜ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬)‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺠﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﺃﺨﻴﺭ‬ ،‫ﺸﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺒﻁﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺠﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﺎﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺠﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺤﻔﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻗﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﻤﺎﺕ‬(. ‫ﺏ‬‫ﻤﺴﺘﺒﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﺒﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ـ‬:‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﻭﻓﻕ‬‫ﻤـﻭﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺩﺍل‬ ‫ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤـﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﻤﺴﺘﺒﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻤﺜ‬ ،‫ﺁﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻭﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﺒﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬. )٦( ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺸﺭ‬ ،‫ﻏﻼﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ‬ ،‫ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﻫﺎﺠﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺘﺭ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬١٩٩٦‫ﺹ‬ ،٢٥١. )٧( ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ،‫ﺴﻜﻴﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ـ‬‫ﻋﻴﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻅﻡ‬ ،.‫ﺩﻤﺸـﻕ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼـﻔﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬ ١٩٩٧‫ﺹ‬ ،.١١٢‫ـ‬١١٣.
  8. 8. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ١٧٠ ‫ﻤﻌﻭﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻭﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺝ‬:‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﻭﻓﻕ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺴـﺘﺭﺠﺎﻋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻭﻴﻀﻬﺎ‬‫ﺒﺄﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺔ‬)‫ﺍﻟﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬(‫ﻷﺴـﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻤﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ‬ ، ‫ﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬. ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﻨﻅﺭ‬‫ﺒﻴﺌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺘـﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻻﺴﺘﻨﺯﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﻌل‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﻐﻼﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺭﺸﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺄﺘﻲ‬ ،‫ﻋﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻷﺴﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺒﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻴﺎل‬ ‫ﻭﺤﻕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺘﻬ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﻴﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ‬)‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬(‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺠـل‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺭﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺅﺍل‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺨﺘﺼﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫؟‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬:‫ﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺸﻤﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﻌﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻭﻋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺘﻠﻙ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤـﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻭﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺴـﺒل‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﺯﻋﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﺼﺎﺌﺼﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﺴﺘﻐﻼﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺭﺸﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﻠﺘﻔﺎﻋﻼﺕ‬‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺴـﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻤـﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺯﺩﻭﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺯﺩﻴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺠﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﺠﻬﺔ‬٥٣ )٨( . )٨( ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﺅﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﺃﺤﻴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ـ‬.‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ،‫ﺨﺭﻓـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺩﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻁﻼﺱ‬١٩٨٨‫ﺹ‬٣٠،١٣٥،١٧٩.
  9. 9. ‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬ ١٧١ ‫ﻴﺭﻯ‬)‫ﺭ‬.‫ﺒﺎﻟﻡ‬" (‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻼ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﻲ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ‬‫ﻤـﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﺒﺘـﺩﻓﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﺘﻘﺎﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬")٩( . ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻼﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﻌﻤﻠﻴـﺎﺕ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺞ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻗﺎﻟﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠـﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺯﻤﻨـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺯﻉ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻭﺯﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻌ‬‫ﺘﺴـﺘﻐل‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ٍ‫ﻭ‬‫ﻤﺘﺴﺎ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﻐﻼ‬‫ﻏ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃﻴﻀ‬ ٍ‫ﻭ‬‫ﻤﺘﺴﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺭ‬.‫ﻏﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻗﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻅﻬﺭ‬ ،‫ﻋﻘﻼﻨﻲ‬.‫ﺘـﺎﺭﻴﺦ‬ ‫ﺤﻘﻴﻘـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﺘﺄﺴﻴﺴ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴـﺎﻫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺩﺍل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻐﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﺯﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻲ‬.‫ﻭﻴﺭﻯ‬)‫ﺱ‬.‫ﺒﺭﻭﻥ‬(‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻤﺎﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐـﺭﺍﻓﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻼﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬: ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﺩل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻩ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴـﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴـﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ،‫ﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺘﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺴﻁﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﺸﻜل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ‬ ‫ﻜﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ،‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻼﻨﺩﺸﺎﻓﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ،‫ﻭﺘﻜﻴﻔﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻩ‬ ‫ـ‬)‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅـﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺎﻥ‬(‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠـﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺎﻀﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻴﻜﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒـﺎﺩﺉ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻅﻬـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺤـﺎﻭﻟﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺘﺠﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ )٩( Geography Science And Art, p.١٦٧.Op.Cit.
  10. 10. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ١٧٢ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺼﺎﺼـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺸـﺎﺭﻜﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺴﺒﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺫﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﻭﺩ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺼ‬ ‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺘﺠﺎﻩ‬ ‫ـ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻴﻨﻜﺒﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴـﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨـﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﺴﻔﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌـﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃﻴﻀ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺭﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺼﺎﺼﺎﺕ‬)١٠( . ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻐﻼﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺭﺸﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬: ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺘﺘﻁـﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜـﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ،‫ﺒـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺘﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺩﻭﻨﻪ‬.‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺩﺭﺱ‬‫ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺜل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﺍﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻁﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺎﺭﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺼـﻴﺎﻨﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺴـﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺼﻼﺤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻟﺤﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ‬٣٨ )١١( . ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻌﻜﻑ‬،‫ﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﻤﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﺍﻟﻐـﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺭﺱ‬ ،‫ﻜﻔﺎﻴﺘﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻲ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﺯﻉ‬ ،‫ﻜﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼـﻐﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒـﺭﻯ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬‫ﺒﻜل‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬‫ﻲ‬ (١٠) ‫ـ‬Geography Science And Art, p. ١٦١.Op.Cit. )١١( ‫ﺍﻷﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﻥ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﺹ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺩﻭﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻨﺱ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻫﻴﺭﻴﺔ‬ ،٩‫ـ‬١١/١٠/٢٠٠٠‫ﻡ‬.
  11. 11. ‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬ ١٧٣ )Geosphere(‫ﺠﻤﻴـﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﻌﻜﺎﺱ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻅﺎﻫﺭ‬)‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬"Geosphere"‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﻌﻜﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﺘـﺩﺍﺨل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺜﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺨﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻐﻼﻑ‬.( ‫ﻭ‬‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠـﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻘﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻯ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺩﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﻬﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﻭﻴل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻠـﻙ‬ ‫ﺫﻟـﻙ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺤﻭﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺴﻬﻡ‬ ،‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺨﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺩﺭﺱ‬ ،‫ﺒﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺯﺍﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺤﻭﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻤﺎﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﺯﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻉ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺌﻡ‬ ‫ﺠﻔﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﺤﻭﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻭﻋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻨﻬﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺅﻗﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺴﺒل‬‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻁﺭﺍﺌﻕ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﻫﻴل‬،‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻌﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁﻰ‬ ‫ﺁﺴﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺁﺭﺍل‬ ‫ﺒﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﻜﺠﻔﺎﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ٍ‫ﻲ‬‫ﺒﻴﺌ‬ ٍ‫ل‬‫ﺨﻠ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺴـﺭﺩﺍﺭﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﻬـﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻴـﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼـﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺒﺏ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺭﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺎﻗﺹ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻤﻭﺩﺍﺭﻴﺎ‬‫ﻭﺍﻨ‬‫ﻌﺩﺍﻤ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻜﺘﻨﺎﻗﺹ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻴﻜﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬١٠٠٠‫ﻜـﻡ‬٢ ‫ﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬٧٠٠‫ﻜﻡ‬٢ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻗـﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﺄﺜﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ،‫ﻗﺼﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺭﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ‬ ‫ﺠﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺒﺤﺭ‬.‫ﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺱ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬
  12. 12. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ١٧٤ ‫ﻭﻨﻬـﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻐﻤﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻬﺭ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻴﺠﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺘﻴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺤﻴﺭﺘﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻋﻭﺝ‬ ‫ﻨﻬﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﺭﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻜﻨﻬﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﻬﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻬـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺭﺯ‬ ‫ﺨﻠل‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻟﻰ‬ ،‫ﻤﺅﻗﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺌﻡ‬ ‫ﺠﻔﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ،‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬. ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻅﻬﺭ‬‫ﺒﺸـﻜل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴـﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻋـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺭﺃﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻤل‬ ،‫ﺨﺎﺹ‬١٩٨٦‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﻓﻴﻴﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺘﺤﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬"‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬"‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻗـﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﻬﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻭﻴل‬‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘـﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺘـﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺌﻲ‬.‫ﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺅ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺈﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻜﻭل‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﻜﺎﺯ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺨﻠﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻗﻁﻊ‬ ‫ﺠﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻗﺯﻭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬.‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬)‫ﺴﻴﻨﺎﺭﻴﻭ‬( ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺴﺒﺎﺏ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺨـﻼل‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟـﺯﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬‫ﺤـﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﻟﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﻤﻭﺭﻓﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻁﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﺯﻭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﺭ‬٣٩ )١٢( . (١٢) ‫ـ‬ Kislov, A.V ,Surkova ,G.V , Assessment of contribution of visible Evaroration from Caspian Sea Surface and level changes during Holocene and late Pleistocene. Moscow University Magazine , Cycle ٥ , Geography , N’ ٢ , ١٩٩٦ , p. ٧٥. ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬
  13. 13. ‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬ ١٧٥ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬: ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺨﻠﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺄﻟﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻏﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺩ‬ ،‫ﺜﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻭﺜﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻫﻤﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻗﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻨﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺘﺅﺩﻱ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻬﻤ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺼﻐﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﺥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ،‫ﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺤﻘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﺤﺩﺜﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻭﻟﻭﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬_‫ﻜل‬٢٠‫ﺃﻭ‬٤٠ ‫ﺃﻭ‬١٠٠‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺩﺭﺱ‬ ،‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺍﻨﻌﻜﺎﺴ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻴﺯ‬‫ﻴﺅﺩﻴﻪ‬‫ﺴﻁﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺤﻔﻅ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ٍ‫ﻕ‬‫ﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﻉ‬ ،‫ﺍﻨﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻭﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻅﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺜﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺸﻌ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌﻁﻲ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻴﺎﺯﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺏ‬ ‫ﺴﻘﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ،‫ﺒﺎﻷﻜﺴﺠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺤﻭﻱ‬ ،‫ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻤﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺌﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺌﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﺍﻷﻜﺴﺠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺼﺒﺤﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻴﻭﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﻫﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻤﺔ‬. ‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻁﻨﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬)o٣(‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻷﺨﺹ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻴﻭﻨﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺒﻭﺴﻔﻴﺭ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬‫ﻓﻬﻲ‬‫ﺁﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺨﻠل‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺩﻱ‬
  14. 14. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ١٧٦ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻭﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺸﻜل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺠﺯﻴﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬١٠%‫ﻭﺘﺩل‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﻘﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺜﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺨﻁﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺕ‬٤٠ )١٣( . ‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﻀﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺤﺘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬١٩٩٨‫ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ، ،‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺎﺴﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺭﻏﻡ‬ ،‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺎﺕ‬‫ﺠﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺘﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﺕ‬.‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬١٩٩٥ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬)IPCC(‫ﻤﻀﺎﻋﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺫﺭﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻜﺎﻓﻴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺴﺒﺒ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬١٥‫ـ‬٩٥‫ﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬٢١‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ، ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻤﻼﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﻌل‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺍﺤل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻁﻐﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺌﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻻﺠﺌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ‬ ‫ﺴﻜﺎﻥ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﺘﻀﺎﻋﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃﻴﻀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺤﺫﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻁﻘﺱ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﻤﺎﺘﻴﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷ‬‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺭﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻌﻁﻴل‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺼﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﺹ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺎﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ،‫ﻜﺎﻟﻤﻼﺭﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ‬‫ﻲ‬‫ﻀﻌﻑ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎل‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺭﺍﺠﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻘﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ‬٤١ )١٤( . (١٣) -Izrael , U. A , Ecology and Control of the State of the natural Environment , Moscow Headrometeo press , ١٩٨٤ , p. ٤١٧. ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬ (١٤) - HILARY FRENCH , Protecting the Planet In The Age Of Globalization.W.W. NORTON & COMPANY , New York London , ٢٠٠٠ , p. ٩٤.
  15. 15. ‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬ ١٧٧ ‫ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻓﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻨﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺯﺤﺯﺡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺯﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻁﻭل‬ ‫ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﻜﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬‫ﻨﻁﺎﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﻀﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺌﻤﺔ‬‫ﻭﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻀﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻌﺭﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺕ‬‫ﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﻠل‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬. ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻬﺫﺍ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺎﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺼﻤﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻻﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻁﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ،‫ﻭﺴﺭﻋﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻁ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻊ‬٤٢ )١٥( . ‫ﺍﻵﺜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻏﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺼﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻭﺍﺌﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻴﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﺒﺩﻋﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺍﻜﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺜﻭﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻟﺤﺭﺍﺌﻕ‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺭﺍﺌﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺯﺍﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘل‬ ‫ﻜﻭﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻁﻨﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭﺴﺭﻋ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺘﻘﺎﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺁﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ،‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺸﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ‬‫ﺘﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﻜﻨﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻤﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻤﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻻﺴﻜﻨﺩﻨﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻤﻥ‬ )١٥( ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻴﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ـ‬….‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬ ،٥٥.
  16. 16. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ١٧٨ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺩﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻌﺔ‬‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﺭﻨﻭﺒﻴل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻔﺎﻋل‬١٩٨٦،‫ﺍﻻﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻅﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺴﺒﺎﺏ‬‫ﻭﻨﺘﺎﺌﺠ‬‫ﻪ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺤﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﺼﻤﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ، ‫ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬. ‫ﺭﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﻓﻕ‬)‫ﺭﻴﺎﺒﺘﺸﻴﻜﻭﻑ‬ ،‫ﻤﻴﻼﻨﻭﻓﺎ‬(‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻨﻪ‬‫ﻤﻬ‬‫ﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬ ،‫ﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭ‬‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻭل‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺸﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ،ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬‫ﺘﻪ‬‫ﺒﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻌﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ‬٤٣ )١٦( . ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬: ‫ﺃ‬-‫ﻟﻺﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬: ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻘ‬ ‫ﻴﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺠﺎﻨﺱ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺸـﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻴﻘـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴـﻁﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻏﻠﻔـﺔ‬ ‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻘـﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗـﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻼﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﻻﻑ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻨﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺭﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬)‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺨﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬(‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ، ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬‫ﺘﻌﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬ً ‫ﻭﺸـﺭﻁﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﻴـﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀـﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼـﺭ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴ‬‫ﻜﺎﻟﻤـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼـﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻐﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﺄﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ،‫ﻏﺫﺍﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻷﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ‬. ‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺨﺘﻠـﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺴﻁﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺍﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻐﻁﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫـﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺤـﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻨﻅـﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻅﺭ‬ ‫ﻷﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ‬،‫ﺃﺠﻴﺎﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺎﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻁﻥ‬ ‫ﺸﻜل‬‫ﻴـﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺴﻁﺢ‬ ‫ﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﺸﻜﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬)‫ﺍﻟﻼﻨﺩﺸﺎﻓﺕ‬(‫ﻭﺨﻔﺽ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴـﺘﻤﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺴـﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺨـﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺨﺭﻴﺏ‬ ،‫ﻟﻸﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻜﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‬‫ﺨﺎﻁﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﻟﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻉ‬)،‫ﺤﺭﺍﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﺦ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺜﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ‬ ،‫ﺴﻘﺎﻴﺔ‬(..‫ﺍﻟـﺩﺒﺎل‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﺍﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﻠﻴل‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻤﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻀﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁـﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﻬﺎﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓـﻲ‬ ،‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ‬ ،‫ﺨﺼﻭﺒﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﻔﺽ‬ )١٦( ‫ﻤﻴﻼﻨﻭﻓﺎ‬ ‫ـ‬.‫ﻱ‬.‫ﺭﻴﺎﺒﺘﺸﻴﻜﻭﻑ‬ ،‫ﻑ‬.‫ﺃ‬.‫ﺘﺭﺠ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ‬ ،‫ﻡ‬‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺔ‬.‫ﺃﻤـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﺀ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ،‫ﻁﺭﺒﻭﺵ‬١٩٩٦‫ﺹ‬ ،٩٥.
  17. 17. ‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬ ١٧٩ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺼﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻀﻬﺎ‬.‫ﺘﻤ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬‫ﻴ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺸﻜﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬‫ﺒﺸـﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻨﺎﺠﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﺸﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻡ‬‫ﻋﻥ‬‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺒﺎﺏ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬)١٧( . ‫ﺏ‬-‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬)‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ‬:( ‫ﺍﺴـﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬‫ﻨﻅـﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻋﻁـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺸﻤﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺜﺭﻫـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺸﺭﺡ‬ ،‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬‫ﺃﺸـﻜﺎل‬ ‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﺍﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬‫ﺍﻻﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻐﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻔﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ،‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻭﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺒﻘﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨـﺭﺍﺌﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤـﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟـﻙ‬ ،‫ﺴـﻠﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻤﻭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻷﺴﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺭﺘﻭﻏﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺎﻀﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺼﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬. ‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬‫ﻭﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻜﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺌﻁ‬ ‫ﺀ‬‫ﺴﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻥ‬‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺎﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ‬‫ﺍﺌ‬‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻕ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﺒﺎﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴـﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁـﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺸﻌﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻅﻭﻤﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﺃ‬ ‫ﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻁﻁ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺸﻭﺍﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺨﻠل‬٤٤ )١٨( . ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘـﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﺘﻘـﻭﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻴـﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻀﻭﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻬـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴـﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁـﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺃﺠـل‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺭﺍﺡ‬ ،‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ (١٧) F. Reimers, Nature management, Moscow, Myslpress P. ١٠٩-٣٢٣ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺴﻴﺔ‬ )١٨( ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺜﺭ‬ ،‫ﻤﻠﺤﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﻨﺴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ـ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻟﻨﻴـل‬ ‫ﺃﻋﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻁﺭﻭﺤﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬،‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬٢٠٠١‫ـ‬٢٠٠٢‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﻡ‬٥‫ـ‬٧‫ﺒﺘﺼﺭﻑ‬.
  18. 18. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ١٨٠ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺴـﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﻟـﻸﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻜﻔـﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺩﻡ‬ ،‫ﺠﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ،‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺠﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻓ‬‫ﻴﻬ‬‫ﺎ‬.‫ﺭﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﻓﻕ‬)‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺭﺍﻨﻲ‬١٩٩٠(‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻥ‬ ،‫ﻟﺤﻀـﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺤﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻤﻴﺯ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﻗـﺩﺭﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺜﺒﺕ‬‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻋـﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺴـﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺴﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴـﺘﻘﺒﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁـﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴـﺎﻫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻨـﺏ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ،‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﻻﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ‬‫ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‬ ٍ‫ﺩ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬. ‫ﺘﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺠﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﻓﻌﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﻷ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻏﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺼﺒﺤﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭ‬٥٤ )١٩( . ‫ﺝ‬-‫ﻭﺘﺠﺩﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬: ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﺌﻨﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺌﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻌﻴﺸﻴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬. ‫ﻭﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﻫﺎ‬،‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴـﺘﻘﺒل‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﻔﺎﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺅ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻀـﺎﻫﻰ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴـﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒـﺎﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﺘﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻅﻡ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬‫ﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬١٣٣٩٢‫ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺴﺘﻐﻼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻟﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻜﺘﺎﺭ‬٨٦٠٨‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤـﺎ‬ ،‫ﻫﻜﺘـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ‬ )١٩( ‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺭﺍﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﻟﺢ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬ ،‫ﻭﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬)١٢(،‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻡ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ،١٤١٠،‫ﻩ‬١٩٩٠‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﻡ‬٣.
  19. 19. ‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬ ١٨١ ‫ﺘﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﻓﻼ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻓﻌ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺯﺭﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ‬١,٥‫ﺠﺩﻴـﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻟـﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻜل‬ ،‫ﻫﻜﺘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ‬٠,٥‫ﻨﺤـﻭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻜﺘﺎﺭ‬٨٠٠ ‫ﺃﺠ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻥ‬ ‫ل‬)٢٠( . ‫ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﺼـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺎﻗﺹ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺒﺏ‬ ،‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺸﻜﺎل‬ ‫ﺒﻁﺭﺍﺌﻕ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼـﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺯﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺴﻤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻴﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺸﻌﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺌﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻭﺍﻗﺏ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ،‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺼﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬‫ﺒـﺄﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺴﺒﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺒﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻌﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﺒﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬: ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻭﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺸﺭﺡ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻤﺨﺎﻁ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴـﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺯﺍﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺨﺎﻁﺭ‬ ،‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺨﺴﺎﺌﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘـﺏ‬ ‫ﺨـﻼل‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺴـﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺴـﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻁﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻭﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺼـﺭ‬ ‫ﻫـﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻀﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺼﺒﺢ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺤﺩﺍﺙ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻔﺎﻋل‬ً‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﺘﻔﺎﻋ‬‫ﻤﻜﺸﻭﻓ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ٍ‫ﺩ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬. ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠـﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﺭﻨﻭﺒﻴل‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺭﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺤﺎﺀ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘـﺄﺜﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺠﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺭﺍﺌﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺭﺜﻴﺔ‬‫ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺴـﻁﺢ‬ ‫ﻓـﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘـﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻴﺭﺯﻭل‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺯﻴﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺨﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻁﻼﻕ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺌﻕ‬ (٢٠) ، ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ،‫ﻋﻴﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻅﻡ‬ ،‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬٩٩-٢٠٠٠‫ﺹ‬ ، ،‫ﻡ‬٢٦٠.
  20. 20. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ١٨٢ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺼل‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺴﻁﺢ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺸﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻔﺽ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬٩٥%، ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺜل‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐـﺭﺍﻓﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ،‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺒﺤﻭﺜ‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ،‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻴﺔ‬. ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻨﻴﻨﻐﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬١٩٦٠‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺸﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬٣٠‫ﺤـﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬ ،‫ﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﻤ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﺹ‬‫ﺒﻤﻌﺩل‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺸﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬٧%‫ﺃﻜﺴـﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺜـﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌﻭﺩ‬ ، ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﺹ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺠﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺯﻭﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬٠,٣،‫ﺍﻷﺭﻀـﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜـﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻅﻬﺭﺀ

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