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Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
Ipm floriculture europe
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Ipm floriculture europe

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  • 1. A European perspective of IPM in glasshouses, with emphasis on floriculture Irene Vänninen Agrifood Research Finland 5th National IPM Symposium, St. Louis, USA, April 4-6, 2006 Presentation at minisymposium: ” ”Are alternative IPM approaches for greenhouse and nursery pests feasible” Rikalan puutarhasäätiö Borisoffin Puutarhasäätiö
  • 2. 1. Glasshouse technology in Europe North Scandinavia (Finland) Glasshouse structures: single-span houses The Netherlands, NW-Europe Spain (Almeria) Venlo-blocks; wide-span houses shade cloth + plastic houses Map image courtesy: http://www.europa.eu.int Image courtesy: http://clairepentecost.org
  • 3. Artificial Lighting: NO, FI (DK, NL, UK) Supplementary lights Yield of AYR cucs/FI: between plant rows to 120-140 illuminate lower leaves kg/m per year Whiteflies, thrips, powdery mildew. Behaviour of beneficials Costs of IPM Finland: 30 % of cucs area and 25 % of tomato area with ArtLight Photo by Tom Murmann Photo by Tom Murmann tomato and cucumber 180-250 W/m2, in cucumber even 300 W/m2 (=about 16000-22000-28000 lux), rose, gerbera 180-220 W/m2
  • 4. Size of glasshouses The NL: Elsewhere: Photo by Pauliina Laitinen Average size e.g. 0.25 ha Finland, Average size: > 1ha 0.3 ha Germany
  • 5. Size-related problems… The NL: Scouting in dense crops or in mobile beds (roses, chrysanthemum). Economics of scale in terms of IPM per unit area
  • 6. Degree of specialisation The NL with high exports of flowers: IPM less complicated in one-crop companies Plant species and cultivar selection at Her- Plant species selection at Dion ten burg rosenkwekerij (NL): 3 ha of Passion. Have’s company: 3 ha Campanula.
  • 7. Degree of specialisation Countries producing mostly for domestic markets: Heikkilä, Turku, Finland IPM more complicated in multiple-crop companies Photo by Pauliina Laitinen Photo by Pauliina Laitinen …and more… Photo by Pauliina Laitinen Photo by Pauliina Laitinen Photo by Pauliina Laitinen Domestic, relatively small market many sorts of plants less possibilities for mechanisation production is labor intensive higher labor costs
  • 8. Degree of mechanisation The NL: high specialisation Elsewhere (but not everywhere): high mechanisation Hand-packing allows last look Photos by Pauliina Laitinen on pests in plants discard infested ones Mobile growing tables, mobile beds (gerbera, rose, tulip, chrysanth.), transport systems, sorting and Less but increasing, particularly bunching machines, camera-based spacing of pots in big new units
  • 9. Degree of mechanisation The NL: Elsewhere: Photo by Pauliina Laitinen Manually operated hydraulic sprayers, cold-foggers In the NL, labor costs of spraying not as important a cost factor as before in relative terms, labor for applic. of beneficials an important cost factor nowadays! Spray robots
  • 10. Computer-controlled climate regulation The NL: North-west/North Europe: Pest monitoring results are put in the computer on the spot. Photo by Pauliina Laitinen Documentation and submission of data required by certified label organizations is computerized Photo by Pauliina Laitinen
  • 11. European glasshouse horticulture in the 21st century – anticipated developments Focus on biotechnol. & breeding (pest resistance); Scandinavia: high quality regional niche biosensors for tracking quality-changes in prod- production (products vulnerable to trans- ucts; computerized production control & robotics port; emphasis on selling, not producing; in large units; closed climate-controlled g-houses ”Recreational horticulture” (Garden Cen- ters etc.) Degeneration of horticultural education! (loss of knowledge among academics, decrease in the number of students with A new horticult. cluster will form in academic education) northern Poland – development with Dutch & Danish money, money exports to elsewhere in Europe Hungary exporting to the countries of Balkan? Production expands along the Mediterranean coast Source and image courtesy Rolf Larsen http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/sci/hri2/newsandevents/oldernews/bewleylecture/rolf.pdf
  • 12. 2. Use of IPM in European floriculture Crops & production acreages Status of IPM in the NL, UK, and Scandinavia (with brief look on other countries) and reasons for differences Costs of IPM Future prospects of IPM in European floriculture
  • 13. Top-10 producers of glasshouse ornamentals areawise (ha) in Europe Trends in flower production in the most advanced production countries: •production area is slowly declining 300 •number of growers is decreasing 322 •average company size is increasing 655 •total production is stable 850 1022 5700 NL Italy NL: emphasis on Spain cut flowers 2215 Germany France Other countries: UK emphasis on Poland potted flowering Belgium plants & bedding 2683 plants Denmark Ireland 4309 =95 % of total area of 3014 about 23 000 ha
  • 14. Interfaces influencing the adoption and success of IPM I Plant protection problems: Pesticide availability & efficacy, environ- mental & health issues factors that necessitate IPM II Grower: adoption and suc- Geography, pest complexes, growing systems, types of glasshouse; grower success of IPM psychology, skills & educational level Extension system & resources, research III Support: implementation in local conditions (resources), availabil- and success of IPM ity & efficacy of BCAs & selective pestic- ides IV Market: continuity of Costs of other PP strategies, imago bran- ding, trademarking (added value of prod.), IPM certified labels in response to consumer/ retailer demands V Legislative: obligations, Binding legislation, agreements between incentives stakeholders, cross compliance within EU
  • 15. The road to IPM in ornamentals in The NL 5700 ha 6400 companies Cut flowers 60% of flower area: Rose, chrysanthemum, Alstroemeria, Freesia, Lily, Gerbera,orchids, Anthurium, carnation, many others Pot plants 24%; of which 40% foliage: Fi Reasons to implement IPM: cus, Dracaena, Hedera, Schefflera, palms; 60% flowering: kalanchoe, orchids, chrys., Environmental issues gerbera, roses, begonia, Campanula,saint- paulia, Primula, Hortensia, cyclamen… Pesticide resistance Other flowers 16% Retailers’ criteria on pro- duction system’s quality
  • 16. The road to IPM in ornamentals in The NL: agreements between stakeholders Convenant Glastuinbouw en Milieu (GLAMI) (1997-2010). Agreement on glasshouse crop production and Environment (all relevant stakeholders): set goals to reduce the use of energy, pesticides and fertilizers. Milieu Plan obligatory in companies. Convenant Gewasbescherming Legislative + PP problems (2003): stimulation of IPM interfaces very important 1.1.2005 Resolution on the principles of IPM Meerjarenplan Gewasbescherming (1991-2000): initial step to reduce use of pesticides & emissions Telen met toekomst 2003-07 MPS (Milieu SIGNatuur Project Sierteelt) Strateeg 1997-2000 1993 2004-07
  • 17. The road to IPM in ornamentals in The NL: role of support interface <1% area with IPM guidelines for environmentally friendly MPS (Milieu production certification: MPS certification Project Sierteelt) system 1993 use of biocontrol encouraged to reduce pesticide use 10% area with IPM SIGNatuur Demonstration project on the possibilities 1997-2000 of IPM in greenhouse ornamentals Gov. withdrew from knowledge transfer break- 20% area with IPM up of the traditional knowledge transfer triptych M o b i l i s a t i o n! Research-Extension-Education Strateeg Telen met toekomst now 38% area with IPM 2004-07 2003-07 (goal: 80 % by 2010) Grower network for participat- Socio-technical network: Testing ive and stepwise learning and delivery of ”Best Practices”
  • 18. The road to IPM in ornamentals in The NL: market interface (quality assurance schemes) ENVIRONMENTAL CERTIFICATION based on the usage of energy, PPPs and fertilizers and trmt of waste. A, B & C MPS-A,B,C categories based on what kinds of pesticides are used; MPS-MIND is the indication system for the hazard level of pesticides. MPS-GAP Corresponds to EurepGap quality assurance scheme (retailers’ demands on production systems) MPS also in: DK, BE MPS-SQ MPS-SQ. Socially qualified production conditions. MPS-QUALITY MPS-Quality of products and services. More info: p.vant.hoff@my-mps.com MPS-Florimark Top growers with MPS-A, MPS-GAP, MPS-SQ, MPS- QUALITY Image courtesy: www.my-mps.com
  • 19. Other quality assurance schemes: (also ornamentals) Quality assurance demands by large retailers (supermarket chains) Mostly in use: UK, NL, BE, AU, IT, ES http://www.agribusinessonline.com/regulations/eurepprotocol.pdf
  • 20. Elements of IPM in European floriculture • Quarantine • Oils, soaps, other • Monitoring biorationals • Hygiene • Selective pesticides • Screening of vents • Spatial integration: • Biocontrol chemicals on leaves, biocontrol in soil or vice • Insect pathogenic fungi in versa propagation areas • Temporal integration: • Mechanized application biocontrol in mother stocks, methods of beneficials chemical in sales plants • Regular inundative releases • Educated personnel • Banker plants • Emphasis on ”easy” crops • Host plant resistance
  • 21. IPM in use in the NL: Rosenkwekerij Joop van de Nauweland The most important thing is scouting! 3 ha of roses (Sphinx, Explosion). Company has MPS- certification. Biol. control: spider mites, citrus spider mites, thrips. Chemical control: whiteflies, scales, aphids, powdery mildew (spot treatments). Sulphur fumigation for 4 hours only after powdery mildew trmts. Crop manager Arend Monitoring: 3-5 hours weekly. Two persons+ Book: 15 years expe- the whole staff monitors when maintaining the crop. rience on IPM. Written record sheet at the end of all beds.
  • 22. Amblyseius cucumeris against thrips. Old flowers are removed regularly in Action threshold level for corrective summertime to hinder development chemical trmts 10 thrips per sticky of thrips population. trap (1 trap/1000 m2). swirskii is in trials. An advisor visits once in two weeks, 1,5 hours at a time A. californicus is applied against citrus spider mites (in photo: damage by this mite).
  • 23. IPM in chrysanthemum in the NL: combined role of market, support and PP problems interfaces Rapid changeover taking place – in two years almost 50% of chrys. area under IPM IPM program developed by Syngenta a keyto succes of IPM in this crop. IPM enables continuous efficacy of Vertimec with alleviated resistance prob- lems (Vertimec=abamectin-based acaricide/insecticide). big areas attract biocontrol producers (R&D, advice), in the NL several domestic producers of biocontrol agents offer their products for chrysanthemum Best practices of plant protection of chrysanthemums developed: www.telenmettoekomst.nl IPM program outline for cut chrysanthemums: http://www.syngentacropprotection.nl/gew/chrysant/
  • 24. IPM in ornamentals in the UK Map image courtesy: http://www.world66.com/myworld66/visitedEurope Cut flowers (160 ha=16% of total area of 1022ha): chrysanthemum, Alstroemeria, carnations, pinks, others Pot plants: chrysanthemum, begonia, poinset- tia, foliage plants Bedding plants: Fuchsia, Geranium, Pansy Important factors for advancement of IPM: early start in the end of 1980s (Les Wardlaw pioneering) (=support interface) enthusiastic IPM specialists transferring knowledge (now reduced in numbers due to privatization) (Jude Bennison, ADAS and her coworkers) (=support interface) resistance problems (=PP problems interface) retail pressure to reduce pesticide use (but no financial premium for IPM) (=market interface) ”Best practices” for most important crops large domestic biocontrol producers advising+biocontrol products see also http://www.bopp.org.uk/home/ British Orn.Producers certification scheme
  • 25. IPM in the UK ornamentals Use of IPM in glasshouse horticulture, UK Crop % of area under IPM* Beneficials used most often: Tomato 79,4 Cucumber 91,2 Encarsia formosa Peppers 89 Phytoseiulus persimilis Strawberries 50,5 Other fruit 66,3 Aphidius colemani Pot chrysanthemum 58,5 Amblyseius sp. Other pot plants** 70 Aphidoletes aphidimyza Alstroemeria 55 Hypoaspis miles Hardy nursery stock 17,4 Other flowers & foliage 16 * IPM=at least one species of biocontrol agent in 1999 only 30 % was used in the crop (Jude Bennison, ADAS, pers. communic.) * begonia, cyclamen, ferns, fuchsia, gerbera, hydrangea, ivy, kalanchoe, poinsettia Source: Pesticide Usage Survey Report 196. Protected crops (edible and ornamental) in Great Britain. D.G. Garthwaite & M. R. Thomas. National Statistics. Central Science Laboratory.
  • 26. IPM in glasshouse floriculture: Scandinavia relatively small acreages of glasshouse floriculture: Denmark 322 (pot plants) Finland 175 ha (bedding plants, pot plants, cut rose) Norway 106 ha (pot plants, cut rose) Sweden 16 ha (pot plants, bedding plants) Environmental pressures not certified labels not very explicit conc. excessive to reduce pesticide pesticide use or IPM (except in Den- use in glasshouse crops mark, where MPS label is owned by several growers) Pesticide reduction plans: DK, SE, FI (but emphasis in arable expensive beneficials (shipment costs) crops) in Norway, Sweden, Finland (but now one Finnish producer) small number of registered In Denmark, domestic producers of bc- pesticides resistance prob- agents. lems push towards IPM
  • 27. IPM in Norwegian glasshouse floriculture Cut roses – a special case in IPM of ornamentals in Norway: 50 % IPM (Annichen Smith-Eriksen, pers. communic.) small area (15 ha) concentrated in Rogaland Photo: Annichen Smith-Eriksen very narrow selection of pesticides IPM is the only Rose growers in Norway learning from possibility each other. two successive knowledge- in other types of ornamentals transfer projects that included <10% IPM roses
  • 28. IPM in Finnish glasshouse floriculture no legislavite incentives for IPM IPM starting in cut roses (10 tight economical situation of growers companies (50% of total area) big resistance problems in cut roses participate in the knowledge transfer project INTO Extent of biocontrol and IPM in Finnish glasshouse crops (% of area) (Grönroos & Nikander 2002, questionnaire survey ) Cut flowers Pot plants Other vegetables Potted vegetables Tomato Cucumber 0% 20 % 40 % 60 % 80 % 100 % Banker plants for rearing aphid Biological IPM Only chemical Not reported parasitoids above potted roses + phone survey in 2004: 28 % used IPM (cut flowers + pot plants + bedding plants) (Korkala 2005)
  • 29. Finland: AYR production: winter con- ditions not favourable to all beneficials despite artificial lighting Photo: Marika Linnamäki Denmark: 30-35 % IPM (pot plants, which comprise 75% of the total area of glasshouse ornamentals 322 ha) (Eilenberg et al. 2000) http://www.dansk-ip.dk/
  • 30. 3. Costs of IPM in European floriculture IPM costs in cut roses in two German and two Finnish cut rose crops Note: Germany IPM: labor costs included, Finland IPM: not included 6 5 2 4 euros/m 3 2 1 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Year average cost of chemical control in Finland: 2.35 e/m2 (labor incl.) Finland A Germany A Germany B Conventional PP, A Conventional PP, B Finland B German source: Horstmann, Richter, Klose & Sell 2006. Long-term costs in biological pest control with beneficial organisms in cut flower roses. Nachrichtenblatt des deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstens.(in press). Finnish source: bookkeeping of the greenhouse companies
  • 31. Proportional costs for different pests, Finnish cut rose crop (IPM) Achievable goal: IPM with developed know- 6,00 ledge basis, excl. labor (Lepaa Hort. Coll.) 5,00 Powdery mildew 2 4,00 euros/m Spider mites 3,00 Thrips 2,00 Aphids 1,00 0,00 Average chemical 2004 2005 control per m2, incl. Year labor (2002-06) after having ”tasted” the totality of benefits of IPM, growers want to stick to it and try to: • Reduce costs by deepening the knowledge basis • move from the safe side of application rates to lower rates of beneficials • rely on economics of scale (reduced costs per m2 with increase in area under IPM)
  • 32. Economics of scale of using beneficials in cut roses Costs €/m2 Ellen Richter, BBA, coord. of Nützlinge I & II Glasshouse area, m2 Source: http://www.bba.de/projekte/nuetzlinge/nuetzl_start1.htm (Ellen Richter, BBA, Germany)
  • 33. Costs of plant protection in poinsettia in Germany (commercial greenhouses) Cost per Company PP methods 1000 plants, Pests € Only beneficials: 15 x Encfor (1 1 per 3-6 plants), 1 x Steinernema 1,64 whiteflies, fungus gnats (5000/pot) Like 1, but for 4 weeks 1 whiteflies (heavy infestation), 2 Encfor/plant 1,84 fungus gnats whiteflies (heaviest infestation), 3 Like 1 + 1 x Confidor 1,94 fungus gnats Like 1 + 3 fungicide trmts: 2 x whiteflies, fungus gnats, 4 Rovral, 1 X Previcur 3,64 Rhizoctonia, Botrytis, Pythium heavy whitefly infestation, fungus Like 2 + 3 fungicide trmts: 2 x 5 Rovral, 1 X Previcur 3,84 gnats, Rhizoctonia, Botrytis, Pythium heaviest whitefly infestation, Like 3 + 3 fungicide trmts: 2 X 6 Rovral, 1 x Previcur 3,94 fungus gnats, Rhizoctonia, Botrytis, Pythium Chemical: 2 x Confidor, 1 X whiteflies, Rhizoctonia, Botrytis, 7 Nomolt, 2 x Rovral, 1 x Previcur, 1 4,10 Pythium, fungus gnats x Steinernema (5000/pot) Control from 1987: 46 pesticide whiteflies, Rhizoctonia, Botrytis, 8 trmts(!) (Ambush, Thiodan, 15,5 Pythium Malathion, Benomyl, Previcur) Source: Krodel, K. 1996. Gartenbauwissenschaft 1/96, 37-46
  • 34. 4. Future prospects of floriculture IPM in Europe UK up to 70% under IPM depend- ing on crop species NL 38% Denmark 30-35% FI 30% pot plants, <10% cut roses) NO: 50 % cut roses, What about others? <5% pot plants
  • 35. Extent of IPM in some other countries Switzerland < 5 % (230 ha) 300 322 SE <25% pot plants Poland <5%? 655 850 1022 5700 NL Italy Spain France < 5 % 2215 Germany France UK Poland Belgium 2683 Germany 5 % Denmark Ireland 4309 3014 Italy <5? Spain < 5%? The big producers of ornamentals are the challenge re. the changeover to IPM in Europe ? =no exact data available
  • 36. On-going knowledge transfer projects in floriculture ”Integrated Pest Biological pest control in cut roses Management in and cucumber grown with new Ornamentals” (INTO) lighting methods www.agropolis.fi/into www.bioforsk.no (coord. Irene Vänninen) (coord. Nina Johansen) + less organized, but by no means not less efficient knowledge transfer in UK, DK, AU, SE… Nützlinge I+II www.bba.de/projekte/nuetzlinge/nuetzl.start1.htm (coord. Ellen Richter) Strateeg www.groeiservice.nl (coord. Annelies Hooijmans) Pest Control Telen met toekomst http://www.pcsierteelt.be/hosting/pcs_site. www.telenmettoekomst.nl Nsf?Open (coord. Ellen Beerling) (coord. Marc Vissers,Liesbet Blindeman Threat: government support to advisory/extension systems decreasing everywhere
  • 37. EU-level incentives encouranging IPM?: Thematic Strategy on the Sustainable Use of Pesticides -Finalizing in May 2006? -Seems to end up only recommending national schemes to be developed -Hardly a strong incentive for glasshouse floriculture IPM – natio- nal schemes more important -NL, UK, DE, DK, SE, FI, BE: National Pesticide Reduction Plans (but emphasis clearly on edible crops) EU-project REBECA www.rebeca-net.de: aims at developing a balanced system of regulation of biocontrol agents to promote the implementation of biological control in European countries
  • 38. Market demands pushing floriculture towards IPM? Organic flowers? Fair flowers and plants? Estimation of achievable market share (DE, NL, CH, AU): 3-5 % (Billmann & Schmid 1999 http://www.fibl.net /forschung/anbautechnik-einjaehrig /bioblumen/billmann1999.php Image courtesy: http://www.fairflowers.de/ - 49 companies in South-Africa, Kenya, Ecuador, Portugal (1000 ha) - IPM not explicitly mentioned in standards, but… Production guidelines in several countries -…companies in these countries are Image courtesy: http://orgprints.org/3824/01 moving towards IPM pressure for /3824-02OE265-ble-igz-2003-stecklinge.pdf European floriculture to follow??
  • 39. Acknowledgements: Growers of ornamental plants: Leo Holstein, Holstein Flowers, NL Staff of INTO-project, FI: Arend Book, Rosenkwekerij Joop van de Pauliina Laitinen, Agropolis Ltd. Nauweland, NL Marika Linnamäki, Agropolis Ltd. Marco Herburg, Herburg Rosenkwekerij, NL Ike Vlielander, FIDES, NL IPM specialists in different countries: Dion ten Have, NL Annelies Hooijmans, Groeiservice, NL Sirpa Anttila, Viherlandia, FI Ellen Beerling, WUR, NL Martin Tarhat Oy, FI Filip van Noort, WUR, NL Ylitalo Oy, FI Ruud van Leeuwen, Strateeg-project, NL Heikkilän kauppapuutarha, FI Jude Bennison, ADAS, UK Lepolan puutarha, FI Monica Tomiczek, ADAS, UK Huiskula Oy, FI Annichen Smith-Eriksen, NO Ruusutarhat Oy, FI Ellen Richter, BBA, DE Martin Hommes, BBA, DE Organizers of the symposium Annie Enkegaard, Danmarks Jordbrugs ”Delivering a promise” (5th National IPM Forskning, DK Symposium, USA, St. Louis) Leszek Orlikowski,Inst. Pomology and Floriculture, PL Roselyne Souriau, Gie La Croix, FR Mireille Piron, Koppert B.V., FR Celine Gilli, Swiss Agric. Res., CH Sirpa Kurppa, Agrifood Research Finland MTT, FI

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