Unofficial Translation
ُ‫اط‬َ ‫ر‬ِ‫الّص‬ُ‫مي‬‫ر‬‫ق‬َ‫ت‬ ْ‫س‬‫مل‬‫ا‬
The Straight Path
Shaykh Muhaddith ^Abdullah Ibn Muham...
It might be said: Unofficial Translation
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ُ‫اط‬َ‫ر‬ِّ‫الص‬ُ‫يم‬ِ‫ق‬َ‫املست‬ُ
The Straight Path
Al-Muhaddith Ash-Shaykh ^A...
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Contents
Author’s Biography ......................................................
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Sight ............................................................................
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The Tawhid of Allah in the Doings .......................................... 16...
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The Bridge........................................................................
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Author’s Biography
He was the great Islamic scholar, Imam, Muhaddith, the pious...
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He was not satisfied with taking knowledge only from the scholars
of his own ci...
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other three schools and their Usul under Ash-Shaykh Muhammad
Al-^Arabiyy Al-Fa...
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listening to a Hadith with his ear and his heart, although he knows
better abo...
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acknowledged his knowledge, and he was called “the Successor of
Ash-Shaykh Bad...
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He was also praised by Ash-Shaykh ^Uthman Sirajud-Din, the
descendant of Ash-S...
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Shaykh Al-Mustashar Muhammad Ash-Sharif, Shaykh ^Abdul-
Wahhab Al-Butariyy, th...
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guiding. He had the correct belief in Allah and held on to Al-
Qur’an and As-S...
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Waqt ^Abdul-Awwal Ibn ^Isa Ibn Shu^ayb as-Sijziyy Al-Harawiyy
from Abil-Hasan ...
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Introduction
ِ‫سم‬ِ‫ب‬‫ٱ‬ِ‫هلل‬‫ٱ‬‫حم‬َّ‫لر‬ِ‫ن‬‫ٱ‬ِ‫يم‬ِ‫ح‬َّ‫لر‬
The Shaykh ...
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The Greatest of Allah’s Rights over His Slaves
Know that the greatest of the r...
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[which means] “Surely Allah will not Forgive those who
blasphemed and those wh...
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It is obligatory to associate the belief in the Message of
Muhammad ‫ﷺ‬ with t...
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The Meaning of the Two Testifications of Faith
In general, the meaning of the ...
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whoever argues with this point would be objecting to the Qur’an,
and whoever o...
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َُ‫ال‬َ‫ق‬ُ‫ىء‬َ‫ش‬ِ‫ب‬ُ‫ي‬ِ‫د‬ْ‫ب‬َ‫ُع‬َّ‫ىل‬ِ‫إ‬َُ‫ب‬َّ‫ر‬َ‫ق‬َ‫اُت‬َ‫م‬َ‫عا...
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This is evidence that whoever does not believe in Allah and His
Messenger, Muh...
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The Obligation of Every Accountable Person
Know that uttering the two Testific...
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[which means] “The (acceptable) religion to Allah is Islam.”
Therefore, all of...
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the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah ‫ﷺ‬. The Messenger
prayed the funeral p...
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The Judgment of the One who Claims Islam
Verbally but Nullifies Islam in Meani...
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Hell and entering Paradise after receiving the torture that he
deserves, if Al...
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continued to say: “Recite, if you want, the Saying of Allah the
Exalted10
:
﴿ُ...
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Clarification of the Divisions of Blasphemy
Know, O my Muslim brother, that th...
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An example of the blasphemous act is throwing a book of the
Qur’an in the tras...
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If a person said to his wife, “You are more beloved to me than
Allah,” he blas...
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explicit statement of blasphemy, and there is no way to explain it
other than ...
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without him getting complete relief. If he says that with that
intention then ...
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﴿ُ‫فع‬َ‫ُد‬ َ‫وَل‬َ‫ل‬َ‫و‬‫ٱ‬ُِ‫لل‬‫ٱ‬ُ‫ت‬َ‫ِّم‬‫د‬َّ‫َُل‬‫عض‬َ‫ب‬ِ‫ب‬ُ‫م‬‫ه‬َ...
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says “Arabs are scabies.”16
If he qualifies his speech or the context
of the s...
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from others is blasphemy because accepting blasphemy is
blasphemy.
The one who...
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﴿ُِ‫ب‬َُ‫ر‬َ‫ف‬َ‫ك‬ُ‫ن‬َ‫م‬‫ٱ‬ُ‫مي‬ِ‫إ‬ُِ‫عد‬َ‫نُب‬ِ‫ُم‬ِ‫لل‬ُِ‫ب‬ٌُ‫ن‬ِ‫ئ‬َ‫ط...
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he cites or after his mentioning that blasphemous word, while
intending before...
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[which means] “Take a charity from their money that purifies
them, and make su...
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deeming] it [lawful] then execute them.” This is narrated by Ibn
Abi Shaybah.
...
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the judgment because the Companions (may Allah Accept
their deeds) did not cha...
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misunderstanding], as proven by the blasphemy of the likes of
those who say ‘t...
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cases of the Khawarij; that some of them reached the level of
blasphemy and ot...
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Likewise the Murji’ah, those who said sins are not harmful while
having belief...
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of to Imam Malik. This is widespread on the tongues of some
contemporaries, so...
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against the Prince of the Believers, ^Aliyy, may Allah Accept his
deeds, by st...
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them by the Messenger of Allah ‫ﷺ‬ with eight others in one
session. This is a...
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outwardly,” and he agreed with them. This means that the far-
fetched explanat...
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[which means] “Surely the slave would certainly speak with the
word. He does n...
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Important Benefit
The judgment of the one who commits any one of these types o...
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﴿َُّ‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬‫ٱ‬ُِ‫يل‬ِ‫ب‬َ‫نُس‬َ‫ُع‬ْ‫ا‬‫و‬ُّ‫د‬َ‫ص‬َ‫ُو‬ْ‫ا‬‫و‬‫ر‬َ‫ف‬َ‫ك‬َُ‫ي...
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[which means] “Say, ‘O Allah, save me from the evil of myself
and make me firm...
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A Return to the Classification of Blasphemy
for the Additional Benefit
Know th...
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fasting, or Zakah, believing that divorce is [absolutely] haram,
believing tha...
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ُ‫اك‬َ‫در‬ِ‫إ‬ُِ‫اك‬َ‫در‬ِ‫إل‬‫ُا‬ِ‫رك‬َ‫نُد‬َ‫ُع‬‫جز‬َ‫الع‬ُُ‫اك‬َ‫شر‬ِ‫إ‬َ‫ُ...
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Benefit
Al-Ghazaliyy31
said in Ihya’ ^Ulumi-d-Din:
Surely He (Allah) is Eterna...
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have deviated from what the Messenger and his Companions
were upon, those who ...
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Protection from Hell
Allah the Exalted said:
﴿ُُ‫َّاس‬‫ن‬‫اُال‬َ‫ه‬‫ود‬‫ق‬َ‫اُ...
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The Messenger of Allah said, upon being asked about the
beginning of creation:...
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creations. Hence Allah the Exalted has the Necessary Existence,
i.e., His non-...
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The third is neither eternal nor everlasting, meaning it has a
beginning and i...
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If it were said, “Isn’t one of His Names Al-Latif?” The answer is
that the mea...
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Clearing Allah of a Place, and the Mental
Validity of His Existence Without a ...
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He had a place then He would have similarities and dimensions;
length, width, ...
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was no place, and He Is now as He Existed.” This was narrated by
Abu Mansur Al...
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We raise our hands in du^a’ to the sky because it is the place from
which the ...
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We call the masjids, “the Houses of Allah,” not because Allah lives
there, rat...
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Prophet ‫ﷺ‬ saw him a second time by Sidratul-Muntaha33
, as
Allah said in the...
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Transcript of "As Sirat al-Mustaqim - Unofficial Translation"

  1. 1. Unofficial Translation ُ‫اط‬َ ‫ر‬ِ‫الّص‬ُ‫مي‬‫ر‬‫ق‬َ‫ت‬ ْ‫س‬‫مل‬‫ا‬ The Straight Path Shaykh Muhaddith ^Abdullah Ibn Muhammad al-Harariyy al- Habashiyy
  2. 2. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 2
  3. 3. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 3 ُ‫اط‬َ‫ر‬ِّ‫الص‬ُ‫يم‬ِ‫ق‬َ‫املست‬ُ The Straight Path Al-Muhaddith Ash-Shaykh ^Abdullah Ibn Muhammad Al-Harariyy Al-Habashiyy First Draft, 2012
  4. 4. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 4 Contents Author’s Biography ......................................................................... 8 Introduction .................................................................................. 17 The Straight Path........................................................................... 17 The Greatest of Allah’s Rights over His Slaves.............................. 18 The Meaning of the Two Testifications of Faith ........................... 21 The Obligation of Every Accountable Person ............................... 25 No Religion is Correct Except Islam .............................................. 25 The Judgment of the One who Claims Islam Verbally but Nullifies Islam in Meaning........................................................................... 28 Clarification of the Divisions of Blasphemy .................................. 31 What is Exempted from the Blasphemous Expressions ........... 38 Important Benefit ......................................................................... 52 A Return to the Classification of Blasphemy for the Additional Benefit........................................................................................... 55 Benefit........................................................................................... 58 Protection from Hell ..................................................................... 60 The First Creation.......................................................................... 60 The Eternality of Allah is not Related to Time .......................... 63 Clearing Allah of a Place, and the Mental Validity of His Existence Without a Place............................................................................. 65 The Thirteen Attributes of Allah ................................................... 87 Existence ................................................................................... 87 Eternality................................................................................... 88 Everlastingness.......................................................................... 89 Hearing...................................................................................... 90
  5. 5. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 5 Sight .......................................................................................... 90 Speech....................................................................................... 91 Will............................................................................................ 94 Power........................................................................................ 96 Knowledge ................................................................................ 98 Life............................................................................................. 99 Oneness................................................................................... 100 Independence of Others......................................................... 101 Dissimilarity to the Creation ................................................... 102 All of the Attributes of Allah Are Perfect.................................... 104 The Reason for the Revelation of Surah Al-Ikhlas....................... 108 The Decisive and Ambiguous Verses .......................................... 110 The Decisive Verses................................................................. 111 The Ambiguous Verses............................................................ 111 Interpretation of His Saying ﴿‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ُ‫ا‬َ‫ن‬ِ‫وح‬ُّ‫ر‬﴾ and His Saying ُ﴿‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ُ‫ى‬ِ‫وح‬ُّ‫ر‬﴾ ................................................................................................ 122 Interpretation of the Verse ﴿ُ‫ن‬َ‫مح‬َّ‫الر‬ُ‫ى‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬ُُِ‫رش‬َ‫الع‬ُ‫ى‬َ‫و‬َ‫است‬﴾ ....................... 124 The Interpretation of the Ma^iyyah (‫)معية‬of Allah that is Mentioned in the Qur’an........................................................ 131 The Explanation of the Saying of Allah ﴿َُّ‫م‬َ‫ث‬َ‫ف‬ُُ‫ه‬ْ‫ج‬َ‫و‬ُُِ‫الل‬﴾ ................. 134 The Explanation of the Verse ﴿ُ‫الل‬ُُ‫ور‬‫ن‬ُُِ‫ات‬َ‫او‬َ‫م‬َّ‫الس‬ُُِ‫ض‬ْ‫َر‬‫أل‬‫ا‬َ‫و‬﴾ ................... 135 The Meaning of Destiny and Believing in It ................................ 138 Guidance Is of Two Facets ...................................................... 154 The Destining of Allah Does Not Change................................ 157 Dividing the Matters into Four Categories.............................. 160
  6. 6. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 6 The Tawhid of Allah in the Doings .......................................... 161 The Intellectual Evidence for the Invalidity of the Saying of the Mu^tazilah that the Slave Creates his Deeds ......................... 165 Confirmation that the Normal Reasons Do Not Affect in Reality and that the Only One Who Affects in Reality is Allah ........... 166 Important Notice ........................................................................ 179 Prophethood............................................................................... 181 The Difference between the Prophets and the Messengers.. 181 What is Necessary for the Prophets and What is Impossible for Them ....................................................................................... 182 The Miracle ............................................................................. 183 Miracles That Took Place for Those Who Came before Our Master Muhammad ‫ﷺ‬ ................................................... 184 Some of the Miracles of the Prophet ‫ﷺ‬......................... 185 The Miracle’s Substantiation of the Truthfulness of the Prophet ............................................................................... 192 The Way to Know the Miracle by Definitiveness and Certainty ............................................................................................ 193 Belief in the Torture of the Grave and its Enjoyment and Questioning............................................................................. 194 The Judgment of the One who Denies the Torture of the Grave................................................................................... 200 The Resurrection..................................................................... 201 The Gathering ......................................................................... 201 The Questioning of Allah......................................................... 202 The Scale ................................................................................. 202 Reward and Punishment......................................................... 203
  7. 7. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 7 The Bridge............................................................................... 204 The Basin................................................................................. 205 The Description of Paradise.................................................... 206 The Description of Hell............................................................ 207 The Intercession...................................................................... 208 The Soul................................................................................... 208 Clarification that the Mercy of Allah is Inclusive of the Believers and the Blasphemers in the Present Life and Specific to the Believers in the Afterlife ............................................................. 210 The Innovation [Bid^ah].............................................................. 212 Confirmation that Tawassul by the Prophets and the Waliyys is Permissible, and not Shirk as Said by the Wahhabiyys............... 216 Seeking Blessings from the Traces of the Prophet ‫ﷺ‬............. 227 Ijtihad and Imitation ................................................................... 233 Epilogue....................................................................................... 239 The Epilogue of the Epilogue ...................................................... 242
  8. 8. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 8 Author’s Biography He was the great Islamic scholar, Imam, Muhaddith, the pious worshipper, Ash-Shaykh Abu ^Abdir-Rahman, ^Abdullah Ibn Muhammad Ibn Yusuf Ibn ^Abdillah Ibn Jami^, Al-Harariyy, Ash- Shaybiyy, Al-^Abdariyy, the Mufti of Somalia. He is Al-Harariyy because he is from the city of Harar. In 1887, Somalia was occupied and divided into five parts, and the western province of Harar was given to Ethiopia. He is Ash-Shaybiyy because he belongs to Banu Shaybah, a clan of Quraysh; they are the people in charge of the Ka^bah. He is Al-^Abdariyy because he also belongs to ^Abdud-Dar, a clan of Qusayy Ibn Kilab, the fourth grandfather of the Prophet ‫.ﷺ‬ He was born in Harar around 1339 A.H., or 1920. He grew up in a humble house loving Islamic knowledge and its people. He memorized Al-Qur’an by heart with tajwid rules when he was seven years old. He continued to scoop from the sea of knowledge. He memorized numerous books in various Islamic sciences. He gave the knowledge of hadith a great amount of attention. He memorized the six books of Hadith (Al-Bukhariyy, Muslim, at-Tirmidhiyy, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, an-Nasa’iyy) and other books of Hadith with their chains of narration. He was authorized by scholars to give religious judgments and to relate hadith when he was less than eighteen years old.
  9. 9. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 9 He was not satisfied with taking knowledge only from the scholars of his own city. He went to many places in Ethiopia and Somalia seeking knowledge and its people. He had many trips with hardships and difficulties, but he did not care about them; whenever he heard about a scholar he went to him, which is the habit of the righteous Salaf. His intelligence and wonderful memory helped him gain a vast amount of knowledge in the school of Imam Ash-Shafi^iyy, as well as the Malikiyy, Hanafiyy, and Hambaliyy schools. To the point that he became a person at who fingers point; people would come to him from different places in Ethiopia and Somalia. He became the Mufti of Somalia at the age of eighteen. He took the Fiqh of the School of Ash-Shafi^iyy, its Usul and Arabic Grammar from Ash-Shaykh Muhammad ^Abdus-Salam Al- Harariyy, Ash-Shaykh Muhammad ^Umar Jami^ Al-Harariyy, Ash- Shaykh Muhammad Rashad Al-Habashiyy, Ash-Shaykh Ibrahim Abil-Ghayth Al-Harariyy, Ash-Shaykh Yunus Al-Habashiyy, and Al- Hafidh Muhammad Siraj Al-Jabartiyy. From those Islamic scholars he took many main texts such as Alfiyyah Az-Zubad, At-Tambih, Al-Minhaj, Alfiyyah Ibn Malik, Al-Luma^ by Ash-Shiraziyy and other main texts. He took the sciences of the Arabic Language, especially from the righteous Shaykh Ahmad Al-Basir and Ash-Shaykh Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Al-Habashiyy and others. He read the Fiqh of the
  10. 10. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 10 other three schools and their Usul under Ash-Shaykh Muhammad Al-^Arabiyy Al-Fasiyy, and Ash-Shaykh ^Abdur-Rahman Al- Habashiyy. He took at-Tafsir from Ash-Shaykh Sharif Al-Habashiyy in his town, Jimmah. He took the Hadith and its sciences from many teachers, notably from Al-Hafidh Ash-Shaykh Abu Bakr Muhammad Siraj Al- Jabartiyy, the Mufti of Ethiopia, Ash-Shaykh ^Abdur-Rahman ^Abdullah Al-Habashiyy, and others. He met with the righteous Shaykh, Muhaddith, Qari’ Hajj Ahmad Al-Kabir, the Head of the Reciters in Al-Masjidul-Haram in Makkah (he was appointed as the Imam and Shaykh of Al-Masjidul-Haram by as-Sultan ^Abdul-Hamid II, the last Ottoman Khalifah), from him he took the 14 ways of reciting Al-Qur’an, as well as the Science of Hadith. He also met Shaykh, Qari’, Dawud Al-Jabartiyy. He started giving classes at a young age for the students who may have been older than him; so he was both learning and teaching. He was superior in both Ethiopia and Somalia to his peers in knowing the biographies of the people of Hadith and their ranks, memorizing the texts, and getting in depth in the sciences of Hadith, language, Tafsir, and other than that. He did not leave any known Islamic science without mastering it. He may talk about some knowledge or science and a person may think that he specialized in that only. You would see him humbly
  11. 11. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 11 listening to a Hadith with his ear and his heart, although he knows better about it than the speaker himself. He went to Makkah and met its scholars such as Ash-Shaykh, as- Sayyid, ^Alawiyy Al-Malikiyy, Ash-Shaykh Muhammad Yasin Al- Fadaniyy and Ash-Shaykh Amin Al-Kutubiyy. He attended circles by Ash-Shaykh Muhammad Al-^Arabiyy at-Tabban. He contacted Ash-Shaykh ^Abdul-Ghafur Al-Afghaniyy an-Naqshabandiyy and took at-Tariqah an-Naqshabandiyyah from him. Afterwards, he went to Al-Madinah and contacted its scholars. He took hadith from Ash-Shaykh Muhammad Ibn ^Aliyy as-Siddiqiyy Al-Bakriyy. He met with Muhaddith Ibrahim Al-Khutniyy, the student of Muhaddith ^Abdul-Qadir Shalbiyy. He stayed by and in ^Ārif Hikmat and Al-Mahmudiyyah libraries going through the manuscripts. He stayed in Al-Madinah close to the Prophet’s ‫ﷺ‬ Mosque for about a year while receiving ijazah from many scholars. He then went to Jerusalem in the 1940’s, then to Damascus, where he was welcomed by its people, especially after the death of its Muhaddith, Badrud-Din Al-Hasaniyy. He went to Damascus, Beirut, Hims, Hamah, Halab, and other cities. He then lived in Jami^ul-Qatat, and his fame spread in the area. Consequently, the scholars and students of Ash-Sham came seeking him, and he got to know some of its scholars. They benefited from him and
  12. 12. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 12 acknowledged his knowledge, and he was called “the Successor of Ash-Shaykh Badrud-Din Al-Hasaniyy”. He was also known as “the Muhaddith of Ash-Sham”. A great number of the scholars of Ash- Sham praised him such as Ash-Shaykh ^Izzud-Din Ibn Ahmad Al- Khaznawiyy, Ash-Shafi^iyy, an-Naqshabandiyy from Al-Jazirah in the north of Syria, Ash-Shaykh ^Abdur-Razzaq Al-Halabiyy, the Director of Al-Masjidul-‘Umawiyy in Damascus, Ash-Shaykh Abu Sulayman Suhayl Az-Zabibiyy, Ash-Shaykh Mulla Ramadan Al- Butiyy, Ash-Shaykh Abul-Yusr ^Ābidin, the Mufti of Syria, Ash- Shaykh ^Abdul-Karim Ar-Rifa^iyy, Ash-Shaykh Naji Nur from Jordan, Ash-Shaykh Sa^id Tanatirah, Ash-Shaykh Ahmad Al- Husariyy, the Director of the Islamic school of Ma^arratu-n- Nu^man, Ash-Shaykh ^Abdullah Siraj Al-Halabiyy, Ash-Shaykh Muhammad Murad Al-Halabiyy, Ash-Shaykh Suhayb Ar-Rumiyy, the Amin of Al-Fatwa in Halab, Ash-Shaykh ^Abdul-^Aziz ^Uyunus- Sud, the Head of the Qurra’ of Hims, Ash-Shaykh Abus-Su^ud Al- Himsiyy, Ash-Shaykh Fayiz ad-Dayr ^Ataniyy, Ash-Shaykh ^Abdul- Wahhab Dibs wa Zayt of Damascus, Dr. Halawaniyy, the Shaykh of reciters in Syria, Ash-Shaykh Ahmad Al-Harun of Damascus, the righteous Waliyy, Ash-Shaykh Tahir Al-Kayyaliyy from Hims, Ash- Shaykh Salih Kaywan ad-Dimashqiyy, Ash-Shaykh ^Abbas Al- Juwayjatiyy ad-Dimashqiyy, Ash-Shaykh Muhammad Thabit Al- Kayyaliyy Ash-Shaykh Muhammad As-Sayyid Ahmad, Ash-Shaykh Nuh Al-Qadah Al-Urdunniyy and others, may Allah benefit us from them.
  13. 13. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 13 He was also praised by Ash-Shaykh ^Uthman Sirajud-Din, the descendant of Ash-Shaykh ^Ala’ud-Din, the Shaykh of an- Naqshabandiyyah in his time, and they had brotherly and scholarly correspondences between them. He was praised also by Ash-Shaykh ^Abdul-Karim Al-Bayyariyy, the teacher in Jami^il- Hadrah Al-Kilaniyyah in Baghdad, Ash-Shaykh Ahmad Az-Zahid Al- Islambuliyy, Ash-Shaykh Mahmud (Efendi) Al-Hanafiyy, who is one of the famous and active Turkish scholars, Ash-Shaykh ^Abdullah Al-Ghumariyy, the Muhaddith of Morocco, and Ash-Shaykh Habibur-Rahman Al-‘A^dhamiyy, the Muhaddith of the Indian Peninsula, whom he met with many times and stayed as his guest for some time. He took permission for At-Tariqah Ar-Rifa^iyyah from Ash-Shaykh ^Abdur-Rahman as-Sibsibiyy, Ash-Shaykh Muhammad ^Aliyy Al- Haririyy, and Ash-Shaykh Tahir Al-Kayyaliyy. He took permission in At-Tariqah Al-Qadiriyyah from Ash-Shaykh At-Tayyib Ad- Dimashqiyy, Ash-Shaykh Ahmad Al-^Irbiniyy, Ash-Shaykh Al- Mu^ammar ^Aliyy Murtada ad-Dayrawiyy Al-Bakistaniyy and Ash- Shaykh Ahmad Al-Badawiyy as-Sudaniyy Al-Mukashifiyy, may Allah have Mercy upon them. He took At-Tariqah Ash- Shadhiliyyah from Ash-Shaykh Ahmad Al-Basir. He took the Tariqahs of Al-Chistiyyah and As-Suhrawardiyyah as well. Ash-Shaykh ^Abdullah went to Beirut in 1950 and he was the guest of the famous shaykhs like Qadi Muhyid-Din Al-^Ajuz,
  14. 14. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 14 Shaykh Al-Mustashar Muhammad Ash-Sharif, Shaykh ^Abdul- Wahhab Al-Butariyy, the Imam of Jami^ Al-Basta Al-Fawqa, and Shaykh Ahmad Iskandaraniyy, the Imam and Mu’adhdhin in Jami^ Burj Abi Haydar, and they learned and benefited from him. Then he met with Shaykh Tawfiq Al-Hibriyy, may Allah have Mercy on him, and at his residence he used to meet the important people in Beirut. He also met with Shaykh ^Abdur-Rahman Al-Majdhub and Shaykh Muhammad Al-Butariyy. He met with Shaykh Mukhtar Al- ^Alayiliyy, may Allah have Mercy upon him, who was the Amin of Al-Fatwa who acknowledged his honor and breadth of his knowledge, and prepared for his residence in Beirut to teach in different mosques. The Department of Al-Fatwa paid the expenses of his residence during that period. In 1969, upon the request of the Director of Al-Azhar in Lebanon, he lectured in at- Tawhid to the students there. Shaykh ^Abdullah’s primary goal was to spread the correct belief of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama^ah, a task which has been occupying most of his time. He fought the atheists and the people of bid^ah to extinguish their misguidance. Shaykh ^Abdullah Al-Harariyy was very pious, humble, and a worshipful Muslim. He spent his time teaching and performing dhikr at the same time. He did not care about acquiring worldly things. He had a good and pure heart. He did not waste a moment without teaching, performing dhikr, reciting, admonishing, or
  15. 15. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 15 guiding. He had the correct belief in Allah and held on to Al- Qur’an and As-Sunnah. He had a good memory and powerful, brilliant proofs. He was wise, managing things at the right time and place. He refused and renounced disobeying Allah very much. He had a high effort in bidding Al-Ma^ruf and forbidding Al- Munkar until the people of misguidance and prohibited innovations feared and envied him. This did not lessen his efforts to fight them, because Allah Supports and Defends the people who believe in Him. Ash-Shaykh ^Abdullah Al-Harariyy conveyed the knowledge of the Religion with continuous chains back to Prophet Muhammad ‫.ﷺ‬ Among them is: from Muhammad Ibn ^Aliyy ^Adham Husayn as-Siddiqiyy Al-Khayradadiyy Al-Madiniyy from Muhaddith Abul-Ma^ali Muhammad Badru-d-Din Ibn Yusuf Al-Baybaniyy Al- Hasaniyy Al-Maghribiyy from Muhaddith as-Sayyid Yusuf Ibn Badru-d-Din Al-Maghribiyy from Shaykh Abdullah Ibn Hijaziyy Ash- Sharqawiyy [Shaykhil-Jami^il-Azhar] from Shaykh Muhammad Ibn Salim Al-Hifniyy from Shaykh ^Id an-Namrisiyy from ^Abdullah Ibn Salim Al-Basriyy from Shaykh ^Aliyy Zaynul-^Ābidin Ibn ^Abdul- Qadir at-Tabariyy Al-Makkiyy from ^Abdul-Qadir Ibn Muhammad at-Tabariyy Al-Makkiyy from Imam Yahya Ibn Mukrim at-Tabariyy Al-Makkiyy from Hafidh As-Sakhawiyy from Shihabu-d-Din Ahmad Ibn Hajar Al-^Asqalaniyy from Ustadh Ibrahim Ibn Ahmad at- Tanukhiyy from Abu-l-^Abbas Ahmad Ibn Abi Talib Al-Hajjar from Abi ^Abdillah Al-Husayn Ibn Mubarak Az-Zabidiyy from Abu-l-
  16. 16. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 16 Waqt ^Abdul-Awwal Ibn ^Isa Ibn Shu^ayb as-Sijziyy Al-Harawiyy from Abil-Hasan ^Abdur-Rahman Ibn Muhammad Ibn Mudhaffar Ibn Dawud ad-Dawudiyy Al-Bushinjiyy from Abi Muhammad ^Abdullah Ibn Ahmad Ibn Hammuyah as-Sarakhsiyy from Abi ^Abdillah Muhammad Ibn Yusuf Ibn Matar Ibn Salih Ibn Bishr Al- Farabriyy from Imam Abi ^Abdillah Muhammad Ibn Isma^il Al- Bukhariyy Al-Ju^afiyy from Imam Abi ^Abdillah Ahmad Ibn Hambal Ash-Shaybaniyy from Imam Abi ^Abdillah Muhammad Ibn Idris Ash-Shafi^iyy Al-Muttalibiyy from Imam Abi ^Abdillah Malik Ibn Anas Al-Asbahiyy from Nafi^ Ibn ^Abdir-Rahman from ^Abdillah Ibn ^Umar Ibnil-Khattab from the Messenger of Allah. He (may Allah have Mercy upon him) departed this life the dawn of Tuesday, the 2nd of Ramadan, 1429 AH - September 2, 2008.
  17. 17. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 17 Introduction ِ‫سم‬ِ‫ب‬‫ٱ‬ِ‫هلل‬‫ٱ‬‫حم‬َّ‫لر‬ِ‫ن‬‫ٱ‬ِ‫يم‬ِ‫ح‬َّ‫لر‬ The Shaykh and Muhaddith ^Abdullah Ibn Muhammad Al- Harariyy Al-Habashiyy, may Allah have Mercy upon him, said: The Straight Path Excellent praise and gratitude are due to Allah. May Allah increase the rank and honor of Prophet Muhammad ‫ﷺ‬ and protect his [Muslim] Nation from what he feared for it. Allah the Exalted Said1 : ﴿َُ‫ي‬ُ‫ا‬َ‫ه‬ُّ‫َي‬‫أ‬‫ٱ‬ُْ‫ا‬‫و‬‫ن‬َ‫ام‬َ‫ُء‬َ‫ين‬ِ‫ذ‬َّ‫ل‬‫ٱ‬ُْ‫ا‬‫و‬‫َّق‬‫ت‬‫ٱ‬ُ‫د‬َ‫غ‬ِ‫تُل‬َ‫َّم‬‫د‬َ‫ق‬ُ‫ا‬َّ‫ُم‬ٌ‫فس‬َ‫ن‬ُ‫ر‬‫نظ‬َ‫لت‬َ‫ُو‬َ‫لل‬﴾ [which means] “O you who believed, fear Allah, and let each self look at that which it has prepared for tomorrow.” ^Aliyy [Ibn Abi Talib], may Allah accept his good deeds and honor his face, said, “Today is the work and tomorrow is the Reckoning.” This was narrated by Al-Bukhariyy in the Chapter of Ar-Riqaq. 1 Surat Al-Hashr, ayah 18.
  18. 18. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 18 The Greatest of Allah’s Rights over His Slaves Know that the greatest of the rights of Allah the Exalted over His slaves is [confirming] His Oneness and that nothing would be associated with Him. This is because associating partners with Allah is the biggest sin committed by the slave. It is the sin that He does not Forgive [after death], and He Forgives whatever is less than that for whomever He Wills. Allah the Exalted Said2 : ﴿َُّ‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬‫ٱ‬ُ‫آء‬َ‫ش‬َ‫نُي‬َ‫م‬ِ‫ُل‬َ‫ك‬ِ‫ل‬َ‫ذ‬َُ‫ن‬‫و‬‫اُد‬َ‫ُم‬‫ر‬ِ‫غف‬َ‫ي‬َ‫ُو‬ِ‫ه‬ِ‫ب‬ُ َ‫ك‬َ‫شر‬‫َنُي‬‫أ‬ُ‫ر‬ِ‫غف‬َ‫ُي‬ َ‫َُل‬َ‫لل‬﴾ [which means] “Surely, Allah does not forgive the association of partners with Him, and He forgives whatever is less than that for whomever He Wills.” Likewise, all types of blasphemy are not Forgiven by Allah [after death]. This is due to the Saying of Allah the Exalted3 : ﴿َُّ‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬‫ٱ‬ُِ‫يل‬ِ‫ب‬َ‫نُس‬َ‫ُع‬ْ‫ا‬‫و‬ُّ‫د‬َ‫ص‬َ‫اُو‬‫و‬‫ر‬َ‫ف‬َ‫ك‬َُ‫ين‬ِ‫ذ‬َّ‫ل‬‫ٱ‬ُ‫ن‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ُف‬ٌ‫َّار‬‫ف‬‫مُك‬‫ه‬َ‫ُو‬ْ‫ا‬‫و‬‫ات‬َ‫ُم‬َّ‫ُُث‬ِ‫لل‬ َُ‫ر‬ِ‫غف‬َ‫ي‬‫ٱ‬‫م‬َ‫َل‬ُ‫لل‬﴾ 2 Surat an-Nisa’, ayah 48. 3 Surat Muĥammad, ayah 34.
  19. 19. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 19 [which means] “Surely Allah will not Forgive those who blasphemed and those who blocked others from the path of Allah4 , and then died while being blasphemers.” The Messenger of Allah ‫ﷺ‬ said: ُ‫َلُالل‬ِ‫إ‬َُ‫له‬ِ‫إ‬ُ‫َُل‬ْ‫ن‬‫ُأ‬َ‫د‬ِ‫ه‬َ‫نُش‬َ‫م‬َُُ‫و‬ُْ‫ح‬َُ‫د‬ُ‫ه‬َُُ‫َلُش‬ُِ‫ر‬َُ‫يك‬َُُ‫ل‬ُ‫ه‬َُ‫أ‬‫و‬ُ،َُّ‫ن‬َُُ‫م‬َُّ‫م‬ُ‫د‬َُ‫اُع‬ُْ‫ب‬ُ‫د‬ُ‫ه‬ُ َُ‫و‬َُ‫ر‬ُ‫س‬ُ‫ل‬‫و‬ُ‫ه‬َُُ‫أ‬‫و‬َُّ‫ن‬ُُِ‫ع‬َُ‫يس‬َُ‫ىُع‬ُْ‫ب‬ُ‫د‬ُُِ‫الل‬َُُ‫و‬َُ‫ر‬ُ‫س‬ُ‫ل‬‫و‬ُ‫ه‬َُُ‫و‬َُ‫ك‬ُِ‫ل‬َُ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ُ‫ه‬َُُ‫أ‬ُْ‫ل‬َُ‫ق‬َُ‫اه‬ُِ‫إ‬ُ‫ا‬َُ‫ىلُم‬ُْ‫ر‬ََُ‫ي‬َُ‫،ُو‬ُ‫ر‬ٌُ‫وح‬ُ ُِ‫م‬ُْ‫ن‬ُ‫ه‬َُُ‫و‬َُ‫ال‬َُّ‫ن‬َُ‫ة‬َُُ‫ح‬ُ‫ق‬َُُ‫و‬َُّ‫ن‬‫ال‬َُ‫ار‬َُُ‫ح‬ُ‫ق‬َُ‫أ‬ُ،ُْ‫د‬َُ‫خ‬َُ‫ل‬ُ‫ه‬ُُ‫الل‬َُُ‫ال‬َُّ‫ن‬َُ‫ة‬َُُ‫ع‬َُ‫ل‬َُ‫ىُم‬َُ‫ك‬ُ‫ا‬َُ‫ن‬‫ا‬ُُِ‫م‬َُ‫ن‬َُُ‫الع‬َُ‫م‬ُِ‫ل‬ [which means] “Whoever testifies that no one is God except Allah alone without a partner, that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger, that ^Isa (Jesus) is the slave of Allah and His Messenger, and the good news given to Mary, and a soul from Allah, that Paradise is true, and Hellfire is true, Allah will admit him to Paradise no matter what he did.” This hadith was narrated by Al-Bukhariyy and Muslim. In another hadith: ‫َل‬ِ‫إ‬َُ‫له‬ِ‫إ‬ُ‫َُل‬َ‫ال‬َ‫ق‬ُْ‫ن‬َ‫ُم‬ِ‫ر‬‫َّا‬‫ن‬‫ىُال‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ُع‬َ‫م‬َّ‫ر‬َ‫ُح‬َ‫ُالل‬َّ‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬َ‫ف‬َُُ‫ه‬ْ‫ج‬َ‫ُو‬َ‫ك‬ِ‫ل‬َ‫ذ‬ِ‫ب‬ُ‫ي‬ِ‫غ‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ب‬َ‫ُي‬‫الل‬ُُِ‫الل‬ُ [which means] “Surely Allah Made forbidden for Hell5 whoever said no one is God except Allah sincerely for the sake of Allah.” This hadith was narrated by Al-Bukhariyy. 4 This means blocking others from embracing Islam.
  20. 20. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 20 It is obligatory to associate the belief in the Message of Muhammad ‫ﷺ‬ with the testimony that no one is God except Allah. That is the least by which safety from the everlasting stay in Hell would take place. 5 Meaning to stay in Hell forever, not a negation of a believer entering it.
  21. 21. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 21 The Meaning of the Two Testifications of Faith In general, the meaning of the Testification that “no one is God except Allah” is: I confess with my tongue and I hold as a conviction and submit to it in my heart that the only rightfully worshipped One is Allah the Exalted. The meaning of the Testification that “Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah” is: I confess with my tongue and I accept with my heart that our Master Muhammad ‫ﷺ‬ is sent from Allah to all of the humans and jinn. Muhammad ‫ﷺ‬ was truthful in everything he conveyed from Allah the Exalted, therefore the people must believe in his Laws and follow him. What is meant by the two Testifications of Faith is the negation of Godhood for other than Allah and confirming it for Allah the Exalted, along with the confession of the Message of our Master Muhammad ‫.ﷺ‬ Allah the Exalted Said6 : ﴿ُِ‫ب‬ُ‫ن‬ِ‫ؤم‬‫مُي‬َّ‫ل‬ُ‫ن‬َ‫م‬َ‫و‬‫ٱ‬َُ‫ك‬‫ل‬ِ‫اُل‬َ‫ن‬‫د‬َ‫َعت‬‫أ‬ُ‫َّآ‬‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬َ‫ف‬ُِ‫ه‬ِ‫ل‬‫و‬‫س‬َ‫ر‬َ‫ُو‬ِ‫لل‬‫ا‬‫ري‬ِ‫ع‬َ‫ُس‬َ‫ين‬ِ‫ر‬ِ‫ف‬﴾ُ [which means] “Whoever does not believe in Allah and His Messenger, then he is a blasphemer, and We have Prepared Hell for the blasphemers.” This verse is explicit in charging whoever does not believe in Muhammad ‫ﷺ‬ with blasphemy, and 6 Surat Al-Fath, ayah 13.
  22. 22. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 22 whoever argues with this point would be objecting to the Qur’an, and whoever objects to the Qur’an blasphemes. The Islamic scholars have agreed on charging whoever practices a religion other than Islam with blasphemy, as well as whoever does not charge him with blasphemy, or doubts, or remains neutral [about his blasphemy]; like for one to say “I do not say he is a blasphemer and I do not say he is not a blasphemer.” Know with certainty that Iman (faith) and Islam would not be valid, nor would the good deeds be accepted, without the two Testifications of Faith, i.e., by the expression: “I testify that no one is God except Allah and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah,” or by whatever carries the meaning of these two statements, even if it were expressed in other than the Arabic language. It is enough for the validity of one’s Islam to utter it once in a lifetime. After that, the obligation of saying the Testification of Faith remains for the validity of every prayer. This is in reference to the one who was following a religion other than Islam, then he wanted to enter Islam. In reference to the one who was raised as a Muslim and he believed in the two Testifications of Faith, uttering them is not a condition. Rather, he is a Muslim even if he does not utter. The Messenger of Allah ‫ﷺ‬ said:
  23. 23. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 23 َُ‫ال‬َ‫ق‬ُ‫ىء‬َ‫ش‬ِ‫ب‬ُ‫ي‬ِ‫د‬ْ‫ب‬َ‫ُع‬َّ‫ىل‬ِ‫إ‬َُ‫ب‬َّ‫ر‬َ‫ق‬َ‫اُت‬َ‫م‬َ‫عاىل:ُو‬َ‫ُت‬‫الل‬ َُُّ‫ىل‬ِ‫إ‬َُّ‫ب‬َ‫َح‬‫أ‬ُِ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ُع‬‫ت‬ْ‫ض‬َ‫ر‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫َّاُاف‬ِ‫ِم‬ُ [which means] “Allah Said, ‘My slave does not come closer to Me (i.e. he does not gain a higher status from Me) by doing anything more acceptable to Me than what I have Made obligatory upon him’.” This is a Qudsiyy hadith narrated by Al-Bukhariyy. Moreover, the best and first obligation is the belief in Allah and His Messenger. The Creed that no one is God except Allah alone is not enough if it is not associated with the Creed that Muhammad ‫ﷺ‬ is the Messenger of Allah. Allah the Exalted Said7 : ﴿ُْ‫ا‬‫و‬‫يع‬ِ‫َط‬‫أ‬ُ‫ل‬‫ق‬‫ٱ‬َُ‫ُو‬َ‫لل‬‫ٱ‬َُّ‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬َ‫ف‬ُ‫ا‬‫و‬َّ‫ل‬َ‫و‬َ‫نُت‬ِ‫إ‬َ‫ف‬ُ‫ول‬‫س‬َّ‫لر‬‫ٱ‬ُُّ‫ب‬ِ‫ُُي‬ َ‫َُل‬َ‫لل‬‫ٱ‬َُ‫ك‬‫ل‬َُ‫ين‬ِ‫ر‬ِ‫ف‬﴾ُ [which means] “(O Muhammad,) say, ‘Obey Allah and the Messenger,’ and if they turn away (from believing in Allah and His Messenger) then Allah does not Accept the blasphemers.” This means that because of his blasphemy, Allah does not Accept the one who turned away from believing in Allah and His Messenger, and what is meant by “obeying Allah and His Messenger” in this verse is “believing in them.” 7 Surat Al ^Imran, ayah 32.
  24. 24. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 24 This is evidence that whoever does not believe in Allah and His Messenger, Muhammad ‫,ﷺ‬ is a blasphemer, and Allah does not Accept him because of his blasphemy. Whoever says that Allah loves the believers and the blasphemers because He Created all of them has contradicted the Qur’an. So it is said to him, “Allah Created all of them, but He does not Accept all of them.”
  25. 25. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 25 The Obligation of Every Accountable Person Know that uttering the two Testifications of Faith after puberty once in a lifetime, with the intention of fulfilling the obligation, is obligatory on every accountable person according to the Malikiyyah. This is because they do not consider the Tashahhud obligatory in the prayer; they only consider it to be recommended. According to the Shafi^iyyah and the Hanabilah, it is obligatory to utter in every prayer for the validity of the prayer. No Religion is Correct Except Islam The true religion to Allah is Islam. Allah the Exalted Said8 : ﴿َُ‫ري‬َ‫غ‬ُِ‫غ‬َ‫بت‬َ‫نُي‬َ‫م‬َ‫و‬‫ٱ‬َُ‫ل‬‫س‬ِ‫إل‬ُ ِ‫ُِف‬َ‫و‬‫ه‬َ‫ُو‬‫نه‬ِ‫ُم‬َ‫ل‬َ‫قب‬‫نُي‬َ‫ل‬َ‫اُف‬‫ين‬ِ‫ُد‬ِ‫م‬‫ٱ‬َُ‫ن‬ِ‫ُم‬ِ‫ة‬َ‫ر‬ِ‫َخ‬‫أل‬ ‫ٱ‬َُ‫خل‬َُ‫ين‬ِ‫ر‬ِ‫س‬﴾ [which means] “Whoever seeks other than Islam as a religion, it will not be accepted from him, and he will be among the losers in the Hereafter.” Also, Allah the Exalted Said9 : ﴿َُّ‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬‫ٱ‬َُ‫ند‬ِ‫ُع‬َ‫ِّين‬‫لد‬‫ٱ‬ُِ‫لل‬‫ٱ‬ُ‫م‬ َ‫سَل‬ِ‫إل‬﴾ 8 Sūrat Āl ^Imrān, āyah 85. 9 Sūrat Āl ^Imrān, āyah 19.
  26. 26. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 26 [which means] “The (acceptable) religion to Allah is Islam.” Therefore, all of the Prophets were Muslims. Whoever was a follower of Musa [Moses] was a “Mosaic Muslim” and whoever was a follower of ^Isa [Jesus] was a “Jesusite Muslim”. It is valid to say about someone who follows Muhammad ‫ﷺ‬ that he is a “Muhammadan Muslim”. Islam is the Religion that Allah Accepts for His slaves and Ordered us to follow. Allah is not called a “Muslim” as mentioned by some ignorant people. In ancient times, mankind altogether was on one religion, which was Islam. Associating partners with Allah and blasphemy took place only after Prophet Idris [Enoch]. Nuh [Noah] was the first Prophet sent to the blasphemers, calling to the worship of Allah, the One Who has no partners. Allah warned all of the Messengers [i.e., so that they would warn their people] after Nuh from associating partners with Allah. Our Master Muhammad ‫ﷺ‬ came with the renewal of the Call to Islam after it was cut off among the humans on Earth. He was supported with Miracles that prove his Prophethood. Some people embraced Islam, and the people of misguidance rejected his Prophethood. Some of them were pagans, like a faction of Jews who worshiped ^Uzayr (Ezra), adding blasphemy to their blasphemy. Some of the People of the Book, the Jews and the Christians, believed in him, like ^Abdullah Ibn Salam, the scholar of the Jews in Madinah, and Ashamah An-Najashi, the king of Ethiopia; he was a Christian. Then he followed the Messenger in a perfect way and died during
  27. 27. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 27 the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah ‫ﷺ‬. The Messenger prayed the funeral prayer for the absent on the day he died; Allah revealed his death to the Prophet ‫.ﷺ‬ Then light was seen on his grave during the nights, and this is evidence that he became a perfect Muslim who was a Waliyy among the Awliya’ of Allah, may Allah Accept his deeds. The Islamic basis which unites all the people of Islam is the worship of Allah alone.
  28. 28. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 28 The Judgment of the One who Claims Islam Verbally but Nullifies Islam in Meaning There are many factions that have contradicted Islam in meaning, even if they are attributed to Islam because of their saying the two Shahadahs, “I testify that no one is God except Allah and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah”, and their praying and their fasting, because they have contradicted the two Testifications of Faith by believing what negates them. They have surely gone out of Tawhid by worshipping other than Allah, so they are blasphemers, they are not Muslims; like those who believe in the godhood of ^Aliyy Ibn Abi Talib, or Al-Khadir, or Al- Hakim Bi-Amri-llah, and others. Likewise is anything that has the judgment of that, whether a saying or doing. The judgment of the one who rejects the two Testifications of Faith is that he is definitely charged with blasphemy. His destination will be Hell. He will be in it forever and ever. The everlasting torture in the Hereafter will not be cut off from him, and he will not be the one who gets out of Hell. Whoever performs the greatest of the rights of Allah by confirming His Oneness, the Exalted, i.e. leaving out associating anything with Him, and having faith in His Messenger ‫ﷺ‬, will not dwell in Hellfire forever, even if he does enter Hell because of his sins. His fate in the end, no matter what the situation, is exiting
  29. 29. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 29 Hell and entering Paradise after receiving the torture that he deserves, if Allah does not Forgive him. The Messenger of Allah ‫ﷺ‬ said: َُ‫ي‬ُُ‫ر‬ُُِ‫م‬ُِ‫ر‬‫نُالنا‬َُُ‫م‬ُْ‫ن‬َُُ‫ق‬َُ‫ال‬ُُِ‫إ‬ُ‫َل‬َُ‫له‬ُُِ‫إ‬ُ‫َلُالل‬َُُ‫وِفُق‬ُْ‫ل‬ُِ‫ب‬ُِ‫ه‬َُُ‫و‬ُْ‫ز‬ُ‫ن‬َُُ‫ذ‬َُّ‫ر‬ُ‫ة‬ُُِ‫م‬ُِ‫إ‬ُ‫ن‬ُ‫ميان‬ [which means] “Whoever says “There is no God except Allah” will come out Hell as long as he has a particle’s weight of faith in his heart.” This was narrated by Al-Bukhariyy. As for the one who adhered to the Tawhid of Allah, the Exalted, and he refrained from disobeying Allah and fulfilled His Orders, he will enter Paradise without torture, where the everlasting and ongoing luxuries are. This is proven by the Qudsiyy hadith conveyed by Abu Hurayrah in which he said, The Messenger of Allah ‫ﷺ‬ Said: َُ‫ُم‬َ‫ُالصاحلني‬َ‫ي‬ِ‫ُلعبد‬‫ت‬ْ‫د‬َ‫َعد‬‫أ‬ُ:َّ‫ل‬َ‫ج‬َ‫ُو‬َّ‫ز‬َ‫ُع‬‫ُالل‬َ‫ال‬َ‫ق‬ُ‫ُوَل‬ ْ‫َت‬‫أ‬َ‫ُر‬ٌ‫اَُلُعني‬ ُ‫ر‬َ‫ش‬َ‫ُب‬ ِ‫ب‬ْ‫ل‬َ‫ُعلىُق‬َ‫ُوَلُخطر‬ ْ‫ت‬َ‫ع‬َِ‫َُس‬ٌ‫ن‬‫ذ‬‫أ‬ُ [which means] “Allah the Mighty and Great Said: I have prepared for my pious slaves what no eye has seen, no ear has heard, and what never occurred to the heart of any human.” Abu Hurayrah
  30. 30. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 30 continued to say: “Recite, if you want, the Saying of Allah the Exalted10 : ﴿ُ‫ا‬‫و‬‫ان‬َ‫ك‬ُ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ِ‫ب‬َُ‫آء‬َ‫ز‬َ‫ُج‬‫عني‬‫ُأ‬ِ‫ة‬َّ‫ر‬‫نُق‬ِّ‫مُم‬َ‫َل‬َُ‫ى‬ِ‫خف‬‫اُأ‬َّ‫ُم‬ٌ‫فس‬َ‫ن‬ُ‫م‬َ‫ل‬‫ع‬َ‫ُت‬ َ‫َل‬َ‫ف‬ َُ‫ن‬‫و‬‫ل‬َ‫عم‬َ‫ي‬﴾ [which means] “No soul knows what is hidden for them of pleasurable things as compensation for what they used to do.” Al-Bukhariyy narrated that in his Sahih. 10 Sūrat as-Sajdah, āyah 17.
  31. 31. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 31 Clarification of the Divisions of Blasphemy Know, O my Muslim brother, that there are creeds, doings and sayings that invalidate the two Testifications of Faith and make one fall into blasphemy. Blasphemy is of three types: the blasphemous creed, the blasphemous act and the blasphemous expression. This is by the Consensus of the [scholars of the] Four Schools, like an-Nawawiyy and Ibnu-l-Muqri of the Shafi^iyyah, Ibn ^Abidin of the Hanafiyyah, Al-Buhutiyy of the Hanabilah, Shaykh Muhammad ^Illaysh of the Malikiyyah, and others. So whoever wants, let him go look in the books of the scholars. Similarly, other than the scholars of the Four Schools among the past mujtahids, like Al- Awza^iyy, mentioned that. He was a mujtahid; he had a school that was practiced, after which his followers died out. The place of the blasphemous creed is the heart. Examples are denying an Attribute among the Attributes of Allah the Exalted that are necessary for Him by consensus, such as His Existence, His Being Powerful, Hearing, and Seeing. [It is also blasphemy to] believe that He is an illumination or a soul. Shaykh ^Abdul- Ghaniyy an-Nabulusiyy said: “Whoever believes that Allah filled the Heavens and Earth, or that He is a body sitting above the ^Arsh, then he is a blasphemer even if he claimed that he was a Muslim.”
  32. 32. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 32 An example of the blasphemous act is throwing a book of the Qur’an in the trash. Ibn ^Abidin said, “Even if he did not intend to belittle the Qur’an, because his doing itself is an indication of belittlement.” [It is also blasphemy to] throw religious papers in the trash or any paper that has a Name among the Names of Allah the Exalted, while that person knows that Name is on it. Furthermore, whoever hangs the signs of blasphemy on himself without a necessity, if it were with the intention of seeking blessings, glorification, or out of legitimating it, would be an apostate. The blasphemous saying is like insulting Allah, the Exalted—we seek refuge with Allah from blasphemy—by saying “O daughter of your Lord,” or “O son of Allah.” Blasphemy will take place in this case even if the person did not believe that Allah has a daughter or a son. If a Muslim calls another Muslim by saying “O blasphemer,” without any ta’wil11 , he blasphemes, because he has named Islam blasphemy. Whoever says to the Muslim, “O Jew,” or the like, with the intention that he is not a Muslim, blasphemes, unless he intended that he resembles the Jews; then he does not blaspheme. 11 An explanation of the statement that saves him from falling into blasphemy. Such as meaning by the saying “O kafir,” “You act like a blasphemer,” or that this Muslim committed an enormous sin which the speaker thought was blasphemy.
  33. 33. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 33 If a person said to his wife, “You are more beloved to me than Allah,” he blasphemes. If he said to her, “I worship you,” while understanding from that the worship which is specific to Allah the Exalted, he blasphemes. If a person said to another, “May Allah be unjust to you as you have been unjust to me,” he blasphemes, because he attributed injustice to Allah the Exalted. However, if he understood from the meaning of “May He be unjust to you,” “May He avenge me,” we do not charge him with blasphemy, but we forbid him from [saying] that. If a person said to another person “Damn your Lord,” he blasphemes. Likewise blasphemes the one who said to a Muslim, “Damn your Din.” Some of the scholars said that if he meant by the word ‘Din’ that person’s own behavior he does not blaspheme. Some Hanafiyy scholars said that he blasphemes if he generalizes, that is, if he did not intend that person’s own behavior, and he did not intend the Religion of Islam. Likewise blasphemes whoever says, “So-and-so moved my Lord,” because this has the attribution of movement and place to Allah. Likewise blasphemes the one who says—and we seek refuge with Allah—“The likeness of Allah,” he means someone resembles Allah. Likewise blasphemes whoever attributes to Allah an organ, like the saying of some stupid people, “O penis of Allah.” This is an
  34. 34. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 34 explicit statement of blasphemy, and there is no way to explain it other than the apparent meaning. Likewise blasphemes the one who says, “I am the Lord of whoever does such-and-such.”12 Likewise blasphemes the one who says—and we seek refuge with Allah—“My Lord went crazy,” or the one who says to a blasphemer, “May Allah honor you,” with the intention that Allah would give them a high status, because Allah does not give honor to the blasphemers, as Allah the Exalted Said13 : ﴿َُّ‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬َ‫ف‬ُ‫ا‬‫و‬َّ‫ل‬َ‫و‬َ‫نُت‬ِ‫إ‬َ‫ف‬‫ٱ‬ُُّ‫ب‬ِ‫ُُي‬ َ‫َُل‬َ‫لل‬‫ٱ‬َُ‫ك‬‫ل‬َُ‫ين‬ِ‫ر‬ِ‫ف‬﴾ُ [which means] “If they turn away from that, then Allah does not Accept the blasphemers.” Likewise, to say to a blasphemer, “May Allah Forgive you,” if he intended that Allah would Forgive him while he is on his state of blasphemy until he dies. Likewise blasphemes whoever says about the one who died as a blasphemer, “May Allah have Mercy upon him,” with the intention that Allah would relieve him of his torture in the grave, not with the intention of Allah lightening his torture 12 This judgment does not pertain to the one who says, “I am the lord of the land (landlord),” for example. It refers to the one who says, “I am the lord of carpenters,” for example. This is blasphemy because Allah is their Lord. 13 Sūrat Āl ^Imrān, āyah 32.
  35. 35. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 35 without him getting complete relief. If he says that with that intention then it is possible that he does not blaspheme. Whoever uses the word “create” in reference to the people in a context in which it means “to bring into existence from non- existence” blasphemes, like for someone to say, “Create for me such and such like Allah Created you.” Whoever insults ^Azra’il14 , peace be upon him, blasphemes, as mentioned by Ibn Farhun in the book Tabsirah Al-Hukkam, or cursing any angel, peace be upon them. Likewise [blasphemes] whoever says, “I hate Allah.” Whoever says “Allah does not tolerate so-and-so,” blasphemes, if his understanding is that Allah is attributed with inability or that Allah is annoyed by him. However, if he understands from this that Allah grants that one a low status he does not blaspheme. Whoever says, “Damn the sky of your Lord,” blasphemes because he belittled Allah the Exalted by that. Likewise, whoever calls the religious places of the blasphemers “Houses of Allah” blasphemes. As for the Saying of Allah the Exalted15 : 14 The Angel of Death 15 Sūrat Al-Hajj, verse 40.
  36. 36. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 36 ﴿ُ‫فع‬َ‫ُد‬ َ‫وَل‬َ‫ل‬َ‫و‬‫ٱ‬ُِ‫لل‬‫ٱ‬ُ‫ت‬َ‫ِّم‬‫د‬َّ‫َُل‬‫عض‬َ‫ب‬ِ‫ب‬ُ‫م‬‫ه‬َ‫عض‬َ‫ُب‬َ‫َّاس‬‫ن‬‫ل‬ُ‫و‬َ‫ص‬ٌُ‫ع‬َ‫ي‬ِ‫ب‬َ‫ُو‬‫ع‬ِ‫م‬ ُ‫و‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ص‬َ‫و‬َُ‫س‬َ‫م‬َ‫ُو‬ٌ‫ت‬ُ‫د‬ِ‫ج‬﴾ُ [which means] “Had it not been for Allah protecting the people by others, then Sawami^, Biya^, Salawat, and Masjids would have been demolished,” what is meant by what is in this verse is the places of the followers of Moses and Jesus when they were Muslims, because those places are like the masjids of the Nation of Muhammad ‫.ﷺ‬ Each one of those different types was built for the Oneness of Allah and His glorification, not for worshipping other than Allah. Allah has named the Aqsa Mosque a masjid, and it is not among the buildings of Muhammad’s Nation. So let a person fear Allah and let him beware of naming what was built for shirk “houses of Allah,” and whoever does not fear Allah says whatever he wants. Likewise whoever tells a lie, while knowing that it is a lie, and says, “Allah is a witness to what I say,” intending, “Allah Knows the issue as I said,” attributes ignorance to Allah, because Allah Knows he is a liar. Likewise it is not permissible to say, “Everyone is on his [own] religion, Allah empowers him,” with the intention of making supplication for everyone who is on [his own] religion. Likewise blasphemes whoever generalizes his speech and says “The dog is better than the children of Adam,” or the one who
  37. 37. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 37 says “Arabs are scabies.”16 If he qualifies his speech or the context of the situation qualifies his talk, such as saying “Today, the Arabs are corrupt,” then saying “The Arabs are scabies,” in this case he does not blaspheme. Whoever calls the Devil, “Bismillahir-Rahmanir-Rahim,” blasphemes, but not if he merely mentioned the basmalah with the intention of seeking refuge with Allah from the evil of the Devil. There are some poets and writers who write blasphemous words, like one who wrote, “Allah fled.” This is among the bad manners towards Allah that drop one into blasphemy. Qadi ^Iyad [Al- Malikiyy] said: “There is no difference among the Muslims that the one who insults Allah is a blasphemer.” Whoever deems these sayings and expressions good blasphemes, and how widespread they are in many authored works. The bad manners that people show towards the Messenger by making fun of any of his situations, or making fun of any of his deeds, are blasphemy. Belittling what has some Qur’an written in it, the Prophets, peace be upon them, the signs of Islam, or belittling a law revealed by Allah is definite blasphemy. Likewise, deeming blasphemy good 16 This statement about the Arabs is blasphemy because some of the Prophets were Arabs. Likewise if someone says “all men are dogs”, he blasphemes because the Prophets are men.
  38. 38. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 38 from others is blasphemy because accepting blasphemy is blasphemy. The one who conveys another person’s blasphemy does not blaspheme, if he did that without deeming it good, by saying “so- and-so said such-and-such.” If someone delays the words “he said”, to the end of the statement, it is a condition that he had the intention to say it before he said the statement. What is Exempted from the Blasphemous Expressions The slip of the tongue is exempted from the blasphemous expressions. That is, to say anything of that type without will; rather, it ran on one’s tongue and he did not intend to say it at all. The case of the absence of mind: The lack of a conscious mind [exempts one from being charged with blasphemy]17 . The case of compulsion: The one who utters blasphemy with his tongue under the threat of death or the like, while his heart is tranquil with faith, does not blaspheme. Allah the Exalted Said18 : 17 The one who says a blasphemous statement out of anger is not covered under this rule, thus they are not exempted from the charge of blasphemy. 18 Sūrat an-Nahl, āyah 106.
  39. 39. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 39 ﴿ُِ‫ب‬َُ‫ر‬َ‫ف‬َ‫ك‬ُ‫ن‬َ‫م‬‫ٱ‬ُ‫مي‬ِ‫إ‬ُِ‫عد‬َ‫نُب‬ِ‫ُم‬ِ‫لل‬ُِ‫ب‬ٌُ‫ن‬ِ‫ئ‬َ‫طم‬‫ُم‬‫ه‬‫لب‬َ‫ق‬َ‫ُو‬َ‫ه‬ِ‫ر‬‫ك‬‫نُأ‬َ‫ُم‬ ‫ا‬‫َل‬ِ‫إ‬ُِ‫ه‬ِ‫ن‬‫ٱ‬ُ‫مي‬ِ‫إل‬ُِ‫ن‬ َُ‫ل‬َ‫و‬ُِ‫ب‬َُ‫ح‬َ‫ر‬َ‫نُش‬َّ‫نُم‬ِ‫ك‬‫ٱ‬ُ‫لك‬َُ‫ن‬ِّ‫ُم‬ٌ‫ب‬َ‫ض‬َ‫غ‬ُ‫م‬ِ‫ه‬‫ي‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬َ‫اُف‬‫در‬َ‫ُص‬ِ‫ر‬‫ف‬‫ٱ‬ُِ‫لل‬﴾ُ [which means] “…except for the one who was compelled while his heart was firm with belief. However, whoever blasphemes in Allah after belief, and his heart was delighted with blasphemy, he deserves the Punishment of Allah.” The case of conveying another’s blasphemy: The one who conveys the blasphemy of another without accepting it does not blaspheme. Our reference for excluding the case of conveying another’s blasphemy is the Saying of Allah the Exalted19 : ﴿ُ ِ‫ت‬َ‫ل‬‫ا‬َ‫ق‬َ‫و‬‫ٱ‬ُ‫ود‬‫ه‬َ‫لي‬ُ‫ع‬َُ‫ز‬ٌُ‫يز‬ُ‫ٱ‬ُ‫بن‬ُ‫ٱ‬ُِ‫لل‬َُُ‫و‬َُ‫ق‬َُ‫ل‬‫ا‬ُِ‫ت‬ُ‫ٱ‬َُّ‫ن‬‫ل‬َُ‫ص‬َُُ‫ر‬ُ‫ى‬‫ٱ‬ُِ‫ملس‬ُ‫يح‬ُ‫ٱ‬ُ‫بن‬ُ‫ٱ‬ُِ‫لل‬﴾ [which means] “The Jews said ‘Ezra is the son of Allah’ and the Christians said ‘the Masih (Jesus) is the son of Allah’.” [Also20 :] ﴿ُ ِ‫ت‬َ‫ل‬‫ا‬َ‫ق‬َ‫و‬‫ٱ‬ُ‫د‬َ‫ُي‬‫ود‬‫ه‬َ‫لي‬‫ٱ‬ُِ‫لل‬ٌُ‫ة‬َ‫ل‬‫و‬‫غل‬َ‫م‬﴾ [which means] “The Jews said ‘Allah is stingy’.” Furthermore, the citation that protects the narrator from blasphemy would either be at the beginning of the statement that 19 Sūrat at-Tawbah, āyah 30. 20 Sūrat Al-Mā’idah, āyah 64.
  40. 40. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 40 he cites or after his mentioning that blasphemous word, while intending beforehand to say the citation. So if he said, “‘The Masih (Jesus) is the son of Allah’ is the saying of the Christians,” or, “the Christians said that,” it is a citation that prevents blasphemy from the citer. The case of a person who has a misunderstanding of the Religious Law while trying to arrive at the truth: The one with a misunderstanding does not blaspheme unless his misunderstanding was in reference to the definite matters – in this he is not excused. Like the misconception of those who said that the world is beginningless, such as Ibn Taymiyah. An example of those who do not blaspheme is those who misconceived and withheld the Zakah during the era of Abu Bakr, claiming that Zakah was obligatory only during the lifetime of the Messenger. They said that this is because his supplication for them due to the paid Zakah would be mercy and tranquility for them, and that was cut off by his death. The Companions did not charge them with blasphemy for that because those people understood from the Saying of Allah the Exalted21 : ﴿ُ‫َمو‬‫أ‬ُ‫ن‬ِ‫ذُم‬‫خ‬َُّ‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬ُ‫م‬ِ‫ه‬‫ي‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ُع‬ِّ‫ل‬َ‫ص‬َ‫اُو‬َ ِ‫مُِب‬ِ‫ه‬‫ي‬ِّ‫ك‬َ‫ز‬‫ت‬َ‫مُو‬‫ه‬‫ر‬ِّ‫ه‬َ‫ط‬‫ُت‬‫ة‬َ‫ق‬َ‫د‬َ‫مُص‬ِِ‫َل‬ ُ‫و‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ص‬‫م‬َّ‫َُل‬ٌ‫ن‬َ‫ك‬َ‫ُس‬َ‫ك‬َ‫ت‬﴾ 21 Sūrat at-Tawbah, āyah 103.
  41. 41. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 41 [which means] “Take a charity from their money that purifies them, and make supplication for them; surely your supplication is a mercy for them.” The meaning of this verse [according to their understanding] is “O Muhammad, take their Zakah from them so that when they pay it, it would be mercy for them.” Then they said that his supplication would not happen after his death, so it is not obligatory on them to pay it because he died and he was the one ordered to take it from them. They did not understand that the ruling was general during his life and after his death. The only reason Abu Bakr fought them like he fought the apostates who followed Musaylimah Al-Kadhdhab in his claim of prophethood was because he was unable to take the Zakah from them except by fighting them. They were a mobilized force, so he was forced to fight them. Likewise those who interpreted the Saying of Allah the Exalted22 : ﴿َُ‫ن‬‫و‬‫ه‬َ‫نت‬ُّ‫مُم‬‫ت‬ْ‫َن‬‫أ‬ُ‫ل‬َ‫ه‬َ‫ف‬﴾ُ [which means] “Are you going to stop?!” to be giving a choice rather than as a prohibition of drinking wine, so they drank it. ^Umar [Ibnu-l-Khattab] did not judge them as blasphemers, rather he said, “Whip them eighty times each, and if they return [to 22 Sūrat Al-Mā’idah, āyah 91.
  42. 42. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 42 deeming] it [lawful] then execute them.” This is narrated by Ibn Abi Shaybah. They only charged with blasphemy those who apostatized from Islam by believing in Musaylimah Al-Kadhdhab, the one who claimed prophethood. So fighting those who misinterpreted and withheld the Zakah in this way was for taking the obligatory right on their money. This case is like fighting the rebels; they are not fought for blasphemy, rather they are fought to bring them back to the obedience of the Caliph. This is like those whom our master ^Aliyy fought in the three conflicts: the conflict of Al-Jamal, the conflict of Siffin with Mu^awiyah, and the conflict of An- Nahrawan with the Khawarij, although among the Khawarij there is a group that are actually blasphemers, and they have their own judgment. Hafidh Abu Zur^ah Al-^Iraqiyy said in his book, An-Nukat: Our Shaykh Al-Bulqiniyy said, [that] it is necessary to say ‘without an acceptable excuse (that saves them from blasphemy)’ in order to exclude the rebels and the Khawarij who legitimized the People of Justice’s blood and money, while believing in the prohibition of their own blood being lawful for the People of Justice, as well as those who denied the obligation of the Zakah on them after the Messenger of Allah ‫ﷺ‬ are excused. This is
  43. 43. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 43 the judgment because the Companions (may Allah Accept their deeds) did not charge them with blasphemy. This is a reference from the documents of the School concerning the case of misinterpreting the text. Among the documents of the School about the case of misunderstanding the religious text and the case of citing another person’s blasphemy is the saying of Shamsu-d-Din Ar-Ramliyy in his explanation of Minhaj at-Talibin, in the beginning of the Book of Apostasy, in his explanation of the saying of an-Nawawiyy: “Apostasy is cutting off Islam with an intention or saying of blasphemy,” “So there is no affect from the slip of the tongue, compulsion, misunderstanding, and citing another person’s blasphemy.” And the saying of the commentator, that is, the author of the Commentary of the Explanation [of Minhaj at-Talibin], Nuru-d-Din ^Aliyy Ash-Shabramallisiyy (1087 A.H.), concerning Ar-Ramliyy’s statement, “and misunderstanding”: “That is, not absolutely, as is clear from what will be presented about the likes the blasphemy of those who say that the world is eternal, despite that it is based on deduction and inference.” The other commentator on the explanation of Ar-Ramliyy, Ahmad Ibn ^Abdir-Razzaq who is famous as “Al-Maghribiyy Ar-Rashidiyy” (1096 A.H.): “When he said, ‘misunderstanding’, that is in reference to what does not have definitive evidence [against his
  44. 44. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 44 misunderstanding], as proven by the blasphemy of the likes of those who say ‘the world is eternal,’ even though it was by inference.” From here, it is known that not every person who has a misunderstanding is saved from blasphemy by his misunderstanding. So let the student of knowledge always remember the aforementioned saying of Ar-Rashidiyy when he said, “in reference to what does not have definitive evidence.” This means one should always recall this statement in his heart, because it is important. Misunderstanding in the face of definitive evidence does not prevent the charge of blasphemy against the one who misunderstood. What we said about the Khawarij, excluding some of them from being among those who were charged with blasphemy, is because of the confirmation of what dictates charging some of them with blasphemy, as supported by the saying of some Companions who narrated the hadiths about the Khawarij. As for what was narrated from our master ^Aliyy, that he said, “Our brothers have rebelled against us,” there is no evidence in it to judge all of them with Islam because its chain of narration was not confirmed from ^Aliyy, and the Hafidh and Mujtahid Ibn Jarir at-Tabariyy and others were certain about the blasphemy of all of them. This should be taken to be in reference to the different
  45. 45. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 45 cases of the Khawarij; that some of them reached the level of blasphemy and others did not. This case has been expressed by some as “ijtihad” and some have expressed it as “ta’wil”. Among those who used the term “ta’wil” is the Hafidh, Faqih, and Shafi^iyy, Siraju-d-Din Al-Bulqiniyy, the one the author of Al-Qamus referred to as “The Savant of the World”. Some of the explainers of Minhaj at-Talibin have expressed it as “ijtihad,” and both expressions must be properly restricted. From here it is known that not everyone who misunderstands is protected from blasphemy by his misunderstanding. So let no one think that is absolute, because generalizing in that is a disbanding of and exiting from the Religion. Do not you see that many of those who are attributed to Islam who busied themselves with philosophy went out of the Religion for their belief that the world is eternal, out of their “ijtihad”? Despite that, the Muslims have agreed on their blasphemy, as mentioned by the Muhaddith and Faqih Badru-d-Din Az- Zarkashiyy in the explanation of Jam^u-l-Jawami^. He said after mentioning the two groups [of the philosophers]; those who claimed that the world in its entirety is eternal, and those who claimed that the world is eternal by its kind only and not its elements, “The Muslims have agreed on their misguidance and their blasphemy.”
  46. 46. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 46 Likewise the Murji’ah, those who said sins are not harmful while having belief, just like good deeds are not beneficial while having blasphemy; they only said that out of “ijtihad” and “ta’wil” of some texts outside of their contexts, and they were not excused. Moreover, groups other than them became misguided and they are attributed to Islam; their deviance was through “ijtihad” and “ta’wil”. Rule: The expression that has two meanings, one of which is a type of blasphemy and the other is not blasphemy, and the meaning that was blasphemy was the apparent meaning, however, it was not explicit, the one who said it is not charged with blasphemy until it is known which of the two meanings he intended. So if he said, “I intended the blasphemous meaning,” he is judged with blasphemy, and the rules of apostasy are applied to him, or else he is not charged with blasphemy. Likewise, if the expression has many meanings, and all of its meanings were blasphemy except one, he is not charged with blasphemy until the intent of the blasphemous meaning is known from him. This is what was mentioned by some Hanafiyy scholars in their books. As for what some people say, that if the statement has ninety-nine opinions confirming a charge of blasphemy and one opinion not confirming a charge of blasphemy, then we take by leaving out the charge of blasphemy, it is meaningless. It is not valid to attribute that to Malik or to Abu Hanifah as Sayyid Sabiq attributed the likes
  47. 47. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 47 of to Imam Malik. This is widespread on the tongues of some contemporaries, so let them fear Allah. The scholars said that the explicit blasphemy is that statement which only has one meaning; it necessitates the charge of blasphemy. Therefore, the one who says it is charged with blasphemy, like to say, “I am Allah.” Even if this [type of] expression came from a Waliyy while his mind was absent, he will be punished, despite that he was not accountable at that time; that was said by ^Izzud-Din Ibn ^Abdis-Salam. This is because punishment affects the one whose mind is absent, just like it affects the one with a clear mind and just like it affects the animals. For surely had the beast been defiant and then was hit, it stops its defiance even though it does not have a mind. Likewise the Waliyy; if he utters blasphemy while his mind is absent, then was hit or shouted at, he would refrain because of the natural affect of being reprimanded. Keep in mind that blasphemy does not come from a Waliyy while his mind is present. It would only occur if his tongue slips or he loses his mind, because the Waliyy is protected from blasphemy. This is different from the major or minor sin, because it is possible for a Waliyy to commit it. However, he will not insist on that sin, rather, he would repent immediately. It could be that a Waliyy commits a major sin shortly before his death; however, he will not die unless he repents, like Talhah Ibn ^Ubaydillah and Az-Zubayr Ibn ^Awwam, may Allah accept their deeds. Both of them went
  48. 48. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 48 against the Prince of the Believers, ^Aliyy, may Allah Accept his deeds, by standing with those who fought against him in Basrah. So ^Aliyy reminded both of them about a hadith. As for Az-Zubayr, he said to him, “Did the Messenger of Allah ‫ﷺ‬ not say to you: ‫ُله‬ٌ‫أنتُظامل‬‫و‬ُ‫ا‬ًّ‫ي‬‫ُعل‬َّ‫ن‬َ‫ل‬‫إنكُلتقات‬ [which means] ‘Surely you will certainly fight ^Aliyy while you are unjust to him’?” So he said, “I forgot.” Then he left the battlefield without fighting, and a man from the army of ^Aliyy followed him and killed him. So he repented by ^Aliyy’s reminder and he did not die without repentance. As for Talhah, he said to him, “Did the Messenger of Allah ‫ﷺ‬ not say: ُ‫ُموَله‬‫ُفعلي‬‫ُموَله‬‫نُكنت‬َ‫م‬ُ [which means] ‘Whomever I was his supporter, then ^Aliyy is his supporter’?” So he left, abandoning the battle, then Marwan Ibnu-l-Hakam hit him and killed him. He also repented and regretted upon ^Aliyy mentioning this hadith to him. Each one of them did not die without repentance. Both of these hadiths are authentic; in fact, the second is mutawatir. Imam Abul-Hasan Al-Ash^ariyy mentioned that Talhah and Az- Zubayr are forgiven by virtue of the good news that was given to
  49. 49. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 49 them by the Messenger of Allah ‫ﷺ‬ with eight others in one session. This is a confirmation from Imam Abul-Hasan Al- Ash^ariyy that they commited a sin. He said the same about ^A’ishah because she also received the good news of going to Paradise. She regretted severely that she stood with those who fought ^Aliyy, to the extent that whenever she would remember her travel to Basrah and her standing with those who fought ^Aliyy she would cry strongly; her scarf would become wet from her tears. This is also mutawatir. And he said about other than those two [Talhah and Az-Zubayr] among the people of the incident of Al-Jamal and the people of Siffin—those who fought ^Aliyy with Mu^awiyah—“Their forgiveness and pardon is possible,” as conveyed by Imam Abu Bakr Ibn Furak from Abul- Hasan Al-Ash^ariyy in his book Mujarrad Maqalat Al-Ash^ariyy. Ibn Furak is the student of the student of Abul-Hasan Al- Ash^ariyy, and that student is Abul-Hasan Al-Bahiliyy, may Allah accept their deeds. What some ignorant people believe, that a Waliyy does not fall into a sin, is abominable ignorance. For those three, Talhah, Az- Zubayr and ^A’ishah are among the greatest Awliya’. Imam Al-Haramayn Al-Juwayniyy said, “The scholars of the Fundamentals of the Religion agreed that whoever says a word of apostasy (i.e., blasphemy) and claims that he intended some far- fetched meaning is charged as a blasphemer inwardly and
  50. 50. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 50 outwardly,” and he agreed with them. This means that the far- fetched explanation does not benefit him, like the one who says, “Damn the Messenger of Allah,” then he says, “What I meant by the Messenger of Allah is the lightning.” Numerous scholars, like the Hanafiyy faqih, Badru-r-Rashid, and he was close to the eighth Hijriyy century, listed many [blasphemous] things. So it is a must that one would be aware of that, for surely the one who does not know evil will fall in to it, so let him beware. It is confirmed from one of the Companions that he took hold of his tongue and addressed it by saying, “O tongue, say good and reap the goodness. Be silent from evil and be safe before you regret. Surely I heard the Messenger of Allah ‫ﷺ‬ saying23 : ُِ‫ه‬ِ‫ُلسان‬ْ‫ُمن‬َ‫م‬َ‫ُءاد‬ِ‫ن‬‫ُخطاياُاب‬‫أكثر‬ُ [which means] ‘Most of the sins of the son of Adam are from his tongue.’” Among those sins are blasphemy and major sins. In another hadith of the Messenger ‫ﷺ‬: َُّ‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬َُُ‫الع‬ُْ‫ب‬َُ‫ل‬َُ‫د‬َُ‫ي‬َُ‫ت‬َُ‫ك‬َُّ‫ل‬ُِ‫ب‬ُ‫م‬َُ‫ك‬‫ال‬َُ‫ُم‬ِ‫ة‬َ‫م‬ِ‫ل‬ُ‫ا‬ُِ‫ُف‬ َّ‫بني‬َ‫ت‬َ‫ي‬َُ‫يه‬َُ‫اُي‬ُْ‫ه‬ُِ‫و‬ُ‫ُِما‬َ‫د‬َ‫ع‬ْ‫َب‬‫أ‬ُِ‫ر‬‫َّا‬‫ن‬‫اُِفُال‬َ ِ‫يُِب‬ َُ‫ب‬َُْ‫ني‬ُ ِ‫ر‬ْ‫ش‬‫ُامل‬‫امل‬‫و‬ُِ‫ب‬ِ‫ر‬ْ‫غ‬ُ 23 Narrated by Abul-Qāsim Sulaymān Ibn Aĥmad at-Tabarāniyy with a authentic chain from the route of ^Abdullāh Ibn Mas^ūd.
  51. 51. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 51 [which means] “Surely the slave would certainly speak with the word. He does not distinguish it [i.e., he does not contemplate on its meaning], and because of it he would fall into Hell a distance greater than what is between the east and the west.” That is narrated by Al-Bukhariyy and Muslim from the route of Abu Hurayrah.
  52. 52. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 52 Important Benefit The judgment of the one who commits any one of these types of blasphemy is that he loses his good deeds entirely, so not one particle of good deeds that he did previously will be counted for him, whether charity, Hajj, fasting, praying, etc. The only good deeds that will be counted for him are the new good deeds that he did after renewing his belief. The Exalted Said24 : ﴿ُِ‫ب‬ُ‫ر‬‫كف‬َ‫نُي‬َ‫م‬َ‫و‬‫ٱ‬ُ‫مي‬ِ‫إل‬ُ‫ه‬‫ل‬َ‫م‬َ‫ُع‬َ‫ط‬ِ‫ب‬َ‫دُح‬َ‫ق‬َ‫ُف‬ِ‫ن‬﴾ُ [which means] “Whoever blasphemes after belief has lost his deeds.” If one says, “I seek the forgiveness of Allah,” before renewing his belief by saying, “I testify that no one is God except Allah and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah,” while he is on this state [of blasphemy], for him to say “I seek the forgiveness of Allah” will not increase him in anything but sin and blasphemy. This is because he is contradicting the Saying of Allah the Exalted25 : 24 Sūrat Al-Mā’idah, āyah 5. 25 Sūrat Muĥammad, āyah 34.
  53. 53. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 53 ﴿َُّ‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬‫ٱ‬ُِ‫يل‬ِ‫ب‬َ‫نُس‬َ‫ُع‬ْ‫ا‬‫و‬ُّ‫د‬َ‫ص‬َ‫ُو‬ْ‫ا‬‫و‬‫ر‬َ‫ف‬َ‫ك‬َُ‫ين‬ِ‫ذ‬َّ‫ل‬‫ٱ‬َُ‫ل‬َ‫ُف‬ٌ‫َّار‬‫ف‬‫مُك‬‫ه‬َ‫ُو‬ْ‫ا‬‫و‬‫ات‬َ‫ُم‬َّ‫ُُث‬ِ‫لل‬ُْ‫ن‬ُ َُ‫ر‬ِ‫ف‬ْ‫غ‬َ‫ي‬‫ٱ‬‫م‬َ‫َل‬ُ‫لل‬﴾ُ [which means] “Surely those who blaspheme and those who blocked others from embracing Islam, then they died while they are blasphemers, Allah will not Forgive them.” And this is also because of the Saying of Allah the Exalted26 : ﴿ُِ‫إ‬َُّ‫ن‬ُ‫ٱ‬َُّ‫ل‬ُِ‫ذ‬َُ‫ين‬َُُُ‫ك‬َُ‫ف‬ُ‫ر‬َُ‫اُو‬‫و‬َُ‫ظ‬َُ‫ل‬ُ‫م‬َُ‫اُملُي‬‫و‬ُ‫ك‬ُِ‫ن‬ُ‫ٱ‬ُ‫لل‬ُُِ‫ل‬َُ‫ي‬ُْ‫غ‬ُِ‫ف‬َُ‫ر‬َُُ‫ل‬ُ‫ه‬َُ‫مُو‬ُِ‫َلُل‬َُ‫ي‬ُ‫م‬‫ه‬َ‫ي‬ِ‫د‬ْ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫يق‬ِ‫ر‬َ‫ط‬َُُ‫ُخ‬َ‫َّم‬‫ن‬َ‫ه‬َ‫ُج‬َ‫يق‬ِ‫ر‬َ‫ط‬ُ َّ‫َل‬ِ‫إ‬‫ا‬‫د‬َ‫َب‬‫أ‬ُ‫آ‬َ‫يه‬ِ‫ُف‬َ‫ين‬ِ‫د‬ِ‫ل‬﴾ُ [which means] “Surely, those who blasphemed and did injustice, Allah will not Forgive them nor guide them to a path except the path of Hell, to dwell in it forever.” Ibn Hibban narrated from ^Imran Ibn Husayn that a man came to the Messenger of Allah and said, “O Muhammad, ^Abdul-Muttalib is better to his people than you. He used to feed them liver and camel hump, and you kill them.” So the Messenger of Allah said whatever Allah Willed.27 Then when the man wanted to leave he said, “What should I say?” The Prophet ‫ﷺ‬ said: ‫ي‬ِ‫ر‬ْ‫َم‬‫أ‬ُِ‫د‬َ‫ش‬ْ‫َر‬‫أ‬ُ‫ُعلى‬ ِ‫مُِل‬ِ‫ز‬ْ‫اع‬‫و‬ُ‫ي‬ِ‫س‬ْ‫ف‬َ‫ُن‬َّ‫ر‬َ‫ُش‬ ِ‫ِن‬ِ‫ُق‬َّ‫ُاللهم‬ْ‫قل‬ 26 Sūrat an-Nisā’, āyah 168-169. 27 Meaning he responded to him.
  54. 54. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 54 [which means] “Say, ‘O Allah, save me from the evil of myself and make me firm on that which is the best guidance for me.’” Then the man left and he did not embrace Islam. Then he said to the Messenger of Allah [at a later date], “I came to you and said to you ‘Teach me.’ So you said, ‘Say, “O Allah, save me from the evil of myself and make me firm on that which is the best guidance for me”.’ So what should I say now that I have embraced Islam?” The Prophet ‫ﷺ‬ said: ُ‫ري‬ْ‫ُأم‬ِ‫شد‬ْ‫مُِلُعلىُأر‬ِ‫ز‬‫اع‬‫و‬ُ‫ي‬ِ‫س‬ْ‫ف‬‫ُن‬َّ‫ُشر‬ ِ‫ِن‬ِ‫ُق‬َّ‫ُاللهم‬ْ‫قل‬ُ ِ‫ُاغفرُِل‬‫ا‬‫اللهم‬ ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ل‬ِ‫ه‬َ‫ماُج‬َ‫ُو‬‫ت‬ْ‫أ‬َ‫ط‬ْ‫ُوماُأخ‬‫دت‬َ‫م‬َ‫ماُع‬َ‫ُو‬‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ل‬ْ‫َع‬‫أ‬ُ‫ُوما‬‫ت‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ر‬ْ‫ماُأس‬ [which means] “Say, ‘O Allah, save me from the evil of myself and keep me firm on that which is the best guidance for me. O Allah, Forgive me for what I have done secretly and what I have done openly, what I have done purposely and what I have done mistakenly, and what I have done ignorantly.’” Among the judgments of apostasy is that the apostate corrupts his fasting, his tayammum, and his marriage before consummation. He likewise corrupts it after consummation if he does not return to Islam within the ^iddah. His marriage contract would not be valid with a Muslim or a blasphemer, even if she were an apostate like him.28 28 The judgments related to the validity of the marriage contract are the same whether the man or the woman apostatizes.
  55. 55. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 55 A Return to the Classification of Blasphemy for the Additional Benefit Know that blasphemy is of three categories. It will be either likening, contradicting, or denying. The first of them is likening Allah to the creation. [Examples are] for one to attribute to Allah a beginning for His Existence or going out of existence, or a body, color, shape, or quantity [i.e., a size or a volume]. As for what came in the hadith: ٌُ‫يل‬َِ‫َُج‬َ‫ُالل‬َّ‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬ُ [which translates literally as] “Surely Allah is Beautiful,” it does not mean a beautiful appearance, rather it means that He has the Attributes of Perfection, or it means He is Generous. The second of those is contradicting the Religious Law. That is contradicting what came in the Honorable Qur’an or what the Messenger came with, i.e., what was confirmed from the Messenger, while what was contradicted was commonly known and immediately recognized by the Muslims to be of the Religion. For example, for someone to believe that Paradise or Hell will end, or to believe that Paradise’s pleasure is not physical, or that the torture of Hell is allegorical, or to deny the Resurrection of the bodies and souls together, or denying the obligation of prayer,
  56. 56. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 56 fasting, or Zakah, believing that divorce is [absolutely] haram, believing that wine is lawful, and other matters which have been confirmed by definite religious evidence and are spread among the Muslims and became famous. This is different, for example, from the one who believes the prayer is obligatory upon him, however, he does not pray. He would be a sinner, not a blasphemer like the one who believes the prayer is not obligatory upon him. The third type is denial, meaning negating the Existence of Allah, and that is the worst of blasphemy29 . The judgment of the one who likens Allah to His creation is definite blasphemy. The way to avoid likening Allah to the creation is following this decisive rule: “Whatever you imagine in your mind, Allah is different from that.” This rule is agreed upon among the People of Truth and it is taken from the Saying of Allah: ﴿ٌُ‫ىء‬َ‫ُش‬ِ‫ه‬ِ‫ثل‬ِ‫م‬َ‫ك‬َُ‫يس‬َ‫ل‬﴾ُ [which means] “Nothing resembles Him in any way whatsoever.” Also, it is by observing what was narrated from [Abu Bakr] As- Siddiq, and that is a line of poetry in a meter called Al-Basit: 29 Also in this category is the belief of hulul (believing that Allah dwells in creations) and ittihad (believing that Allah and the world are united as one). All of these are considered the worst type of blasphemy.
  57. 57. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 57 ُ‫اك‬َ‫در‬ِ‫إ‬ُِ‫اك‬َ‫در‬ِ‫إل‬‫ُا‬ِ‫رك‬َ‫نُد‬َ‫ُع‬‫جز‬َ‫الع‬ُُ‫اك‬َ‫شر‬ِ‫إ‬َ‫ُو‬ٌ‫فر‬‫ُك‬ِ‫ه‬ِ‫ات‬َ‫ذ‬ُ‫ن‬َ‫ُع‬‫حث‬َ‫الب‬َ‫و‬ُ [which means] “The inability of realizing His Reality is in itself a correct realization, and searching for the Reality of His Self is blasphemy and shirk.” It is also by the saying of some: “No one knows the Reality of Allah except Allah the Exalted.” Our knowledge about Allah is not an encompassing knowledge; rather, it is knowing what is necessary to ascribe to Allah, such as the necessity of His Existence with no beginning, and clearing Him from what is impossible to ascribe to Him, such as the impossibility of a partner for Him, and [knowing] what is permissible to say about Him, such as the Creating of something or not Creating it. Imam Ar-Rifa^iyy30 said: “The extent that one can know about Allah is the certitude in His Existence, the Exalted, without a how and without a place”. 30 AHmad ibn Abil-Hasan 3aliyy Ar-Rifaa3iyy.
  58. 58. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 58 Benefit Al-Ghazaliyy31 said in Ihya’ ^Ulumi-d-Din: Surely He (Allah) is Eternal, His Existence does not have a beginning and His Existence does not have an end, and surely He is not an entity that is contained. Rather, He is Exalted and Glorified from whatever is the attribute of the occurrences. Surely He is not a body that is composed of particles, and had it been valid to believe that the Maker of the world is a body, it would have been valid to believe in the godhood of the sun and the moon or any other thing among the different types of bodies. So He does not resemble anything, and nothing resembles Him, rather He is the Living, the Qayyum32 who does not resemble anything. How would the creation resemble its Creator, and the limited thing resemble the One who Limited it, and the image resemble the One who Gave it the image? This Kalam is not the Kalam that the scholars dispraised. The Salaf have only dispraised the Kalam of the innovators in the creed, like those who liken Allah to the creation, the Mu^tazilah, the Khawarij, and the other deviant factions, those factions that 31 Abū Ĥāmid Muĥammad Ibn Muĥammad Ibn Muĥammad Ibn Aĥmad ať-Ťūsiyy Ash-Shāfi^iyy Al-Ghazāliyy (450 – 505 AH). 32 The One who does not need anything, or the One Whose Existence does not end, or the One with confirmed Existence.
  59. 59. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 59 have deviated from what the Messenger and his Companions were upon, those who have divided into 72 factions, just as the Messenger informed about in the authentic, confirmed hadith. Ibn Hibban narrated with his chain of narration back to Abu Hurayrah that he said that the Messenger of Allah said: ‫افرتقت‬‫اليهود‬‫افرتقت‬‫و‬ُ ‫ُفرقة‬ ‫ُوسبعني‬ ‫ُإحدى‬ ‫على‬‫النصارى‬ُ‫على‬ ‫ا‬ُ‫ثنتنيُوسبعنيُفرقة‬‫س‬ُ‫ُأميت‬ ‫تفرت‬‫إ‬ُُ‫ىلُثَلثُوسبعنيُفرقة‬ُ‫كلهمُِف‬ ُ‫النارُإَل‬ُ‫احدةُو‬‫و‬‫هي‬ُ‫الماعة‬ُ [which means] “The Jews have divided into 71 factions, the Christians have divided into 72 factions, and my Nation will divide into 73 factions. All of them will be in Hell except one, and that is the Jama^ah,” i.e., the vast majority. As for the knowledge of Kalam that Ahlus-Sunnah busied themselves with, it was practiced before Al-Ash^ariyy and Al- Maturidiyy by the likes of Abu Hanifah, for he has five treatises on the subject, and Imam Ash-Shafi^iyy mastered it to the extent that he said, “We mastered that before this,” i.e., we mastered the science of Kalam before Fiqh.
  60. 60. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 60 Protection from Hell Allah the Exalted said: ﴿ُُ‫َّاس‬‫ن‬‫اُال‬َ‫ه‬‫ود‬‫ق‬َ‫اُو‬‫ار‬َ‫ن‬ُْ‫م‬‫يك‬ِ‫ل‬ْ‫َه‬‫أ‬َ‫ُو‬ْ‫م‬‫ك‬َ‫س‬‫َنف‬‫أ‬ُ‫ا‬‫و‬‫اُق‬‫و‬‫ن‬َ‫ُآم‬َ‫ين‬ِ‫ذ‬َّ‫ل‬‫اُا‬َ‫ه‬ُّ‫َي‬‫أ‬ُ‫ا‬َ‫ي‬ ُ‫ا‬َ‫ه‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ُع‬‫ة‬َ‫ار‬َ‫ج‬ِْ‫احل‬َ‫و‬ُْ‫م‬‫ه‬َ‫ر‬َ‫َم‬‫أ‬ُ‫ا‬َ‫ُم‬َ‫ه‬َّ‫ل‬‫ُال‬َ‫ن‬‫و‬‫ص‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ُي‬ َّ‫َُل‬ٌ‫اد‬َ‫د‬ِ‫ُش‬ٌ‫ظ‬ َ‫َل‬ِ‫ُغ‬ٌ‫ة‬َ‫ك‬ِ‫ئ‬ َ‫َل‬َ‫م‬ َُ‫ن‬‫و‬‫ر‬َ‫م‬ْ‫ؤ‬‫اُي‬َ‫ُم‬َ‫ن‬‫و‬‫ل‬َ‫ع‬ْ‫ف‬َ‫ي‬َ‫و‬﴾ُ [which means] “O you who believed, protect yourselves and your families from a fire; its fuel is people and stones. In it are Angels who are merciless and powerful, they do not disobey Allah in what He Ordered them, and they do what they are ordered to do.” It came in the interpretation of this verse that Allah Orders the believers to protect themselves and their families from Hell, whose fuel is people and stones, by learning the religious matters and teaching their families that, meaning knowing what Allah Made obligatory to do and to avoid (i.e., the obligations and the prohibitions). This is so that one would not fall into likening Allah to the creation, blasphemy and misguidance; for the worship of the one who likens Allah to anything would not be valid, because he worshipped something he imagined in his imagination, and by his delusion he was deluded. Abu Hamid Al-Ghazaliyy said, “The worship is not valid except after knowing the Worshipped.” The First Creation
  61. 61. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 61 The Messenger of Allah said, upon being asked about the beginning of creation: ُ‫ُِف‬َ‫ب‬َ‫ت‬َ‫ك‬َ‫،ُو‬ِ‫لىُاملاء‬َ‫ُع‬‫ه‬‫ش‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ُع‬َ‫ن‬‫ا‬َ‫ك‬َ‫ُو‬‫ه‬‫ري‬َ‫غ‬ٌُ‫ىء‬َ‫نُش‬‫ك‬َ‫ملُي‬َ‫ُو‬‫ُالل‬َ‫ن‬‫ا‬َ‫ك‬ َُّ‫ل‬‫ُك‬ِ‫ر‬ْ‫ك‬ِّ‫الذ‬َُُ‫ض‬ْ‫َر‬‫أل‬‫ا‬َ‫ُو‬ ِ‫ات‬َ‫او‬َ‫م‬َّ‫ُالس‬َ‫ق‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ُخ‬َّ‫،ُُث‬‫ىء‬َ‫ش‬ُ [which means] “Allah Existed and nothing else existed. His ^Arsh was over the water, He ordered for everything to be written in the Guarded Tablet, then He created the Heavens and the Earth.” This is narrated by Al-Bukhariyy. The Messenger responded to this question by saying that Allah has no beginning for His Existence, meaning He is Eternal and there is no eternal one other than Him. In other words, in Eternity, nothing existed except Allah, and Allah Created everything, meaning He is the One who Brought it from non-existence to existence. The meaning of “He Created everything” is that He Brought all existing things from non-existence into existence. Allah the Exalted is Alive and does not die, because He has no end for His Existence, meaning He is Everlasting. Therefore, non-existence does not occur to Him, because had He existed after non-existence, Eternity would be impossible for Him. The judgment of the one who says, “Allah created the creation, but who created Allah?” is a definite charge of blasphemy, because he has attributed to Allah non-existence before existence, and this is not said except about events, meaning the
  62. 62. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 62 creations. Hence Allah the Exalted has the Necessary Existence, i.e., His non-existence is inconceivable to the mind; His Existence is not like our eventual existence, because our existence is by His Creating, and everything other than Allah has a possible existence. This means that it is mentally possible that it could exist after non- existence, and that it could go out of existence after existence. This is the judgment of the mind [regarding the possible matter] in and of itself. Know that there are three categories of existence. The first is Eternal and Everlasting, and that pertains to Allah only, meaning there is no beginning and no end for His Existence. The judgment of the one who says that there is something eternal other than Allah is definitely a charge of blasphemy. For this reason the philosophers blasphemed by their foolish creed that the world is eternal and beginningless, because Eternity is only valid for Allah the Exalted. The second is everlasting and not eternal, that is, it has a beginning and it has no end. This is in reference to Paradise and Hell; both of them are created, meaning they both have a beginning, however, they have no end, meaning they are everlasting. So destruction does not happen to them, nor non- existence, because Allah Willed for their everlastingness. In and of themselves, it is mentally possible that they would go out of existence.
  63. 63. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 63 The third is neither eternal nor everlasting, meaning it has a beginning and it has an end, and that is everything in this present life from the seven Skies to the Earth. Therefore, there is no escape from their ceasing to exist, their annihilation, and the annihilation of what is in them, whether humans, jinn or angels. Know that it is the habit of the scholars to mention that the mental judgment is divided into three categories: the necessary, the possible and the impossible. The necessary is what is not conceived to be nonexistent, and that is in reference to Allah and His Attributes. The impossible is that which its existence is not conceived by the mind, and they sometimes express it as the prevented existence. The possible is that which its existence and nonexistence are conceived by the mind, and this why they ascribe to Allah the Necessary Existence. The Eternality of Allah is not Related to Time Allah the Exalted Existed Eternally without time or place and before darkness and light. Thus He is not of the tangible type within the world such as earth, stone, the stars, plants, and the human. Furthermore, He is not of the intangible type within the world, such as light, souls, air, jinn, and angels, because of His dissimilarity to the events, i.e., His Difference from all the creation.
  64. 64. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 64 If it were said, “Isn’t one of His Names Al-Latif?” The answer is that the meaning of Al-Latif, which is a Name of Allah, is the One Who is Merciful to His slaves, or the One Who is not reached by delusions, so they do not realize Him. Therefore, there is no resemblance for Him, the Exalted; there is no likeness for Him; and there is none similar to Him in His Self, or in His Attributes, or in His Doing. Had He been similar to the creation in one way or the other, such as by size, motion, stillness, and the like, then He would not have been the Creator of those things. Therefore, Allah the Exalted is Glorified from the attributes of the events, and likewise the Attributes of Allah are Eternal; that is, they are without beginning. Because of the importance of this subject, Imam Abu Hanifah said, “Whoever said that the Attributes of Allah are events, or he doubts, or he is neutral about that, then he is a blasphemer.” He mentioned that in the book Al-Wasiyyah. Additionally, At-Tahawiyy said, “And whoever attributes to Allah attributes of the human has blasphemed.”
  65. 65. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 65 Clearing Allah of a Place, and the Mental Validity of His Existence Without a Place Allah the Exalted is Free of needing the creation, meaning Eternally and Everlastingly He does not need anything other than Him. He does not need a place in which He would be contained, or something in which He would dwell, or a direction, because He is not like any of the different types of things. He is not a tangible body or an intangible body. The tangible body and intangible body are contained in direction and place. Allah the Exalted Said: ﴿َُ‫ر‬َ‫م‬َ‫ق‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬َ‫ُو‬َ‫س‬ْ‫َّم‬‫الش‬َ‫ُو‬َ‫ار‬َ‫َّه‬‫الن‬َ‫ُو‬َ‫ل‬ْ‫ي‬َّ‫ل‬‫ُال‬َ‫ق‬َ‫ل‬َ‫يُخ‬ِ‫ذ‬َّ‫ل‬‫ُا‬َ‫و‬‫ه‬َ‫و‬ َُُ‫ن‬‫و‬‫ح‬َ‫ب‬ْ‫س‬َ‫ُي‬‫ك‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ُف‬ ِ‫ُِف‬‫ل‬‫ك‬﴾ [which means] “He is the One who created the night, the day, the sun, and the moon; and each of them is in an orbit, moving.” Allah has Confirmed for each one of those four containment in its space, which is its pathway. The Saying of Allah, ﴿ٌُ‫ىء‬َ‫ُش‬ِ‫ه‬ِ‫ثل‬ِ‫م‬َ‫ك‬َُ‫يس‬َ‫ل‬﴾ُ [which means] “Nothing is like Him in any way,” is enough to clear Allah from place, containment, and direction, because had
  66. 66. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 66 He had a place then He would have similarities and dimensions; length, width, and depth, and whoever is like that is an event in need of the one who specified Him with this length, width, and depth. This is the evidence from the Qur’an. As for the evidence from the hadith, it is what was narrated with an authentic chain of narration by Al-Bukhariyy, Ibnul-Jarud, and Al-Bayhaqiyy that the Messenger of Allah said, ‫ملُيكنُشىءُغريه‬‫و‬ُ‫كانُالل‬ [which means] “Allah Existed and nothing else existed.” Its meaning is that Allah never ceased to Exist Eternally. There was none other than Him with Him; no water, air, Earth, Sky, Kursiyy, ^Arsh, human, jinn, angel, time, place, or direction. So He, the Exalted, Existed before the place without a place, and He is the One who Created the place, so He is not in need of it. This is among what is derived from this aforementioned hadith. Al-Bayhaqiyy said in his book Al-Asma’ was-Sifat: “Some among our colleagues have used as evidence for negating a place for Him the saying of the Prophet ‫,ﷺ‬ [which means] ‘O Allah, You are Adh-Dhahir and there is nothing above You, and You are Al-Batin and there is nothing below You.’ If there is nothing above Him and nothing below Him He is not in a place.” This hadith also has the refutation for those who ascribe a direction to Allah. ^Aliyy said: “Allah Existed and there
  67. 67. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 67 was no place, and He Is now as He Existed.” This was narrated by Abu Mansur Al-Baghdadiyy. The foundation of the Creed is not based on delusion; rather, it is based on what is dictated by the sound mind, which is a witness for [the validity of the truthfulness of] the Religious Law. The sound mind judges that what is limited is in need of whoever limited it with that limit, so it would not be God. Just as Allah’s Existence without a place is valid before He Created places and directions, His Existence after Creating the places is valid without a place or a direction. This would not be a negation of Allah’s Existence, as claimed by the Likeners and the Wahhabiyys, the callers to ascribing a body to Allah in this time. The judgment of whoever says that Allah the Exalted is everywhere, or in all places, is a charge of blasphemy if one understands from this expression that Allah by His Self is spread or dwelling in all places. However, if one understood from this expression that Allah has control over everything and that He is knowledgeable about everything, then he does not blaspheme; this is the intent of many who are fond of these two expressions. In any case, it is obligatory to forbid them from saying it, because these statements are not originally from the Salaf; rather, they originally came from the Mu^tazilah, then the ignorant lay people started to use them.
  68. 68. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 68 We raise our hands in du^a’ to the sky because it is the place from which the mercy and blessings descend; it is not because the Self of Allah exists in the sky. Similarly, we direct ourselves to the honorable Ka^bah in the prayer because Allah Ordered us with that; it is not because the Ka^bah has some merit or specification of Allah living in it. The one who believes that Allah is contained blasphemes, or if he believes that Allah is something like the air or the light that fills a place, room or masjid. Those who believe that Allah is contained in the direction of above say that we raise our hands to the sky while making du^a’ because He is in the direction of above. They are refuted by what is confirmed from the Messenger of Allah, that he sought rain and he put his palms toward the ground and the back of his hands up to the sky [when he made du^a’], and that the Prophet ‫ﷺ‬ forbade the one who is praying from lifting his head to the sky. Had Allah been contained in the direction of above as the Likeners think, then he would not have prohibited us from lifting our vision up to the sky while praying. Further proof is that the Prophet ‫ﷺ‬ used to lift his pointer finger while praying when he said “illallah” in the Tashahhud, and he would bend it slightly. Had the issue been as the Likeners said, he would not have bent his finger; rather, he would have lifted it to the sky. All of this is confirmed in authentic hadiths according to the scholars of hadith; what then would the Likeners and the Wahhabiyys do?
  69. 69. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 69 We call the masjids, “the Houses of Allah,” not because Allah lives there, rather because they are places that are prepared and dedicated for the remembrance of Allah and His worship. It is said about the ^Arsh that it is an entity that Allah has prepared for the Angels, around which they make tawaf just as the believers on Earth make tawaf around the Ka^bah. Likewise blasphemes whoever said Allah lives or resides in the hearts of His Awliya’, if he understands from it the belief of those who believe that Allah dwells in His slaves. It is not intended by the Ascension [Mi^raj] up to the skies that the Messenger would reach a place in which Allah exists, and whoever believes that blasphemes. The only intent of the Ascension is to honor the Messenger by making him aware of the amazing upper world, glorifying his status, and letting him see the Holy Self of Allah with his heart, not his eyes, without the Self of Allah being in a place. Rather, the place is for the Messenger. What is meant by the Saying of Allah: ﴿َُّ‫ُث‬َُّ‫ىل‬َ‫د‬َ‫ت‬َ‫اُف‬َ‫ن‬َ‫د‬﴾ُ﴿َُ‫ن‬ْ‫َد‬‫أ‬ُْ‫َو‬‫أ‬ُِْ‫ني‬َ‫س‬ْ‫و‬َ‫ُق‬َ‫اب‬َ‫ق‬َُ‫ن‬‫ا‬َ‫ك‬َ‫ف‬﴾ [which means] “Then he drew close and dangled, and he was as close as two cubits or closer,” is Jibril when the Messenger saw him in Makkah in a place that is called Ajyad. He has six hundred wings, and his enormous size filled the horizon. This is just as the
  70. 70. It might be said: Unofficial Translation 70 Prophet ‫ﷺ‬ saw him a second time by Sidratul-Muntaha33 , as Allah said in the Qur’an: ﴿‫ى‬َ‫ر‬ْ‫خ‬‫ُأ‬‫ة‬َ‫ل‬ْ‫ز‬َ‫ُن‬‫اه‬َ‫ء‬َ‫ُر‬ْ‫د‬َ‫ق‬َ‫ل‬َ‫و‬﴾ُ﴿‫ى‬َ‫ه‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬‫ُامل‬ِ‫ة‬َ‫ر‬ْ‫د‬ِ‫ُس‬َ‫د‬ْ‫ن‬ِ‫ع‬﴾ [which means] “He saw him a second time at Sidratul-Muntaha.” There are two reasons why what is in Sahih Muslim is not authentic, which is that a man came to the Messenger of Allah and asked him about a slave woman of his; the man said, “I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, should I free her?’ He said ‘Bring her to me’, so he brought her to him. Then he said to her, ‘Aynallah?’ She said, ‘Fis-sama’.’ He said, ‘Who am I?’ She said, ‘You are the Messenger of Allah.’ He said, ‘Free her, for she is a believer.’” [The first is] because of inconsistency [idtirab], since it was narrated with this expression and also with the expression: “‘Who is your Lord?’ She said, ‘Allah,’” and with the expression “‘Aynallah’, and she pointed to the sky,’” and with the expression, “‘Do you testify that no one is God except Allah?’ she said ‘Yes,’ he said, ‘Do you testify that I am the Messenger of Allah?’ She said, ‘Yes’. The second issue is that the narration of “Aynallah” is against the known Rules of the Religion, because among the basic Rules of the Religion is that a person is not judged with Islam because he said, “Allah is in the sky,” for this saying is shared by Jews, Christians 33 A huge tree rooted in the sixth Heaven that grows to the seventh.

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