A few words about the word the 'claudius':
An etymological journey
Five short essays on the word 'claudius'
by
Keith Armst...
Contents
1 Introduction p.3
2 Claudius or Claudia as a personal or first name p.4
3 The word 'claudius' and its many meani...
Acknowledgements
I am grateful to Dr. Michelle P. Brown, Dr. Michael Boggan and Mr Peter
Hogg of the British Library, Dr. ...
The word claudius: An etymological journey
Five essays on the word 'claudius'
The essays contained in this document review...
6
7
Chapter 1 — Claudius or Claudia as a personal or first name
What's in a name? That which we call a rose
By any other wor...
8
Hanks believes that:
A person's given name is a badge of cultural identity. Cultural identity
is closely allied to relig...
9
References
Note 1: Hanks, Patrick, [et al.], (2002: 113), The Oxford names companion, (Oxford:
Oxford University Press)....
10
The word 'claudius' as in the Latin lexicon
The linguistic family of claudius appears to have come from a single root, ...
11
The NTC's Dictionary of Latin and Greek Origins 3
, defines CLAUDERE as: 'to
shut, close'; from the root CLOS, CLUDE, C...
12
Cloisters of Westminster Abbey
from an old print.
John Fisher has compiled the official documents written in Latin in t...
13
References
Note 1: The pronunciation of ö for the diphtong au, as in Clödius for Claudius was
common in 'rustic' ('vulg...
14
Note 12: Correard, Marie Helene, and Grundy Valerie, (Eds.), (1995:1347), thereThe
Concise Oxford Hachette French Dicti...
15
The word 'claudius' as used in Old and Medieval English
The Anglo-Saxons certainly knew about Claudius I. Chapter three...
16
It is interesting to note that in Christopher Wase's Medieval Latin Dictionarium
minus: a compendious dictionary, Engli...
17
References
Note 1: Bede, (1565, 1930, 1999: 26 - 9), Ecclesiastical History, Vol. 1., [Trans. from
the Latin, J. E. Kin...
18
The word 'claudius' in the Cymraeg / Welsh language
Surprisingly, the word claudius also has a strong Welsh connection,...
19
The Romans had a major impact on Wales. R. E. M. Wheeler states in his book
Prehistoric and Roman Wales, that:
Ostorius...
20
Simpson records that in Usk, a small country town in Monmouthshire, South Wales
has revealed eleven Claudian coins and ...
21
In Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru. A dictionary of the Welsh language, we also find:
clawdd, soil thrown up in digging a pit...
22
A detail from a map of Cymru/Wales in Cymraeg. 20
It seems to me that over time the importation of the Latin root Claud...
23
References:
Note 1: Price, Glanville, (Ed.), (1998: 488 - 489), Encyclopedia of the languages of
Europe, (Oxford; Malde...
24
Note 13: Wales, Gerard of, (1988: 9, 22, 246), The Journey through Wales / The
Description of Wales, [Trans. from the L...
25
The word 'claudius' as used in Anatomical, Biological and medical terms
A Turtle called Claudius
Edward Drinker * Cope ...
26
The word 'claudius' as used in a medical context
I have also found a number of medical terms that have as their root, v...
27
A familiar linguistic pattern emerges with the representations developing the word
root (claud-) with meanings such as ...
28
Conclusion
I only hope that this study has succeeded in awakening your interest in the history of a
single word. As thi...
29
References
Biological
Note 1: Article: Kirkpatrick, David T., (1997: 447 - 463), Mud and Musk Turtles
(Kinosternidae) i...
30
As used in a medical context
Note 6: claustrophobia
Anderson, Kenneth N., (Ed.), (2002: 373), Mosby's Medical Nursing a...
31
Simpson, John Andrew, and Weiner, Edmund S., (Eds.), (1989: 285), The Oxford
English Dictionary, Vol. III, (2nd Ed.), (...
A few words about the word 'claudius' by Keith Armstrong
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1 Introduction
2 Claudius or Claudia as a personal or first name
3 The word 'claudius' and it many meanings in Latin
4 The word 'claudius' as used in Old and Medieval English
5 The word 'claudius' in the Cymraeg-Welsh language
6 The word claudius as used in Anatomical Biological and Medical terms

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A few words about the word 'claudius' by Keith Armstrong

  1. 1. A few words about the word the 'claudius': An etymological journey Five short essays on the word 'claudius' by Keith Armstrong © Copyright Keith Armstrong London 2013 2013
  2. 2. Contents 1 Introduction p.3 2 Claudius or Claudia as a personal or first name p.4 3 The word 'claudius' and its many meanings in Latin p.6 4 The word 'claudius' as used in Old and Medieval English p.7 5 The word 'claudius' in the Cymraeg-Welsh language p.9 6 The word 'claudius' as an Anatomical, Biological or Medical term p.18
  3. 3. Acknowledgements I am grateful to Dr. Michelle P. Brown, Dr. Michael Boggan and Mr Peter Hogg of the British Library, Dr. Adriano Elia, Ms Julie Bowles, Miss Cecile Mairat and Ms Weiyan Zhou for transcribing from the original text. I would also like to thank the many people who have helped me to live and given me the energy and encouragement to complete this article. This includes the people of Camden and my late mother Mrs. Nina Armstrong. I am particularly grateful to the kind members of staff at all levels within the British Library in Euston Road London. ----------- I must point out that any factual errors or sentiment unwittingly suggested are my responsibility alone. The punctuation and typeface of the authors quoted have at times been modified. All rights are reserved. The author's moral rights are asserted. No part of this paper may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the author. © Copyright 2013 Keith Armstrong, London.
  4. 4. The word claudius: An etymological journey Five essays on the word 'claudius' The essays contained in this document review the entomology of words derived from the Latin word 'claudius'. By now, many people will know of emperor Claudius I because of Robert Graves' two novels and the televised drama produced by Jack Pullman in 1975. What might be confusing is the fact that emperor Claudius had a lifelong physical impairment and the word 'Claudius' is often translated from the Latin as 'cripple' or 'lame'. It so happens that emperor Claudius I (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BCE – 13 October 54 CE) was Roman Emperor from 41 CE to 54 CE was not so named because of having a physical impairment, but rather, because he was descended from the Claudii clan, a powerful Sabine family whose history goes back to 505 BCE 1 and the beginning of Rome. After the Roman revolution and the success of the Republic, the Claudii clan split into those who supported the former Etruscan king and those who endorsed the Republic. Family members who supported the Republic became Praetorian (i.e. members of the Roman Republican aristocracy) and those who supported the monarchy ended up as Plebeians. The family's success came about with the appointment of emperor Tiberius, who was able to claim descent from both sides of the family. The last emperor from the genus of Claudius was Claudius I. Emperor Nero, who was adopted into the Claudii family, succeeded in having all significant relatives killed, including his own mother, bringing this once proud family into ruin. There are many words deriving from the word 'claudius', whose main significance is about being enclosed, including a 'clause' in a contract, various types of enclosure including the medical condition of claustrophobia, particularly with Cymraeg or Welsh as it is known to the English and those terms used in biology, anatomy and medicine. I hope you find these writings interesting. 1 1) Livy, (1919, 2002: 270), The History of Rome: Books 1 - 2, [Trans. from the Latin by B. O. Foster], (Cambridge, Massachusetts: London: Loeb Classical Library).
  5. 5. 6
  6. 6. 7 Chapter 1 — Claudius or Claudia as a personal or first name What's in a name? That which we call a rose By any other word would smell as sweet. Juliet. Romeo and Juliet 1595 Act 2, sc 1, 1.85-6, William Shakespeare Photograph by Keith Armstrong It is difficult to imagine a human culture without personal names. 1 Patrick Hanks Patrick Hanks in The Oxford Names Companion states that personal names form: [...] the first of a sequence of one or more given names borne by an individual. A given name is one that is bestowed on a child by its parents or guardians at birth, [...] More loosely, the term is fused with much the same significance as 'given name'. 2 Interestingly (considering the large number of word elements at our disposal), we choose from comparatively few first or personal names when naming children. These same few names and their variants appear throughout history repeatedly. They often relate to the fashions and the popularity of publicly known artists, sporting champions, political leaders or other icons. What subtle bearing, if any, a name has to the identity or lifestyle of an individual, is to my knowledge unknown.
  7. 7. 8 Hanks believes that: A person's given name is a badge of cultural identity. Cultural identity is closely allied to religious identity: religious affiliation and native language are often key factors, overtly or subliminally, in the choice of an appropriate name for a new member of a family. 3 While often not blood related, holders of the first names, given names (or praenomina) of Claudia and Claudius form a significant part of the mosaic of our history. Many bearers of these names have led dynamic lives, but sadly their often neglected narratives have only been touched on by some historians. Name holders must remain unrecorded and therefore are regrettably unknown. Any inclusion in this chapter is to a degree dependant upon the sources available to me. However, I consider that those mentioned also represent an important part of this word's history, and their exclusion would misrepresent the human use of this word family. The circumstances of their lives enrich our knowledge of the past. Some are still living and are in the process of making work for future historians and linguists, and I feel sure that some are not yet born. The personal name Claudius is masculine while the name Claudia is feminine. Claude, however, is an epicene name used for both males and females. 4 The Oxford names companion draws attention to Claude, whose cognates are in Italian, Spanish and Portuguese Claudio; in Russian, Klavdii; in Polish, Klaudiusz; and in Hungarian, Kolos. The masculine Germanic Claus is a form of Niclaus. In the English-dominated world this name tends to be associated with the figure of Santa Claus, also known as Father Christmas. The word's variants include the German: K(C)laus, whose cognates include the Dutch Klaas and the Fresian Klaes. 5 The personal names of Claudius and Claudia live on to this day, as in the root of the modern Italian male name Claudio. However, this still does explain the continued popularity of its variants as many other Roman families also freed their most respected slaves who would have adopted their family names that have not survived the test of time. A simple search on 'YouTube' for Claudio made in late 2007 found 21,000 different videos that directly mentioned the name 'Claudio',7 while Google in 0.44 seconds found approximately 5,890,000 different websites that mentioned the name 'Claudio'. 8 Google also recorded that 714,000 of these webs files directly originated from Italy. Both The Oxford names companion and The Guinness Book of Names tells us that Claudius (itself occasionally used as a modern given name), was an old Roman family name derived from the byname Claudius meaning 'lame' 9 . Does this hold true? You decide.
  8. 8. 9 References Note 1: Hanks, Patrick, [et al.], (2002: 113), The Oxford names companion, (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Note 2: Hanks, Patrick, [et al.], (2002: 113), The Oxford names companion, (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Note 3: Other western personal epicene names include; 'Charlie ', 'Jerry ' and 'Vivian'. It is possible that up to a quarter of Chinese personal names are not gender specific, although there is no means to verify this. Chinese personal epicene names include; 华 (hua), 禹 (yu) and 彦(yan). Note 4: Hanks, Patrick, [et al.], (2002: 131), The Oxford names companion, (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Note 5: Hanks, Patrick, [et al.], (2002: 689, 727 - 728), The Oxford names companion, (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Note 6: YouTube search 21 December, 2007. Note 7: Google search 21 December, 2007. Note 8: In addition to the Google search I found on 21 December, 2007, web files directly originated from: Argentina; 504,000, Australia; 75,500, Austria; 132,000, Belgium; 118,000, Brazil; 2,610,000, China; 181,000, Czech Republic; 236,000, France; 538,000, Iran; 7,070, Liechtenstein; 3,300, Luxembourg; 86,000, United Kingdom; 316,000 and the United States; 2,830,000. Note 9: Hanks, Patrick, [et al.], (2002: 727 - 728), The Oxford names companion, (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Dunkling, Leslie Alan, (1995: 37), The Guinness Book of Names, (London: Guinness Publishing).
  9. 9. 10 The word 'claudius' as in the Latin lexicon The linguistic family of claudius appears to have come from a single root, which developed in to two main meanings, one related to closure, the other to lameness. Both are examined below. 1 The root of the name claudius has a surprising number of meanings in the Latin vocabulary: claudicätiö ~önis (noun); limping, lameness, claudicö (verb); to be lame, limp, to be off the straight, incline to one side, to be halting or defective, (of persons) to fall short, to be deficient. Other variants include the verbs claudico (clodico) and claudeo, and the noun clauditas (f) meaning lameness. The word 'claudius' and some of its Latin variants 2 Latin Word English sense Date claudicätiö ~õnis Limping, lameness. 106-43 BCE. Claudius Clodivs The name of a Roman gens and tribe. 70-19 BCE. Claudius (2) The name of various members of the gens 65-08 BCE. Claudia (fem) The name of women in the gens Claudia. 106-43 BCE. Claudö verb To close, shut (doors, gates, etc.). 116-27 BCE. Claudö (2) verb To close (an exit, approach, etc.) by military or 106-43 BCE. Claudö (3) verb To make inaccessible (also figuratively). 106-43 BCE. Claudö (4) verb To close (a container or other object). 116-27 BCE. Claudö (5) verb To shut, confine, enclose (people or animals). 234-149BCE. Claudö (6) verb To envelop, surround, cover, conceal; to bury. 70-19 BCE. Claudö (7) verb To invest, blockade,(in military usage, usually with bl i ) 43 BCE. Claudö( 8) verb To surround (an area) with a wall or other ?48-19 BCE. Claudö (9) verb To bound on one or more sides, enclose. 106-43 BCE. claudö (10) verb To close, terminate (a period of time). 65-08 BCE. clauicula noun (of rhythm or metre) Uneven, halting. 35BCE-40CE. clauicula (2) noun Crippled, imperfect, incomplete, (of abstract things) 86-c.34 BCE. claudö (verb; infinitive form: claudere); (clodo) to close, shut (doors, gates, etc.), to enclose, to close (an exit, approach by military or other means), block up (passages, etc., in the body, wounds), to make inaccessible, to close the eyes, to shut, tip, confine, enclose (men or animals), envelop, surround, cover, conceal, to cut off, prevent, to bury, to surround (an area) with a wall or other boundary, enclose, to bound on one or more sides, clauicula; of rhythm or metre - uneven or halting, crippled, imperfect, incomplete (of abstract things). Other variants include the adjective claudendus, claudere, to be cut off, prevented; and claudus; lame etc. clausum (clusum), (noun) an enclosed space, enclosure, enclosed yard; also clausura (noun); closure and claustura (noun). There is also clausula, a hermit's cell and clausura, a mountain pass.
  10. 10. 11 The NTC's Dictionary of Latin and Greek Origins 3 , defines CLAUDERE as: 'to shut, close'; from the root CLOS, CLUDE, CLUS; from which are derived among others: conclude, conclusion, disclosure, enclose, enclosure, exclude, exclusive, foreclose, preclude, to seclude. As well as these, clause (from the Latin clausus) and cloister (from the Latin claustrum, vulgar clöstrum) are also derivatives of claudere. A clause is a simple ('closed') sentence, whereas a subordinate clause contains a subject and predicate but cannot stand alone. A clause is also a provision or stipulation in a contract or legal document. Then there is the ancient Roman legal phrase Quare clausum fregit (plural fregerunt). The powerful words in the old Latin writ commanding a defendant to show cause why s/he made an alleged unlawful entry upon the plaintiff's land. The online 1893 edition of A Dictionary of Law defines the expression Close in a legal sense as having an interest in the soil. (1881) A portion of land, as, a field inclosed by a hedge, fence, or other sensible enclosure. (1875) The word 'inclose' being a variant of the word 'enclose'.4 Every unwarrantable entry on another's soil the law entitles a trespass by "breaking his close"; the words of the writ of trespass commanding the defendant to show cause quare clausum querentis fregit. For every man's land is, in law, inclosed and set apart from his neighbour's land.5 A cloister is an enclosed courtyard with open walkways, often found in religious or educational institutions; it can also be any quiet, secluded place. The Chambers Dictionary of Etymology 6 states that cloistre was known before 1225 as a place of religious seclusion, monastery or convent 5 ; it was borrowed from Old French cloistre. 7 Related to this, claustrophobia, a fear of enclosed spaces, was first recorded only in 1879. 8 There is also Claustra: when used as a military term it can mean: a barricade, bulwark, key, defence, fortress, wall, bank, etc., for warding off an enemy. 9
  11. 11. 12 Cloisters of Westminster Abbey from an old print. John Fisher has compiled the official documents written in Latin in the County of Essex and other parts of the British Isles. Fisher reveals in his A Medieval Farming Glossary of Latin and English Words, that while claustro was used for; to close, to enclose; the word clostria was utilised for, fence or material for fence. 10 Lastly there is clausula a convention of prose metre contrived by Greek orators as a punctuation for oral delivery. Latin writers such as Marcus Tullius Cicero (106 - 43 BCE) adopted the device and introduced clausulae in the writing of their prose. This text is scannable, in the same manner that verse is; writers developed the trick of concluding sentences and periods with regularised beats. 11 In current French there is 'De clochard' which translates as 'tramp' it comes from the Latin clodo /klɔ.do/ masculin (équivalent féminin : clodote, clodotte) 12 . White's Latin-English dictionary refers to 'claudo', which then takes you to 'claudeo', and its meaning as 'limp' 13 . I would like to thank Cecile Mairat for this suggestion.
  12. 12. 13 References Note 1: The pronunciation of ö for the diphtong au, as in Clödius for Claudius was common in 'rustic' ('vulgar') Latin. The developments of the Romance languages, however, ensured that the normal pronunciation then became au instead of ö , although here, too, there are exceptions. See: Carl Darling Buck, (1933: 89), Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, (Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press). Andrew L. Sihler, (1995: 57), New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, (New York: Oxford University Press). Note 2: Glare, P. G. W., (Ed.), (1982: 334 - 335), The Oxford Latin Dictionary, (Oxford: Clarendon Press). Note 3: Moore, Bob, and Moore, Maxine, (Eds.), (1997: 56 - 7, 357), The NTC's Dictionary of Latin and Greek Origins, A Comprehensive guide to the Classical Origins of English Words, (Chicago: NTC Publishing Group). Note 4: A Dictionary of Law (1893) <http://ecclesia.org/lawgiver/C.asp> as retrieved on 20 September 2006. Note 5: A Dictionary of Law (1893) <http://ecclesia.org/lawgiver/C.asp> as retrieved on 20 September 2006. Note 6: Barnhart, Robert K., (Ed.), (1988: 181), Chambers Dictionary of Etymology, (Edinburgh: Chambers). Note 7: For example the Suora di Clausura, an order of catholic nuns who live in total seclusion, and whose only contact with the outside world is through parcels of food. Note 8: Barnhart, Robert K., (Ed.), (1988: 177), Chambers Dictionary of Etymology, (Edinburgh: Chambers). Note 8: Walford, Edward, (c.1890: 456), Old and New London: Its narrative of its history, its people and its places, Vol. III, (London, Paris & New York: Cassell Petter and Galpin). Note 9: Smith, William, and Hall, Theophilus D., (Eds.), (1870, 1929: 100), A Smaller Latin-English Dictionary, (London: John Murray). Note 10: Fisher, John L., (Ed.), (1997: 9), A medieval farming glossary of Latin and English words: taken mainly from Essex records, (Essex Record Office). Note 11: Cuddon, J. A., (Ed.) (1976, 1979: 124), A Dictionary of Literary Terms, (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books).
  13. 13. 14 Note 12: Correard, Marie Helene, and Grundy Valerie, (Eds.), (1995:1347), thereThe Concise Oxford Hachette French Dictionary, (Oxford: Oxford University Press Note 13: White John, T. , (1926: 114), Latin-English dictionary, (London: Longmans, Green and co.Ltd)
  14. 14. 15 The word 'claudius' as used in Old and Medieval English The Anglo-Saxons certainly knew about Claudius I. Chapter three of Bede's (c. 673 - 735 CE) Ecclesiastical History of the English People is devoted to him 1 , although there is no mention of his physical impairment in Bede's omposition. St. Bede was a cleric, a writer and also a teacher. He was perhaps the most significant Anglo-Saxon scholar and also one of the most influential early English historians of his time. St. Bede wrote in Old English which was the written language of the Anglo-Saxons. St. Margaret of Antioch was a virgin and martyr. She had a cult devoted to her in Europe from the ninth century and became one of the most honored saints of the medieval period. The Old English lives of St. Margaret by Mary Clayton and Hugh Magennis publishes a copy of the Latin Passio S. Margaretae from the tenth-century. It is considered to have been written and corrected by only one scribe in Anglo-Saxon England. 2 Verse 19 of the text reads: [...] in domo illius non nascatur infans claudus aut cecus neque mutus. Clayton and Magennis translate this as [...] in his home let there not be born an infant lame or blind or dumb. 3 In an Old English translation of this manuscript, dating from the late 11th or early 12th century, the Old English words creopoles, crypol and crypeles, are used as variants of the currently used word cripple, as a translation of the Latin claudus. 4 The text has three references of a variant of the word 'cryple'; chapter 15 has creopoles, chapter 19 has crypol and chapter 23 uses crypeles. Clayton and Magennis consider this text to have non-West Saxon phonological features in the use of their form. 5 There is little positive linguistic evidence for precise dating of this version of the legend, as it is often difficult to distinguish in the text between authorial and scribal contributions. They suggest that the manuscript had an Anglo-Norman scribal influence in the employment of such forms in this manuscript, as they are not recorded elsewhere in Old English or 'Middle English'. It is possible that the manuscript of the Legend of St. Margaret of Antioch [Ms. Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 303] was composed in the late 11th or early 12th century. 6 Clayton and Magennis assert that this text represents the only recorded example in the West Saxon dialect of creopoles, crypol and crypeles in both Old and Middle English vocabularies. Incidentally, the lack of evidence of St. Margaret's existence led to her cult being suppressed by the Vatican in 1969. St. Christopher was also booted out of the state of sainthood for the same reason at the same time.
  15. 15. 16 It is interesting to note that in Christopher Wase's Medieval Latin Dictionarium minus: a compendious dictionary, English-Latin and Latin-English 7 of 1662 the word 'claudius'. [Latin = Claudicans] was also translated as 'cripple'. However, this is not classical Latin. In modern Italian there is Claudiàno, Claudian, [Latin: Claudianus], claudicante, which means lame, limping, halting, claudicare, to limp, to halt, claudicazióne, limping, halting. 8 Nevertheless, it must be borne out that there was no known negative connotation of the word crypol/cripple until the late 18th century. John S. Farmer and W. E. Henley give reference in their Slang and its Analogues Past and Present, 1890 - 1904 to the first known negative use of the term 'cripple' in 1785. 9 Middle English is considered by The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of the English Language 10 to have emerged from the beginning of the twelfth century and survived until the middle of the fifteenth. Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 1400) was one of the greatest writers of this period. From another branch of the root 'claud' comes the noun; closet. The first known use of the word 'closet' is from Geoffrey Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde (c.1385) in the sense of a private room for study or prayer. 11 The word closet was borrowed from Old French closet, a diminutive form of clos; enclosure, from Latin clausum; closed space, comes from neuter past participle of claudere; to close. In the meaning of a case or cabinet for valuables, it was first recorded by the publication of William Shakespeare's play Julius Caesar of 1599. Then there is the infamous antagonist in Shakespeare's Hamlet of 1601. 12
  16. 16. 17 References Note 1: Bede, (1565, 1930, 1999: 26 - 9), Ecclesiastical History, Vol. 1., [Trans. from the Latin, J. E. King] Loeb Classical Library No. 246, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press). Note 2: Paris manuscript, BN, lat. 5574 (P) and Ms. Cambridge Corpus Christi College 303. Clayton, Mary and Magennis, Hugh, (1994: 3 and 6), The Old English lives of St. Margaret, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Note 3: Clayton, Mary and Magennis, Hugh, (1994: 168 and 215), The Old English lives of St. Margaret, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Note 4: Clayton, Mary and Magennis, Hugh, (1994: 94, 103-104), The Old English lives of St. Margaret, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Note 5: Clayton, Mary and Magennis, Hugh, (1994: 94, 103-104, 106, 164 - 171, 191 - 192, 214 - 217), The Old English lives of St. Margaret, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Note 6: Clayton, Mary and Magennis, Hugh, (1994: 106), The Old English lives of St. Margaret, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Note 7: Wase, Christopher, (1662: CRA - CRE, [pages not paginated]), Dictionarium minus: a compendious dictionary, English-Latin and Latin-English ... By C. W. (Compendium Calepini: Being a Latine-English dictionarie, and an abridgement of the last Calepine, augmented by Passeratius ... Abstracted by C. W.), Vol. 1. (London:). Note 8: Macchi, Vladimiro, (Ed.), (1970 - 1975: 472), Dizionario delle lingue Italiana e Inglese [...] Realizzato dal Centro Lessicografico Sansoni sotto la direzione di Vladimiro Macchi, (Dictionary of the Italian and English languages.) (Rome: Sansoni, Firenze). Macchi, Vladimiro, (Ed.), (1989: 244, 1204), Dictionario delle lingue italiana e inglese. realizzato dal Centro lessicografico Sansoni. sotto la direzione di Vladimiro Macchi, (2nd Ed.), Centro lessicografico Sansoni, (Rome: Sansoni, Firenze). Note 9: Farmer, John S. and Henley, W. E. (Eds.), (1966: 213), Slang and its Analogues Past and Present, 1890 - 1904, (New York: University Books). Note 10: Crystal, David, (1995, 2002: 30), The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of the English Language, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Note 11: Skeat, Walter W., (Ed.), (1910: 115), An Etymological Dictionary of the English Language, (4th Ed.), (Oxford: Clarendon Press). Note 12: Barnhart, Robert K., (Ed.), (1988: 181), Chambers Dictionary of Etymology, (Edinburgh: Chambers).
  17. 17. 18 The word 'claudius' in the Cymraeg / Welsh language Surprisingly, the word claudius also has a strong Welsh connection, especially regarding its use in place-names. Glanville Price has suggested in his Encyclopedia of the Languages of Europe that "Welsh has one of the longest literary traditions of any European language and that tradition has remained vital and unbroken to the present day." 1 Sir Owen Morgan Edwards described Wales in the introduction of his book A Short History of Wales of 1906: Wales is a row of hills, rising between the Irish Sea on the west and the English plains on the east. If you come from the west along the sea, or if you cross the Severn or the Dee from the east, you will see that Wales is a country all by itself. It rises grandly and proudly. If you are a stranger, you will think of it as "Wales" a strange country; if you are Welsh, you will think of it as "Cymru" a land of brothers. 2 The Oxford English Dictionary states that in English the adjective Welsh corresponds to the Old High German; wal(a}hisc, walesc. In Old English the final h of the stem normally disappeared before the adjectival ending. The West Saxon type Wielisc (from Wealh) did not survive beyond the Old English period. The adjective 'of persons' originally referred to the native British population of England in contrast to the Anglo-Saxons. In later use it related to the country of Wales by birth or descent; forming (part of) the native population of Wales. 3 The very word Welsh is a Germanic name for 'foreigner' or 'alien'; for example, in poetic German, Italy was described as Wälschland. In the Middle Ages, Eilert Ekwall, in his Dictionary of English Place-Names, considers that the Old English of 'Wales' or 'Walls' (found in the Norman Doomsday book of 1086) is identical with Wales the country. 4 Welsh poets coined a name of similar origin for their country in their own mother tongue: Gwalia. However, the main word used by Welsh speakers to designate their own land has always been Cymru. 5 Grace Simpson in her Britons and the Roman Army. A study of Wales and the southern Pennines in the 1st - 3rd centuries considers that: The first contacts between the Roman army and the British tribes in Wales and the southern Pennines are not recorded. No doubt they were described by Tacitus in a lost book of the Annals. It is possible to infer their nature from his surviving books, and to say that initial engagements during the governorship of Aulus Plautius [43 - 47 CE] probably provoked the tribes in Wales to invade the newly-conquered Province of Britain after Aulus Plautius had returned to Rome. 6
  18. 18. 19 The Romans had a major impact on Wales. R. E. M. Wheeler states in his book Prehistoric and Roman Wales, that: Ostorius Scapula, the commander of the Roman forces since the year 47 [CE], swept across the Midlands and reached the Welsh Marches before 50 [CE]. There he defeated a native force led by Caratacus (mentioned earlier), a refugee Celtic prince from Essex. 7 Wheeler writes: North-eastern Wales, corresponding roughly with the modern Flintshire, was subjugated at the same time; but the Silures of Monmouthshire and Glamorgan proved amenable neither to negotiation nor to severity, although a legionary fortress was established amongst them, [...] To liberate active troops for this purpose from south-eastern Britain, a colony of veteran soldiers was placed at Colchester in or about [50 CE], and for ten indecisive years the Roman power in Britain lay uneasily between the unconquered Silures in the west and the shifty vassal kingdoms of the east. 8 The Romans opened their hostilities by carrying out an incursion upon the native religious stronghold of Anglesey in 60 CE. The immediate success was somewhat negated by the great rebellion which broke out behind them under Queen Boudicca and the Iceni of East Anglia. Grace Simpson states that: The whole area was a natural fortress, about a hundred hill-tops were crowned with native forts, it contained refugees from defeated tribes in England. The stubborn resistance by the Silures embroiled the Roman army in difficult country. Through marsh and woodland it advanced, always with heavy losses. The Roman military trinkets in the Seven Sisters hoard near Coelbren suggest the capture of soldiers whose equipment was taken by a British chieftain, and the Silures gave such captives as presents to other tribes. Tacitus also stated that some legionary cohorts that were left behind to build forts in Silurian territory were surrounded by the enemy, and suffered losses, before being relieved from neighbouring forts. 9 Simpson maintains that: [...] Wales has no Roman historian after Tacitus. The southern Pennines may be referred to in a few (often ambiguous) sentences by later writers. Datable inscriptions are more numerous in the southern Pennines than in Wales, but there are not enough of them. Therefore we are largely dependent, in both regions, upon archaeological remains for our knowledge of the three centuries that followed their conquest by Rome. 10
  19. 19. 20 Simpson records that in Usk, a small country town in Monmouthshire, South Wales has revealed eleven Claudian coins and some contemporary bowls of Samian pottery. "Hod Hill (a Neolithic hill fort with a Roman camp inside) in Dorsetshire, found a few years earlier in what was then newly-occupied territory hoste vicino (close or nearby enemy), has also yielded similar kinds of pottery and yet more Claudian coins." 11 It was because of the Roman invasion that the Welsh language (of Brittonic-Celtic origin) borrowed a significant number of Latin words, whose pronunciation and spelling grew to be uniquely Welsh over succeeding generations. Gerard of Wales (c. 1145 - 1223), Archdeacon of Brecon, in his Description of Wales (an invaluable work for the history of medieval Wales from the twelfth century), states that numerous "words in Welsh are cognate with either Greek or Latin." 12 He gives the following examples: [...] The Romans said 'frenum' [bridle], [...] 'gladius' [sword], and 'lorica', [robe of a penitent; knights equipment] and the Welsh say 'ffrwyn', [...] 'cleddyf'' and 'llurig'. The Romans said 'unicus' [entire: unmarried man], 'canis' [dog] and 'belua' [beast], and the Welsh say 'unig', 'ci', and 'bela'. 13 However, Y Gwe-eiriadur (an Internet dictionary of Welsh for speakers of English 15 ) suggests the main root is derived from the element clos [kloos] masculine noun plural closydd [klo -sidh] as in close = courtyard enclosed by buildings; or a way leading into this; clos cadeirlan cathedral close, the precincts of a cathedral or clos castell courtyard of a castle. As in Cerddodd drwy’r dre nes dyfod i'r castell. Aeth Morgan i mewn drwy'r clos (South Wales) farmyard, courtyard; and also beili, cwrt clos ffermdy farmyard, courtyard. close = residential street in the form of a cul de sac Aeth i fyny’r clos i barcio’r car He went up the close (the cul de sac) to park his car. 14 The etymology of 'clos': English close (= enclosure) < Old French clos (adjective = enclosed) < Latin clausus (adjective = enclosed, shut up) < claudere (= to close), cf Jèrriais (Jersey French) clios (= a field) Modern French clos (adjective) enclosed; (noun) enclosed place, vineyard, the feminine noun being claddfa, claddféydd [KLADH va] graveyard, cemetery and y gladdfa = the graveyard. H. Meurig Evans's Welsh-English Dictionary Y geiriadur mawr, Evans gives references for: cladd, cloddio, trench, pit, burying place, a digging. claddedigaeth, burial, funeral. claddedigaethol, claddedigol, funereal. claddfa, burying place, spawning ground, cemetery; claddgell, burial-chamber; claddogof, catacomb; claddu, bury, to deposit (spawn), to dig; claddwr, claddu, burier, undertaker; clawdd, cloddiau, ditch, pit, mine, barrier; clavvr, cover, lid, surface; clawstwr, clawstyr, cloister; glawdd, quarry, mine; cloddiad, excavation; cloddilion, cloddio, to bank, to dig, to excavate, to quarry; cloddiwr, cloddio, digger, excavator, labourer; cloddolion, fossils. 15
  20. 20. 21 In Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru. A dictionary of the Welsh language, we also find: clawdd, soil thrown up in digging a pit or trench, mound, wall made of earth, dyke, earthwork, bulwark, boundary, hedge, fence and also clawdd, a mud-wall. 16 The Rhestr o enwau lleoedd, (A gazetteer of Welsh place-names), lists a number of Welsh place-names containing the root clawdd. 17 Clawdd-coch, in the locality of Garreghwfa, Montgomeryshire Clawdd Du, an ancient name in Trefynwy, Monmouthshire Clawdd Mavvr, an ancient name Hirnant/Llanrhaeadr-ym- Mochnant, Montgomeryshire Clawddnewydd, a hamlet or village in Derwen, Denbighshire Clawdd y Mynach, an ancient name in Glamorgan. Anthony Lias gives the example of Knighton, Powys in northern Wales in his Place names of the Welsh borderlands 18 , he writes that: [...] the Welsh name, TREF-Y-CLAWDD or TREF-Y-CLO, 'Town on the dyke', refers to Offa's Dyke, the great earthwork built by the Mercian King Offa [757 - 796 CE], which was the forerunner of the present English-Welsh border and which passes through Knighton. The dyke played an important part in shaping the perception of the extent and identity of Wales and lasts for 80 miles [128.74 km]. Glawdd Offa known in English as 'Offa's Dyke' was built on the order of the Anglo- Saxon King Offa to enclose the Cymraeg or Welsh people in their land and stop them from invading English lands. The structure is considered by to be one of the most impressive constructions of its kind anywhere in Europe.19 Wales was the last Western outpost of the Roman Empire, in that it followed both Roman law and traditions. It was never successively occupied by either the Anglo-Saxons or the Vikings.
  21. 21. 22 A detail from a map of Cymru/Wales in Cymraeg. 20 It seems to me that over time the importation of the Latin root Claud has grown in the Cymraeg / Welsh language. References to burial became intermingled with terms for burial/ graveyard/ditch, as another example of how the Latin meaning of the root Claud expanded into the Welsh / Cymraeg language, so much so as to be almost indecipherable to outsiders. Samuel James Evans in his The Latin Element in Welsh tells us that in 1908, knowledge of the Latin elements in Welsh became an essential requirement for candidates sitting the Examinations of the Central Board for Welsh Matriculation. 21 The Cymraeg / Welsh language is spoken by at least half a million people today.
  22. 22. 23 References: Note 1: Price, Glanville, (Ed.), (1998: 488 - 489), Encyclopedia of the languages of Europe, (Oxford; Malden, Mass.: Blackwell). Note 2: Edwards, Owen Morgan, Sir, (1906: 1), A Short History of Wales, (London: T. Fisher Unwin). Today the word Walsh only survives as a surname while the spelling Welch is only maintained in the title of the Royal Welch Fusiliers, the oldest infantry battalion in Wales. Note 3: Simpson, John Andrew, and Weiner, Edmund S., (Eds.), (1989: 145), The Oxford English Dictionary, Vol. XX, (2nd Ed.), (Oxford: Clarendon Press). Note 4: Ekwall cites the place-names of the stream and then river the 'Walbrook' known by the Anglo-Saxons as Weala broc 'brook of the Welsh' or 'of the serfs'. He also gives reference to the Old English place-names of Walacot and Wealacot 'cottage of the serfs or of the Welsh'. Ekwall considers that the former alternative seems on the whole preferable. Ekwall, Eilert, (Ed.), (1936, 1991: xliii, 491, 492), The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names, (4th Ed.), (Oxford: Clarendon Press). Note 5: Herbermann, Charles et al, (Ed.), (1908: 7 - 10), The Catholic Encyclopaedia, Vol. IV, (New York: Robert Appleton Company). Note 6: Simpson, Grace, (1964: 1), Britons and the Roman Army. A study of Wales and the southern Pennines in the 1st-3rd centuries, (London : Gregg Press). Note 7: Wheeler, R. E. M., (1925: 218), Prehistoric and Roman Wales, (Oxford : Clarendon Press). Note 8: Wheeler, R. E. M., (1925: 242), Prehistoric and Roman Wales, (Oxford : Clarendon Press). Note 9: Simpson, Grace, (1964: 3), Britons and the Roman Army. A study of Wales and the southern Pennines in the 1st-3rd centuries, (London : Gregg Press). Note 10: Simpson, Grace, (1964: 1), Britons and the Roman Army. A study of Wales and the southern Pennines in the 1st-3rd centuries, (London : Gregg Press). Note 11: Simpson, Grace, (1964: 4), Britons and the Roman Army. A study of Wales and the southern Pennines in the 1st-3rd centuries, (London : Gregg Press). Note 12: Wales, Gerard of, (1988: 9, 22, 246), The Journey through Wales / The Description of Wales, [Trans. from the Latin with an Introduction by Lewis Thorpe], (Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books).
  23. 23. 24 Note 13: Wales, Gerard of, (1988: 9, 22, 246), The Journey through Wales / The Description of Wales, [Trans. from the Latin with an Introduction by Lewis Thorpe], (Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books). Note 14: Y Gwe-eiriadur: An Internet dictionary of Welsh for speakers of English. <http://www.kimkat.org/amryw/1_vortaroy/geiriadur_cymraeg_saesneg_BAEDD_ci_ 1675e.htm> as retrieved on 10th June, 2007. Note 15: Evans, H. Meurig, (1987: 87 - 89), Y geiriadur mawr : the Complete Welsh- English, English-Welsh Dictionary, (Swansea: C. Davies). Note 16: Wales, University of [corporate], (1950: 491), Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru. A Dictionary of the Welsh language, (Caerdydd: University of Wales). Note 17: Davies, Elwyn, (Ed.), (1967: 29), Rhestr o enwau lleoedd. (A gazetteer of Welsh place-names), (Caerdydd: University of Wales). Note 18: Lias, Anthony, (1991: 8, 10,13, 29), Place names of the Welsh borderlands, (Ludlow: Palmers). Note 19: Glawdd Offa <http://www.cpat.org.uk/offa/w_index.htm> and Offa's Dyke <http://www.cpat.org.uk/offa/index.htm> both as retrieved on 6th of March 2009. Note 20: Jenkins, Daffyd, (1986: viii), Hywel Dda:The Law, (Llandysul, Dyfed: Gomer Press). [map]. Note 21 Evans, Samuel James, (1908: Preface), The Latin Element in Welsh, (Newport, Mon.: John E. Southall).
  24. 24. 25 The word 'claudius' as used in Anatomical, Biological and medical terms A Turtle called Claudius Edward Drinker * Cope (1840 - 1897) published his discovery of a freshwater nocturnal turtle in 1865 to the Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia. This turtle was named Claudius angustatus [1] (genus Staurotypus). The Claudius angustatus is classed as a Narrow-bridged Musk Turtle, it has only seven bones. Another unique characteristic is the presence of two cusps on the upper jaw. The Claudius turtle is almost entirely carnivorous, feeding on aquatic insects, snails, clams, fish, worms, crustaceans and possibly amphibians. The turtle only resides in the central American areas of Belize, Guatemala and Mexico. The Claudius turtle lays multiple clutches of eggs during a single season, with a relatively low number of eggs deposited each time. The eggs take from three to five months to hatch. Musk turtles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination. Eggs incubated at an intermediate temperature range generate predominantly males, while females are produced at temperatures above or below this temperature interval. An adult only grows to 10.16 cm. (4 inches) in length and given the right conditions, it can live for more than twenty years. * His middle name not a 'nickname'. As used in Anatomy The German anatomist Friedrich M. Claudius (1822 - 1869) discovered the ovarian fossa which is sometimes known as the Claudius' fossa [2]. This is a depression in the serous membrane lining the hollow of the abdomen and enveloping the digestive and reproductive organs of a woman's pelvis. It is found in front by the umbilical artery, and lies behind the ureter (the duct by which urine journeys from the kidney to the bladder) and the urinary vessels; it lodges in the ovary. The Mosby's Medical Nursing and Allied Health Dictionary draws attention to the anatomical expression claustrum [3] (Latin), which means a closing plural claustra: which is either a barrier membrane that partially closes an aperture or the thin sheet of grey matter, composed chiefly of spindle cells, situated lateral to the external capsule of the brain. One should add here the claudent muscle, an eye muscle. the Oxford English Dictionary gives claudent [4], an adverb (from the Latin claudent-em, of claudère to shut, close), as shutting, closing. There are also the obsolete terms of claustrum oris for the soft palate and claustrum virginale [5], an old medical term for the hymen.
  25. 25. 26 The word 'claudius' as used in a medical context I have also found a number of medical terms that have as their root, variations of Claud. As mentioned earlier, there is the condition known as claustrophobia [6] often first occurring in childhood. The BMA Complete Family health Encyclopedia defines the condition as an: Intense fear of being in enclosed spaces, such as lifts or small rooms, or of being in crowded areas. Claustrophobia may originate from a previous bad experience involving an enclosed space. Behaviour therapy is the usual form of treatment. Mosby's Medical Nursing and Allied Health Dictionary suggests that the therapy should include psychotherapy to uncover the cause of the phobic reaction, followed by behaviour therapy, specifically, systematic desensitisation. The Oxford English Dictionary also gives reference to the medical word claustrophilia [7] which signifies a morbid desire to be enclosed within a confined space. This is the very opposite of claustrophobia. Then there is Claude syndrome [8], discovered by the French psychiatrist Henri Claude (1869 - 1945). The Miller - Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine describes the symptoms to include; a paralysis of the third (oculomotor) nerve on one side and asynergia on the other side, together with palsy on the side of the lesion and a lack of bodily coordination on the opposite side. The diagnosis of the condition known as Claudication [9] often comes from the symptoms of cramp-like pains of the leg that happen when walking and may in the fullness of time cause a limp. The usual cause of claudication is narrowing, hardening or blockage of the arteries in the legs due to a vascular disease such as atherosclerosis. People with the condition have to stop walking after a particular distance because of pain in the calves. After a short rest, they may be able to resume walking. This is called intermittent claudication. The BMA Complete Family health Encyclopedia also reports a rarer explanation known as spinal stenosis (caused by a narrowing of the canal carrying the spinal cord), resulting in pressure on the nerve roots that pass into one or both legs. The origin of this medical term Claudication is considered to come from the late Middle English of the Tudor period; the Oxford English Dictionary gives a reference to the phrase Claudicacion or limping [..] of 1555 and The claudications and haltings of the saints are not diseases, but in part. [..] of 1622. The stem of the word is from the Latin claudicatio(n-), derived from the verb claudicare to limp, which in turn stems from claudus lame.
  26. 26. 27 A familiar linguistic pattern emerges with the representations developing the word root (claud-) with meanings such as enclosure, enclosing and limping. Perhaps it's worth mentioning here that the most famous doctor of the Roman era, was Claudius Galen (Κλαούδιος Γαληνός Γάλην) of Pergamum (c.130 - 201 CE). Galen wrote treatise on Hypocratic Writings on Hypocrates, the greatest Greek doctor of ancient times, and his own text on The Natural Faculties, both of which are to this day highly regarded by some members of the medical profession. He was a physician to gladiators who concentrated on surgery. However he was also very keen on 'blood letting' as a cure for many ailments: a medical intervention that unfortunately continued to the 19th century, and which was often counterproductive. [10]
  27. 27. 28 Conclusion I only hope that this study has succeeded in awakening your interest in the history of a single word. As this study has shown, the name claudius and its variants have been used as a clan name, as an element of a place name and as a personal or first name for the past two and half thousand years. I have tried to give some chronology to the personalities about whom I have written by providing a brief glimpse of their lives. As a word of Latin origin 'claudius' has three quite separate meanings:  the Claudii family name  the condition of limping  and to (en)close. It is possible that the clan emperor Claudius I was named because his family were identified for the enclosure of their Sabine property. Emperor Claudius II (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Claudius Augustus; May 10, 213 CE – January 270 CE), known as Claudius Gothicus, Roman Emperor from 268 CE to 270 CE. He had a given personal name, not as a family name.Other than as a family name the root meaning of word is connected with the meaning of 'enclosure' is far older than any other use of the word.
  28. 28. 29 References Biological Note 1: Article: Kirkpatrick, David T., (1997: 447 - 463), Mud and Musk Turtles (Kinosternidae) in The Biology, Husbandry and Health Care of Reptiles, Volume II: The Husbandry of Reptiles, (T. F. H Publications). Article: Cope, E. D., (1865: 185 - 198), Third contribution to the herpetology of tropical America, In the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia: No. 17. Moll, Don, and Moll, Edward O., (2004: 97, 218), The Ecology, Exploitation, and Conservation of River Turtles, (Oxford : Oxford University Press). Pritchard, Peter C. H., (Ed.), (1979: 385, 580 - 581, 584 - 5, 588, 589, 592 - 593), The Encyclopedia of Turtles, (Hong Kong ; Reigate : TFH). Welch, Kenneth R. G., (1994: 17), Turtles, Tortoises and Terrapins: A Checklist, (Taunton: R & A in collaboration with KCM Books). Anatomy Note 2: Claudius' fossa Dictionary.com Note 3: claustrum Anderson, Kenneth N., (Ed.), (2002: 373), Mosby's Medical Nursing and Allied Health Dictionary, (6th Ed.), (St. Louis, Mo. ; London : Mosby). Miller, Benjamin F., (Ed.), (1992, 1997: 377), Encyclopedia & Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, & Allied Health, / Miller-Keane. Edition (6th Ed.), (Philadelphia: London : Saunders). Simpson, John Andrew, and Weiner, Edmund S., (Eds.), (1989: 286), The Oxford English Dictionary, Vol. III, (2nd Ed.), (Oxford: Clarendon Press). Note 4: claudent Simpson, John Andrew, and Weiner, Edmund S., (Eds.), (1989: 285), The Oxford English Dictionary, Vol. III, (2nd Ed.), (Oxford: Clarendon Press). Note 5: claustrum oris and claustrum virginale. Dictionary.com
  29. 29. 30 As used in a medical context Note 6: claustrophobia Anderson, Kenneth N., (Ed.), (2002: 373), Mosby's Medical Nursing and Allied Health Dictionary, (6th Ed.), (St. Louis, Mo. ; London : Mosby). Miller, Benjamin F., (Ed.), (1992, 1997: 377), Encyclopedia & dictionary of medicine, nursing, & allied health, / Miller-Keane. Edition (6th Ed.), (Philadelphia ; London : Saunders). Simpson, John Andrew, and Weiner, Edmund S., (Eds.), (1989: 286), The Oxford English Dictionary, Vol. III, (2nd Ed.), (Oxford: Clarendon Press). Smith, Tony, (Ed.), (1999: 281), The British Medical Association complete family health encyclopaedia, (London : Dorling Kindersley). Note 7: claustrophilia Simpson, John Andrew, and Weiner, Edmund S., (Eds.), (1989: 285), The Oxford English Dictionary, Vol. III, (2nd Ed.), (Oxford: Clarendon Press). Note 8: Claude syndrome Bogousslavsky, Julien, and Caplan, Louis R., (2001: 514 - 515), Strobe Syndromes, (2nd Ed.), (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Miller, Benjamin F., (Ed.), (1992, 1997: 377), Encyclopedia & dictionary of medicine, nursing, & allied health, / Miller-Keane. Edition (6th Ed.), (Philadelphia ; London : Saunders). Smith, Tony, (Ed.), (1999: 281), The British Medical Association complete family health encyclopaedia, (London : Dorling Kindersley). Dictionary.com Note 9: Claudication Anderson, Kenneth N., (Ed.), (2002: 373), Mosby's Medical Nursing and Allied Health Dictionary, (6th Ed.), (St. Louis, Mo. ; London : Mosby). Irons-Georges, Tracy (Project Ed.), (2002: 454 - 455), Magill's Medical Guide, Vol. 1., (2nd Ed. revised), (Pasadena, Calif. : Salem Press). Miller, Benjamin F., (Ed.), (1992, 1997: 377), Encyclopedia & Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, & Allied Health, / Miller-Keane. Edition (6th Ed.), (Philadelphia ; London : Saunders).
  30. 30. 31 Simpson, John Andrew, and Weiner, Edmund S., (Eds.), (1989: 285), The Oxford English Dictionary, Vol. III, (2nd Ed.), (Oxford: Clarendon Press). Smith, Tony, (Ed.), (1999: 281), The British Medical Association Complete Family Health Encyclopaedia, (London : Dorling Kindersley). Note 10: Porter, Roy, (1997: 71), The Greatest Benefit to Mankind, (London: Harper-Collins). Philips, E.D., (1987: 172-181), Aspects of Greek Medicine, (Philadelphia: The Charles Press). Crystal, David (Ed.), (1990: 478), The Cambridge Encyclopedia, (Cambridge University Press). Galen, (1989), Hypocrates, [Trans. Arthur John Brock], (University of Chicago: Encyclopaedia Brittanica). Watts, Sheldon, (1997: 12, 234), Epidemics and History, (New Haven and London: Yale University Press). © Copyright 2013 Keith Armstrong, London.

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