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youPIX 2014: Como a tecnologia mudou a maneira como a gente cria e ouve música?
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youPIX 2014: Como a tecnologia mudou a maneira como a gente cria e ouve música?

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Música sempre foi peça chave da civilização humana. Mas como toda forma de arte, ela tem evoluido ao longo do tempo, se expandindo e abrindo caminho através das barreiras técnicas. Essas mudanças se …

Música sempre foi peça chave da civilização humana. Mas como toda forma de arte, ela tem evoluido ao longo do tempo, se expandindo e abrindo caminho através das barreiras técnicas. Essas mudanças se aceleraram nas últimas décadas, do advento do CD (quem lembra?) até o mundo do streaming e da tecnologia mobile. Em sua palestra, Liu vai falar sobre como a tecnologia mudou a maneira como a gente cria e ouve música e qual a situação do mercado do entretenimento musical hoje. Depois da palestra dele, se tudo der certo, você terá algumas ideias de como pode mudar o mercado da música no futuro.
Gary Liu é Diretor do Spotify Labs, uma central de inteligência e estudos de tendência sobre o mercado da música e, estará no youPIX com exclusividade pra falar sobre como a tecnologia mudou a maneira como a gente cria e ouve música.

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  • 107 minutes
  • Paleolithic era (Old Stone Age – this was late in the period) – flutes made out of ivory found in Germany
    Oldest evidence of musical instrument
  • New Stone Age – lithophone (stone chimes)
    Found in the Sahara
  • Harp – found in a Mesopotamian grave
    Lyre – New Kingdom in Egypt
    Greek Lyre – Archaic Period of Greek history
  • Turn of millennium, intricate string instruments show up in Asia – this is the Guzheng from China
    Middle Ages – Gregorian Chant (based on changes in architecture that focused on amplified acoustics in churches)
    Early Renaissance Cantigas – solo voice accompanied by one or more instruments
  • Late Renaissance gave rise to 2 important changes in music – (1) ensemble music, and (2) the publishing industry.
    (1) Was driven by organic evolution of musical form, but (2) was a result of the printing press. The publishing copyright was invented by King Henry VIII in the mid-1500s, and shortly after, an Italian named Ottaviano Petrucci secured a 20 year monopoly on printed music in Venice, focusing on Flemish works that were popular throughout Europe during the Renaissance. These were the first musical sales.
  • Now, we enter into the golden age of classical music.
    Bach during the Baroque period, Mozart and Beethoven during the Classical Period.
    Their music was heavy impacted by changing social consumption, which was the result of instrument development and construction for projection. Organs and high quality string instruments for Bach, and the fortepiano and orchestra for Mozart and Beethoven.
  • The era of the great composers continued into the Romantic period with Franz Schubert, and the Modern period with Tchaikovsky and Rachmaninoff
    This was also the first time that music was recorded and broadcast … which brings us to the incredible changes in the last 150 years.
  • 1857 – Edouard Leon Scott de Martinville (French) invented the Phonautograph, and in 1860, captured the earliest known recording on a human voice. Just to SEE what sound looked like. Wasn’t meant for playback. Wasn’t until 2008 that we were able to identify the etching, and hear what was captured.
    1878 – Thomas Edison perfects the phonograph, which could record and playback sound based on a cylinder of wax paper, then foil, then disc. Competition with gramophone. Discs were easier to mass produce.


  • 1900s – by 1900, 78 rpm had become the standard speed for a record player, and 10 inches was the regular size. In 1903, Victor introduced the 12 inch. 3-3:30 average song length comes from this capacity.
    1920s – electrical recording was invented. People started looking to product more music.
    1948 – Columbia introduces the 12 inch 33 1/3 rpm record. With microgrooves, holds 45 mins of music across the 2 sides. About length
    1949 – RCA Victor introduces 7 inch 45 rpm record. Held 7 min 15 seconds of music per side. About portability. Fast change record players.
    33 1/3 eventually wins, but the FORMAT for popular music has been established: avg song length based on the 78s, average album/LP length based on the 33s, and average EP length based on the 45s.

  • Parallel timeline during this time. 1920 – first radio station. Mass distribution of music for the first time. 1933 – invention of the FM band, which carries the full frequency of what the human ear can hear, so music moves to FM. 1954 – invention of the transistor radio, which operated on a battery, improving mobility of music.
  • 1962 – Philips releases the first compact cassette tape, the first commercial scaled magnetic tape. Technology was pioneered in 1935.
    1963 – Learjet (the plane company) released the Learjet Super-8, more commonly known as the 8-track. By 1975, the cassette take had won the market.
    Cassette players in cars started appearing in the early 1970s, but in 1979, Sony changed the world again, but releasing the Walkman.
  • In 1982, Sony and Philips cooperated again to envision, design, and build the compact disc. 74 mins, to fit the entire 9th Symphony by Beethoven on one disc. Sony released the first “Discman” in 1984.
    In 1992, after nearly 10 years of research and development, Karlheinz Brandenburg was able to create a comprehension codec that allowed for the easy transfer of music. It was named MPEG-Audio Layer 3. The file type received its .mp3 extension in July of 1995, and the music was thrown on its head.
  • 1998 – first commercially available mp3 player launched in Korea. 64 MB.
    1999 – Napster launched.
    2001 – Napster closed. Metallica’s “I Disappear” led to the law suit that ended the company.
    2001 – iTunes launched. Changed the way we buy music (singles)

    Continuation of radio line would show Pandora Radio launch in 2001
  • 1998 – first commercially available mp3 player launched in Korea. 64 MB.
    1999 – Napster launched.
    2001 – Napster closed. Metallica’s “I Disappear” led to the law suit that ended the company.
    2001 – iTunes launched. Changed the way we buy music (singles)

    Continuation of radio line would show Pandora Radio launch in 2001
  • And thats what we are all about here at Spotify - delivering music to more parts of people’s day.

    Because if it is a music moment to your consumer - it is a media moment to you.

Transcript

  • 1. A(Brief) History of Music @garyliu #youPIX
  • 2. 4 Music matters in Moments
  • 3. 5
  • 4. 6
  • 5. 7
  • 6. 8
  • 7. 9
  • 8. 10
  • 9. 11
  • 10. 12
  • 11. 13 NOT TO SCALE because I’m not a historian, and I’m not very good at articulating space and time.
  • 12. 14 40,000 BC
  • 13. 15 8000 BC
  • 14. 16 2600 BC 1500 BC 600 BC
  • 15. 17 100 BC 800 AD 1400 AD
  • 16. 18 1500s
  • 17. 19 d. 1750 d. 1791 d. 1827
  • 18. 20 d. 1828 d. 1893 d. 1943
  • 19. 21 WARNING! Acceleration ahead as music starts being recorded and distributed.
  • 20. 22 18571878
  • 21. 23 1900s1949 1948
  • 22. 24 1954 1933 1920
  • 23. 25 19621979 1963
  • 24. 26 19821992 1984
  • 25. 27 19982001 1999
  • 26. 28 2008
  • 27. 29
  • 28. 30
  • 29. 31
  • 30. 32
  • 31. 33
  • 32. 34 1B in 16 years 2B in 3 years
  • 33. 35
  • 34. Source: Confidential Spotify internal data, Q4 2013 In Car At Home At Work Working Out Public Transit 17% of commuters listen to streaming audio in their car More than 42% of music listening at home is online 23% of users stream music online at work 22% of streaming music is during workouts 14% of streaming is done on public transit
  • 35. 37 • Access model all over the world • Intelligent discovery • Seamless continuity • New formats and new concepts • Music as a profitable business
  • 36. Thank You.