Ex situ and in-situ conservation of medicinal plants with particular reference to jammu and kashmir state

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Ex situ and in-situ conservation of medicinal plants with particular reference to jammu and kashmir state

  1. 1. Ex-situ and In-situ Conservation of Medicinal plants with particular reference to Jammu and Kashmir State Javed Iqbal Punjoo (IFS) (Conservator of Forests, South circle, J&K Forest Department) email: jk109@ifs.nic.in Abstract The Jammu & Kashmir State possesses great altitudinal variation, diverse geological formation and different climatic zones viz. Subtropical, Temperate and cold Arid resulting in the diversity in its flora and fauna. The forests of the State have been damaged, like in other parts of the country, due to intense pressure from the increasing human and cattle population and overexploitation. Feeling a dire need to protect and supplement the depleted Medicinal Plant resource, efforts have been made by the J&K forest department to take intensive and extensive measures for their conservation and development. The locations where initiatives have been taken include Reasi, Rajouri, Udhampur, Billawar, Kathua, Jammu, Baderwah Forest Divisions in Jammu region and Sindh, Bandipora, Anantnag Forest Division in Kashmir region besides Leh and Kargil Forest Division in Ladakh region. Introduction The forest area of the State is 20,230 Sq. km. which amounts to 19.19% of total geographical area of the state. The Ladakh region is devoid of significant forest cover and is termed as cold desert. As such excluding Ladakh the Forest area equals to about 48% of the geographical area of the State. With the decline in density of dominant species in the natural forest, the associates are also receding. Some species have even disappeared from a particular location and few others particularly of medicinal nature are near extinction from some other location. More than 50% of the plant species used in British pharmacopoeia were reported to grow in the State of J&K. About 572 plant species have been reported to be of Medicinal value by various sources which belong to 109 different families of plants. Demand for medicinal plants is increasing due to 1
  2. 2. growing recognition of natural products being non-narcotic, having no side-effects, easily available at affordable prices and sometimes the only source of health care available to the poor. During the past, medicinal plants were being extracted from the forests regularly by people either for their domestic or commercial use. The department earlier would regularly put MFP to auction and the concerned agencies would remove the plant(s) or their part(s) without any consideration for their conservation. The Biodiversity and the valuable germplasm occurring in the forests of the state, constituting its precious bio-resource is not only required to be protected and conserved, but at the same time developed and tapped judiciously for the sustainable development of the people of the State and the country, keeping in view the global scenario particularly in the field of conservation of bio-resources. For the purpose of conservation and replenishment of natural stocks, extraction of all MFP (actually termed NTFP) except Gucchies and Anardana from forest were banned in the J&K State for a period of 5 years since 2004 vide PCCF Notification No. PCCF/MFP/Extraction/111-14 dated 29.06.2004. This order was not reversed till 2013 when, on the recommendations of an expert committee the J&K Forest Department has lifted the ban on extraction of NTFP from forest areas, however restricting the removal to the above ground vegetative and floral portions only without removal or extraction of the below ground propagating and root portions. The J&K Kuth Act which in the past prohibited cultivation of certain important Medicinal Plants in J&K State was also amended to facilitate taking up of cultivation of Medicinal Plants by the people on their own farms, private waste lands and community lands to meet the requirements of pharmaceutical industry and practitioners of Indian System of Medicine. Government of J&K has identified the “Cultivation of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants” as a thrust area in its State Forest Policy 2011. Necessary steps are being taken to implement this policy by the Government. Material and Methods The Medicinal Plants growing in the forests of Jammu & Kashmir are mostly in the form of Herbs and Shrubs, both annual and perennial. Usually the ripening time is July to October. Natural regeneration is obstructed by many reasons which include biotic interference, poor seed set, poor seed viability and harsh climatic conditions. Different measures for augmentation with artificial regeneration are necessary to multiply these species in different suitable areas by 2
  3. 3. vegetative and other means, besides taking other measures for their conservation. Efforts have been made in the state to undertake cultivation of different Medicinal Plants which are of commercial importance and include: Temperate Zone Medicinal Plants (Herbs and Shrubs) Rheum emodi, Aconitum heterophyllum, Saussurea lappa, Digitalis purpurea, Dioscorea deltoidea, Artemisia maritina, Atropa belladona, Podophyllum hexandrum, Picrorrhiza kurooa, Valeriana wallichi etc Sub-Tropical Area (Herbs & Shurbs) Acorus calamus, Boerhaavia diffusa, Gloriosa superba, Rauvolfia serpentina, Tinospora cordifolia, Vitex negundo, Coolebrokia oppositifolia, Solanum surratense, Celastrus paniculata,etc Sub-Tropical Area (Tree Species) Acacia catechu, Aegle marmelos, Cassia fistula, Emblica officinalis, Sapindus mukrossi, Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia belerica, Terminala chebula, etc Cold Arid (Ladakh) zone Hiphophae rhamnoides, Artemisia spp., Rheum emodi, Rumex spp.etc. Objectives  To undertake survey and inventory of Medicinal Plants.  To promote cultivation and growth of important Medicinal Plant species and replenish the depleted wild stocks in the forests.  To standardize sustainable harvesting methods for conservation of concerned species.  To supplement supply of medicinal plants / their parts for use in Ayurvedic / Unani medicines. 3
  4. 4.  To explore the commercial viability of growing medicinal plants as an option in degraded lands to farmers.  To generate Public awareness for need of conservation of Medicinal Plants and their propagation. Benefits  Conservation of rare and threatened medicinal plant species of the State.  Reducing the pressure on natural plants coming up in natural forests  Improvement of local health scenario in the villages encouraging traditional health care system of the State.  Making available the plants and their products for ISM (Indian System of Medicine).  Employment generation. Baseline survey/ inventory and occurrence of Medicinal Plants There is need to conduct fresh survey in forest and other areas to find out different medicinal and aromatic plants growing therein along with their analytical characteristics such as frequency, density and species abundance. A stock map of each unit area should follow the survey report indicating the presence of useful medicinal plant species. Proper identification is pre-requisite for collection of genuine material as some of the species resemble each other to the extent that proper differentiation by an expert is most essential. In case of J&K first very intensive survey of Kuth fields was conducted in the year 1993 as there was lot of demand for kuth. As reported by different agencies the locational distribution of Medicinal Plants in the state is as: Forest Division Location Common Species Sub-Tropical zone (1000-6000 ft above msl) Ramnagar Forest Division Kalounta, Saamnabarj, Dudu Emblica officinalis, Sassaurea lappa, Berberis spp., Viola odorata, Jurinea macrophylla, 4
  5. 5. Cinnamomum Nowshera Forest Division Forest Reserve Nowshera, Emblica Thandapani closure and Taryath officinalis, Gloriosa Acorus calamus, superba, pistacia integerima, Zanthoxylum armatum. Jammu District Binyal/Sungal, Nandni, Akhnoor, Adhatoda Chinota, Mathwar, Parmundal, superb, Utterwani vasica, Terminalia Gloriosa chebula, Emblica officinalis and other sub-tropical species. Kathua Forest Division Kathua Emblica officinalis, Acacia catechu, Terminalia belerica and other sub-tropical species. Sub Tropical to Temperate zone (3000 & 6000-10000 ft above msl) Rajouri District Rajouri, Budhal, Sheshra Forest Jurinea macrophylla, Valeriana wallichi, Acorus calamus and other temperate and sub-tropical species. Billawar Forest Division, Banjal, Bani Basholi, Sukrala, Emblica officinalis, Sassaurea Sarthal lappa, Jurinea Valeriana macrophylla, wallichi, Dioscorea deltoidea, Terminalia chebula. Temperate to Alpine zone ( 6000 to 10000 ft above msl) Bandipora Forest Division Athwattu, Tragbal Sassaurea lappa, macrophylla, Jurinea Aconitum heterophyllum, Artemisia spp , Atropa belladona, Podophyllum emodi . Langate Forest Division Bungus, Reshwari Sassaurea deltoidea, 5 lappa, Dioscorea Aconitum
  6. 6. heterophyllum, Podophyllum emodi, macrophylla, Jurinea Atropa belladona, Artimisia spp. J.V. Forest Division, Rafiabad, Gabbewar , Kazinagh, Sassaurea lappa, Dioscorea Uri, Botapathri deltoidea, Podophyllum emodi, Atropa belladona, Artemisia, spp. Jurinea macrophylla. Pir Panjal Forest Division, Tosmaidan, Doodpathri, Yusmarg, Dalwan Sassaurea lappa, Dioscorea deltoidea, Aconitum heterophyllum, kurooa, Picrorrhiza Podophyllum emodi, Atropa belladona, Artemisia spp. Jurinea macrophylla. Anantnag Forest Division Daksum, Qazigund and Kuther Tral, Sassaurea lappa, Dioscorea Chandanwai, Batkote, deltoidea, Artemisia spp. , Atropa Simthan, Margan top belladona, Podophyllum emodi, Saussuera lappa, Rheum emodi, Jurinea macrophylla. U F Division Srinagar Zabarvan, Dhara Sassaurea lappa, Podophyllum emodi, Artemisia spp , Jurinea macrophylla, Picrorrhiza kurooa. Kehmil Forest Division Tangdhar, Ramhal, Dera Sassaurea lappa, Dioscorea deltoidea, Jurinea macrophylla, Podophyllum emodi, Artemisia spp. Aconitum heterophyllum. Shopian Forest Division, Hirpora, Kungwattan Sassaurea lappa, Dioscorea deltoidea, Jurinea macrophylla, Aconitum heterophyllum Artemisia spp. 6 ,
  7. 7. Marwa Forest Division Chattroo, Sinthan, Marwa Sassaurea lappa, Dioscorea deltoidea, Jurinea macrophylla, Aconitum heterophyllum. Kishtwar Forest Division Kishtwar, Padder, Machail Sassaurea lappa, Dioscorea deltoidea, Jurinea macrophylla. Doda Forest Division Keshwan and Kotal Sassaurea lappa, Dioscorea deltoidea, Jurinea macrophylla. Baderwah Forest Division Chinta, Jai, Seoj Sassaurea lappa, Viola odorata, Valeriana wallichi, heterophyllum, Aconitum Berberis spp., Podophyllum emodi Batote Forest Division Marmat, Sanasar, Gandhri Sassaurea lappa, Taxus spp. Mahore Forest Division Sangladan, Gool, Mahore Berberis spp., Jurinea macrophylla, Sassaurea lappa Alpine to Cold Arid zone ( 10000ft above msl) Leh Forest Division Nobra, Nyoma,Choglamsar, Hiphophae Durbuk rhamnoides, Artemisia spp., Rheum emodi, Rumex spp.etc. Kargil Forest Division:- Drass, Parkachik, Rangdum, Padam Penzila, Innula racemosa, Hiphophae rhamnoides , Sassaurea lappa, Aconitum heterophyllum The forests of Sindh Forest Division are bestowed with wide variety of Medicinal plants. To determine the percentage presence and frequency of different medicinal species a general survey during 2004 in this Division has been conducted by the DFO working plan, laying 166 sample plots of 0.1 Ha each with 6640 quadrates, randomly and the results as depicted in its revised working plan of 2004-05 to 2013-14 are as under: 7
  8. 8. Botanical Name Local Name No. of Total no. of Frequency Quadrates of Quadrates Percent Occurrence Studied Rheum emodi PambChalan 2921 6640 44.00 Allium atropurpuream Van-Pran 736 6640 16.58 Jurinea macrophylla Dhup 2109 6640 31.76 Aconitum heterophyllum Patis 302 6640 4.55 Artimisia spp. Tethwen 4111 6640 61.91 Podophyllum emodi VanWangon 3724 6640 56.08 Viola odorata Bunafsha 3935 6640 59.26 Malva sylvestris Sochal 3306 6640 49.79 Picrorrhiza kurooa Kour 103 6640 1.55 Lavatera cashmiriana ReshaKhatmi 1034 6640 15.75 Adiantum venusatum Geo-Theer 4276 6640 64.40 Juniperus communis Vethur 124 6640 1.90 Sassaurea lappa Kuth 498 6640 7.50 Sedum crassips Pala-Nuner 283 6640 4.26 312 6640 4.69 Aspleneum falcatum Glycyrrheza glabra Kahzban 447 6640 6.73 Dioscorea deltoidea Kenas 3411 6640 51.37 Valeriana wallichi Mushk-Bala 2103 6640 31.67 Foeniculum vulgare JungliBadyana 1806 6640 24.40 Colchicum luteum SuranjanTalakh 236 6640 3.55 Innula racemosa Poshkar 502 6640 7.56 The J&K State Forest Research Institute (SFRI) has conducted a quick survey in GurezTilel valley with altitude ranging from 2300 – 5209 m for Medicinal Plants distribution. 8
  9. 9. Artemisia brevifolia & Saussurea costus are reported the most important plants found in abundance. The survey conducted in compartments 34/K, 47/K, 15/K, 56/K, 57/K, 58/K, 62/K, 24/T, 43/T, 28/T and 34/T by SFRI has revealed that area is still rich in medicinal plants, common out of which as found in the survey plots are shown as under. The area has a promising potential to develop the herbal industry on a sustainable basis if proper regulatory & protective measures are adopted. However a complete survey is required to be done in this direction throughout the state.   R umex nepalensis F erula jaeschkeana   T araxacum officinale D ioscorea deltoidea   A conitum heterophyllum S alvia nubicola   A rtemisia absinthium R heum austral   A rtemisia brevifolia C ynoglossum glochidiatum   T rillium govanianum F ragaria vesca   P lantago lanceolata V iola sylvatica   F ragaria vesca V erbascum Thapsus   H eracleum lanatum B erberis pachyacantha   H 9 B
  10. 10. yoscyamus niger etula utilis   P odophyllum hexandrum L athyrus humilis   S aussura costus J urenea macrocephala   V iola sylvatica S milax vaginata   P olygonatum verticillatum A lthaea officinalis   V aleriana jatamansii J uniperus macropoda   C henopodium album I nula racemosa  M Rosa webbiana  entha piperita Planting Stock / Nurseries The J&K Forest Department has established nurseries and is further in the process of revival of old Drug Farms in phased manner for production and propagation of germplasm / nursery stock required for planting out in the field to supplement the depleting stocks of naturally growing species in the wild. The main herbal species grown include Pyrethrum spp, Atropa belladona, Valeriana wallichi, Artemisia spp, Dioscorea deltoidea, Digitalis spp, Lavendulla spp etc. Name of the Location Drug Established Total Area during 10 (ha) Effective Plant Area (ha) Potential
  11. 11. Farm/Nursery (Lac Nos) Dedranbagh Ganderbal 2004 03 03 2.00 Mujmandoo Anantnag 1988 30 03 1.32 Pathribal Co-69/V, Kukernag 1958 23 10 8.00 1958 08 06 3.00 Malhar Nursery Ganderbal 2006 2.5 02 1.00 Chuntibagh 1963 20 9.75 7.00 1963 18 12 6.50 2003 3 1.25 1.50 Anantnag. Dandipora Co-5/K, Duksam Anantnag. Co-39/G, Gulmarg Tangmarg. Dadikote Co-74/N, Kehmil Kupwara. Herbal Garden Co-38/ Gulmarg Tangmarg Jajjar kotli Jammu 2000 0.5 0.25 0.80 Harya chak Kathua 1995 0.5 0.4 1.00 Manyal/Rajouri Rajouri 2011 1.0 0.75 1.20 Choglamsar 1970 0.5 0.20 0.10 Leh Conservation of Medicinal Plants 11
  12. 12. In-situ Conservation is usually the preferred conservation strategy for capturing and conserving Medicinal Plant pockets in their natural habitats. Stress is laid on identification of Medicinal Plant areas having rich biodiversity of genetic resources that have priority, usually at the species level on the basis of present or potential socio-economic value of the species and their conservation status in the ecosystem along with group of its associate species. The areaspecific action plan and networking of natural sites has to be considered to be the most important aspects of in-situ conservation activities. The ecological requirement of many of the species is complex. Hence moving them out of their own area of comfort to new area may sometime prove counterproductive. Hence by improving the protection, removing all kind of threats is one of the important steps towards insitu conservation. Conservation units are not kept too small because this will cause continuous loss of genetic diversity by the effects of genetic drift and increased inbreeding. Considering this, the area has got to be large enough for maintaining the genetic integrity of the original population and for generating enough seed production. Even though PAN which includes National Parks, Sanctuaries, Conservation Reserves, Community reserves etc. are mainly targeted for animal species, yet these areas enjoy more protection and stringent laws which benefits them and provide the best type of protection methodology for all the animal and plant species existing there which include the medicinal plants as well. The J&K state having 5 NP and 14 sanctuaries is subjected to another peculiar biotic interference in the form of migratory/nomadic graziers. Even though, it is one of the important economic activity and a major source of protein to its people, still they pose lot of threat to medicinal plants and its conservation efforts. As these activities are kept at a lowest inside PAN networks, apart from protecting the principal species, it also helps in protecting tertiary species like medicinal plants. Some of the PAN areas like Dachigam NP and Rajpariyan Sanctuary in Anantnag district have more bio-diversity, more medicinal plants wealth due to reduced human interference there. Some of the reserves like Achabal Conservation Reserve (Rakh) have thick forests and are denser compared to nearby compartments/forests. The scientific management of forests can provide enabling environment for the medicinal plant species to flourish. It involves canopy manipulation to provide light, controlling of other unwanted species, control of Invasive species, removal of humus to provide ground access to seeds of medicinal plants, soil and moisture conservation works to prevent soil erosion and to 12
  13. 13. improve soil moisture regime etc. Enabling environment also involves getting the public support for the protection. As forest dependent communities are major stakeholders, it is very important that they get the benefit out of medicinal plant conservation programmes. Involving JFMCs is one of the activities. Severe restrictions can only give counterproductive results. Providing employment opportunities and sharing economic benefits with JFMCs can definitely help. Medicinal Plants Conservation Areas (MPCAs) The concept was experimented by FRLHT Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions (FRLHT) – a Bangalore based Non Government Organisation (NGO). It has established 34 MPCAs in South India. The establishment of MPCAs is to create so-called „hand-off- areas‟. However the management of MPCAs as „hand-off areas‟ remained debatable. Strict protection of MPCAs as envisaged is found to be difficult. The major lessons learned by FRLHT with regard to the sustainability of the in-situ conservation are useful for any state including J&K to replicate, which include that: • the interest of the State Forest Departments in the MPCAs needs to be sustained • an appropriate village level organisation is put in place to ensure active participation of local village communities for the protection and management of MPCAs • the management of the conservation areas should be provided for • the role, the conservation efficiency and the regulation of use of the MPCAs is clarified as a basis for future plans and monitoring. Ex-Situ Conservation of Medicinal Plants Ex-situ conservation involves the process of protecting an endangered species and developing it outside its natural habitat. For medicinal plants, Ex-situ Conservation aims at the conservation concern by way of raising of nurseries, seedling supply, plantations and by establishing medicinal plant gardens. Establishment and Management of Ex-situ Conservation stands requires the complete knowledge of the forest trees, shrubs and herbs which have developed complex mechanism to maintain high level of genetic diversity, both inter-specific and intra-specific . It provides the building blocks for future evolution, selection and human use in breeding for a wide range of sites and uses. Ex-situ conservation of medicinal plant resides 13
  14. 14. within and among populations of target species. It includes either simple seed collection, storage and field plantings or more intensive plant breeding and improvement approaches. The important aspect of ex-situ conservation is to maintain a wide range of phenotypic and genotypic range of diversity of a species and to propagate the species outside its original natural provenance in a more controlled way. The choice of species for ex-situ conservation is made on the basis of the current local importance of the species, economic value for the subsistence of local population, ecological and geographic considerations and capacity for natural regeneration and the current conservation status. However many factors which include disease, pests and environmental requirements etc. limit the scope of Ex-situ conservation of many plant species. Even though ex-situ conservation measures can come handy, they cannot prevent a species from getting extinct. Also some species cannot be grown outside their natural habitat due to its association with other organisms, specific minerals etc. Plantation on private land through seedling distribution Because of Social Forestry Project in the State, the farmers have adopted tree planting. Efforts are underway to popularize Medicinal Plants plantation in farm lands. For this purpose training on plantation and extraction techniques shall have to be imparted to farmers. Herbal Gardens: Herbal gardens in the different climatic zone of the State are in the process of establishment viz Kangan in Ganderbal district ( Temperate zone), Rajouri and Manyal in Rajouri district ( Sub-tropical zone) and Choglamsar in Leh district ( Cold desert zone). The main objectives are to i) conserve Medicinal Plants and demonstrate their cultivation technology, ii) establish a gene pool of indigenous and exotic species for conservation, research and propagation, iii) popularize the cultivation and use of medicinal plants in the area amongst local people, iv) establish medicinal plants resource base on sustainable basis, v) develop a centre for tourist attraction to help popularize the Indian Systems of medicine and vi) raise and distribute quality Medicinal Plant seedling or its propagating material among the local farmers. To begin with the formation of herbal gardens in the state have been initiated over an area 14
  15. 15. of about 2 Ha each with an intention to extent it gradually. Standardization of post harvesting technology including storage conditions is also aimed at. Proper cost effective Irrigation system is preferred. A polyhouse, Reception cum demonstrative centre / hut, small children park, aesthetically designed walkways with proper landscaping and herbal beds, hedges are also made. Seed Banks: The special process like cryopreservation of germplasm in the form of seed for long years as one of the measures has to be undertaken. There can also be a kind of special type of arboretum where in plants can be grown repeatedly to collect and preserve seeds till viability lasts. Presently such kinds of facilities are available at experimental stage with SK University of Agricultural Science and Technology „Jammu‟ and SK University of Agricultural Science and Technology „Kashmir‟. Capacity building, Training Programme and Research In order to make medicinal plants conservation programme successful, there is need for training the front line staff from Forest Guard to Forest Ranger officer level. It is also essential to provide training to JFMCs so that their support can be harnessed in the medicinal plants conservation. Capacity building, creating awareness and involvement of local communities is yet to be properly taken care of among all the stakeholders through training, exposure tours, awareness campaign etc. In Ladakh region initiatives have been taken for training private stakeholders for proper techniques for cultivation, collection of berries of Hiphophae rhamnoides and its conversion into pulp through Cooperative Societies for better yield and more profitable marketing. To enhance the productivity level as well as for ensuring the sustainability of the activities the works shall be aimed at the following items:The conduct of research activities, assessment study, enumeration of Medicinal Plant population density, evolving regeneration techniques, developing appropriate plantation techniques and technique for extraction of medicinal content are also required to be done through different resource agencies. 15
  16. 16. Stakeholders These include : People- the actual user of medicinal plant and its derivatives, traders, Traditional vaids- practicing the Ayurvedic or the Unani method of treatment, Tribals i.e Gujjars, Bakerwals and Gadies, Forest department-the major custodian of naturally available medicinal plant resource and Research organizations/Universities/NGOs. Results - work done by the Department The demand, economics and existence of natural growing areas has necessitated the measures to be taken towards conservation and development of Medicinal Plants on large scale which simultaneously provide livelihood avenues for the local communities. The efforts of the Forest Department has resulted in bringing 1093 ha under the programme in Jammu & Kashmir during 4 years from the period 2009-10 to November 2012 with planting mainly of different herbal species along with other trees and shrubs which suit most to the locality. S. No Activity 1 Region Area (ha) Plants (Lacs) Baderwah, Katra and Panchari 80 1.25 Kashmir Naranag, Lammar and Domail 2 (Insitu) Conservation Jammu Location 135 3.90 523 9.95 331 16.24 20 2.00 2 1.10 2 0.40 (Exitu) DevelopmentJammu Baderwah, Jai, Katra, Panchari, of MFP Ramkote and Udhampur Kashmir Naranag, Gund, Sonamarg, Kangan, Gagangir, Poshkar and chattergul Ladakh Nobra, Choglamsar, Nyoma, Durbuk and Kargil 3 Herbal Garden Jammu Rajouri and Manyal Kashmir Poshkar 4 Distribution 1.30 Total 1093 16 36.14
  17. 17. Conclusion The In-situ measure for conservation of medicinal plants alone cannot be successful as number of factors like biotic interference, unforeseen natural calamities etc. effect the success. Even though area under PAN in J&K state is one of the largest in India, yet In-situ conservation has not to be left alone to PAN areas wherein the exploitation is restricted. The methodology for conservation of medicinal plants both In-situ (along with establishment of MPCAs) and Ex-situ has to be adopted in combination, besides initiatives for scientific propagation of Medicinal Plants on required scale. Again, it is very essential that livelihood of forest dependent communities are kept in consideration as they are the major stake holders to share the benefits. It is also very essential to improve the capacity of front line staff to equip them to face the present day challenges in conservation of medicinal plant wealth. References Floristics & Productivity Studies of Gurez-Tulil, J&K State Forest Research Institute, Srinagar Publications of FRLHT, Bangalore Report on Medicinal Plant conservation and development in J&K of the Forest Department Working plan Sindh Forest Division, Ganderbal Kashmir, J&K state. 17

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