The words “Jain” and “Jainism” have beenderived from the word “Jina” i.e. Arihanta,Kevali or Tirthankar. The followers of Jinas are known as Jains. The teachings of the Jinas is known asJainism
Who is Jina? Jinas are enlightened or awakened prophets. Jinas are omniscient: the knower of past, present & future Jinas are renunciate and live completely non-violent life. Jinas are dispassionate , free from all passions: anger, ego,deceit and greed and also free from all kinds of attachment andhatred. Destroyer of Karmas: Jinas destroy all the karmas andliberate from the worldly existence after Nirvan, final death andnever reincarnate. Jinas are God to the Jains, but in spiritual sense and not in Hinduism: Sthitprajna & Jeevanmuktathe sense of creator, savior and destroyer of the world. Buddhism: Bodhisattva & Arhat
The Jinas who establishe “Tirth”- religiouscongregation including monks, nuns and layfollowers (male & female) , are recognized as“Tirthankara”. First Tirthankar – Bhagawan Rishabh (born and liberated in the end of third era of the present epoch) Last Tirthankar – Bhagawan Mahavir (599-
Ancient Names of Jain Religion• Jainism is one of the most ancient religions of the world. It has been recognized by different names in different times:1. Shraman Dharma: The Religion of renunciates around 27th c. BCE2. Vratya Dharma : Religion of vows around 15th c. BCE3. Arhat Dharma : Religion of Arhat, enlightened one4. Nirgranth : Religion of the conqueror of attachment and hatred around 6th c. BCE5. Jain Dharma : Religion propounded by Jinas from 5th or 7th c. CE onward
Contribution of Jainism• Jainism has done special contribution to the following branches of knowledge:1.Metaphysics2.Ethics3.Mathematics4.Epistemology5.Karma Theory and Cosmology
Theory of Karma Theory of karma is unique in Jainism. It is unique for the following reasons:• Karma is not mere impression of our good and bad action on our soul but it is a psycho-physical energy which affects one’s present and future life.• Karma is one among the five factors: Time, Nature of things, Karma, Self-effort and Determinism and not the sole factor which affects our life.• Karma is a power but not almighty which we cannot challenge/change. One can bring change in the effect and duration of the karmas attached.
Definition of Karma“Karma is the subtle physical energy which getsattracted and attached to a soul of an individual by his own good and bad actions.”
Types of Karma• There are eight types of karmic energy in the environment:• Jñānāvaraņīya Karma i.e. Knowledge-covering energy• Darśanāvarņīya Karma i.e. Intuition-covering energy• Mohanīya Karma i.e. Attitude and conduct deluding energy• Antarāya Karma i.e. Obstacle-creating energy• Vedanīya Karma i.e. Pain and pleasure producing energy• Āyuṣ ya Karma i.e. Life-span determining energy• Nāma Karma i.e. Body-shaping energy• Gotra Karma i.e. Status-determining energy
Effect of Karma The effect of karma is identified in four ways:• Covering• Deluding• Blocking• Causing favorable and unfavorable situations
The Role of Karma• The following eight similes help understand clearly the role of each individual karma in one’s life:• Knowledge-covering karma is compared with the eyes covered with the piece of cloth. As the cover does not allow to see things outside so is the karma. It does not allow one to know everything and anything thing directly.• Intuition-covering karma is compared with the watchman who restricts one to enter into the house. This karma restricts soul to intuit things before they happen.• Attitude and conduct deluding karma is compared with the drinking of alcohol. As an alcoholic is not able to discriminate between right and wrong so is the karma. Because of Mohaniya karma individual looses his power of discrimination between right and wrong and often chooses what is wrong.• Obstacle creating karma is compared with the treasurer. Inspite of getting permission from the king if the treasurer is not ready one cannot get money from the treasure. This karma creates obstacle in one’s life inspite of being able and putting hard effort one does not get the success one deserves.
Continued…..• Pain-pleasure producing karma is compared with the test of the swordsmeared with the honey. As the sword gives sweet test and also cuts thetong so is the karma. This karma is responsible for both pain andpleasure in one’s life.• Life-span determining karma is compared with the shackle whichbinds the soul of an individual in a particular form of life. It fixes thequality of birth and determines life-span.• Body-shaping karma is compared with the potter who gives differentshapes to different pots. Similarly, body-shaping karma is responsiblefor the physical difference of an individual.• Status determining karma is compared with the painter who makesbeautiful and ugly pictures. Good or bad status of an individual insociety is determined by Gotra karma.
Cause of Karma There are five main causes of karmic bondage:• Mithyatva: Ignorance about the true self• Avrata: Lack of control on sensuous desire• Pramada: Lack of spiritual awareness and effort• Kasaya: Aggressive emotions• Yoga: Indulgence in activities
Level of Karmic Bondage The karmic bondage takes place at four levels:• Nature• Duration• Intensity• Quantity
Path to Liberation from Karma Jainism is a soul oriented philosophy and religion The ultimate goal of human life is to get liberationfrom karmic bondage. Three Jewels: Three-fold Path to Liberation Samyak Darshna: Right Faith Samyak Jnana: Right Knowledge Samyak Charitra: Right Conduct
RIGHT FAITHDeep faith in the independent existence of the soul Soul exists It is eternal Worldly soul is bound by karma Karma is the cause of rebirth Karma can be destroyed One who destroys karma can attain Moksha, eternal peace, bliss and divine consciousness.
RIGHT KNOWLEDGE World = Living + Non-living Soul (jiva) Mundane Liberated Mobile Immobile 2,3,4 and 5 One sensed beings sensed beingsEarth Water Fire Air Vegetable
AJIVA (NON-LIVING)Dharmastikaya: Medium of motionAdharmastikaya: Medium of restAkasastikaya: SpaceKala: TimePudgalastikaya: Matter and energy
RIGHT CONDUCT Ascetic-life Layman-life Mahavrata Anuvrata “Complete vows” “Small vows”1. Non-Violence (Ahimsa) 1. To avoid unnecessary violence (Sthula Ahimsa)2. Truthfulness (Satya) 2. To avoid harmful lie (Sthula Satya)3. Non-Stealing (Asteya) 3. Non-Stealing or Honesty (Sthula Asteya)4. Celibacy (Brahmacharya) 4. To be content with the married one (Svadara-santosha)5. Non-Possession 5. Limitation of wants ( Iccha- parimana) (Aparigrah)