How it started
• he American Civil War, also known as the War Between the States, or simply the Civil War in the
United States (see naming), was a civil war fought from 1861 to 1865, after seven Southern slave
states declared their secession and formed the Confederate States of America (the "Confederacy"
or the "South"). The states that remained in the Union were known as the "Union" or the "North".
The war had its origin in the fractious issue of slavery, especially the extension of slavery into the
western territories.[N 1] Foreign powers did not intervene. After four years of bloody combat that
left over 600,000 soldiers dead and destroyed much of the South's infrastructure, the Confederacy
collapsed, slavery was abolished, and the difficult Reconstruction process of restoring national unity
and guaranteeing rights to the freed slaves began.
• In the 1860 presidential election, Republicans, led by Abraham Lincoln, opposed the expansion of
slavery into United States' territories. Lincoln won, but before his inauguration on March 4, 1861,
seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy. The first six to secede
had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, a total of 48.8% for the six. Outgoing
Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal.
Lincoln's inaugural address declared his administration would not initiate civil war. Eight remaining
slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Confederate forces seized numerous federal
forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy. A peace conference failed to find a compromise,
and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so
dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene; none did and none recognized the new
Confederate States of America.
Jefferson Davis Abraham Lincoln
• Just a little info about him
• abraham Lincoln, sixteenth President of the
United States, was born near Hodgenville,
Kentucky on February 12, 1809. His family
moved to Indiana when he was seven and he
grew up on the edge of the frontier. He had
very little formal education, but read
voraciously when not working on his father’s
farm. A childhood friend later recalled
Lincoln's "manic" intellect, and the sight of
him red-eyed and tousle-haired as he pored
over books late into the night. In 1828, at
the age of nineteen, he accompanied a
produce-laden flatboat down the Mississippi
River to New Orleans, Louisiana—his first
visit to a large city--and then walked back
home. Two years later, trying to avoid health
and finance troubles, Lincoln's father moved
the family moved to Illinois.
• Just a little info about him
• Jefferson Finis Davis, the first and only
President of the Confederate States of
America, was a planter, politician and
soldier born in Kentucky and raised in
Mississippi. Davis was the tenth and
youngest child of Revolutionary War
soldier Samuel Davis and his wife Jane
Cook Davis (Finis in Latin means final—
the couple wanted no more children
after Jefferson). Born June 3, 1808, he
was heavily influenced by his oldest
brother, Joseph, who saw to it that he
was well educated. Davis attended
college in Kentucky at Transylvania
before entering the U.S. Military
Academy at West Point in 1824.
This is the map at that
The Confederate States of America:
South Carolina led the way out of the
Union on December 20, 1860, and by
March 1861, six more states, outraged
over Lincoln's election to the
presidency and emboldened by South
Carolina's example, also seceded:
Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia,
Louisiana, and Texas. After the
bombardment of Fort Sumter and
Lincoln's call for troops to put down
the rebellion in April, Virginia,
Arkansas, Tennessee, and North
Carolina followed suit, bringing the
number of states in the new
Confederacy to eleven.
• Confederate Statistics:
• 1.2 million men served
• 800,000 enlisted – 3 years duration
• 340,000 casualties
• 250,000 killed in action or died of disease
• 2.9 million men served
• 1.5 million enlisted - 3 years duration
• 630,000 casualties
• 360,000 killed in action or died of disease
November 6, 1860
• Abraham Lincoln, who had declared
"Government cannot endure permanently half
slave, half free..." is elected president, the first
Republican, receiving 180 of 303 possible
electoral votes and 40 percent of the popular
Important date’s to remember
• April 15, 1861 - President Lincoln issues a Proclamation
calling for 75,000 militiamen, and summoning a special
session of Congress for July 4.
• Robert E. Lee, son of a Revolutionary War hero, and a
25 year distinguished veteran of the United States
Army and former Superintendent of West Point, is
offered command of the Union Army. Lee declines.
• December 20, 1860 - South Carolina secedes from the
Union. Followed within two months by Mississippi,
Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas.
• The first major battle of the war takes place at
bull run July 21, 1861
• Union gunboats capture new Orleans and
• The battle of Gettysburg ends the confederate
drive into the north 1863
• Abraham Lincoln issues the emancipation
proclamation also 1863
• By the mid 1862, Lincoln came to believe that
he could save the union only by broadening
the goals of the war.
• The civil war began as a war to restore the
union, not to end slavery. President Lincoln
made this point clear in a letter that was
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