Presented by:Younes TAIAMohamed AKKLOUCHMohamed AKHARRAZBased on:"Développement du plurilinguisme: Le cas de la ville dAgadir (Espaces discursifs)(French Edition) by Montserrat Benitez Fernandez, Youssef TAMER, Jan Jaap De Ruiter".-- The Mother Tongue in Morocco:The politics of an indigenous education by Samantha Ross (2004)-- TOMAŠTÍK, Karel. 2010. Language Policy in the Kingdom of Morocco: Arabic,Tamazight and French in Interaction. The Annual of Language & Politics andPolitics of Identity, Vol. IV. p. 101-116.-- The Language Situation in Morocco Fatima Sadiqi Sidi Mohamed Ben AbdellahUniversity, Fes (Second Edition)
Content• Standard Arabic•Tamzight•Hassaniyya• Spanish•Darijja ( Moroccan Arabic)•French
Classical Arabic• Standard Arabic is a ‘modern’ version of ClassicalArabic, the language of the Qur’an and pre-Islamic poetry.• Standard Arabic was introduced in Morocco atthe end of the seventh and the beginning of theeighth centuries from the East and Islamic Iberia.• It has great prestige as the ‘language of God’ andas the unifying language at the levels of the Arabworld (al-umma al-arabiyyah) and the Muslimworld (al-umma al-islaamiyyah).
• It is also a symbol of identity, especiallyoutside Morocco and the Arab world.• Unlike Berber and Moroccan Arabic, standardArabic is a homogeneous language in form.• After Independence, and especially since the1960s, the policy of language planning inMorocco was characterized by the Arabizationof the different socio-cultural sectors,especially the mass media, education andgovernmental administrations.
Arabization. Arabization meant replacing French, the language of thecolonizer, with Arabic, the language of tradition and‘authenticity’.Arabization was implemented as a language policy and amedium of instruction in Morocco in the 60s.why Arabization was viewed as so important.why it has not always been easy to implement.
• Arabization is seen as the cultural counterpartof political and economic independence.• To assert the country’s Arabo-Islamic identity,and its cultural independence from Westerninfluence.• Arabization restores authentic Moroccanidentity. ( popular)• To the illiterate masses it was largely symbolic,since they had never learnt French or ClassicalArabic, but they believed it would lead togreater equality of opportunity for them.
• Commentators have observed that a powerfulmotivation behind the policy is the pursuitand maintenance of power.• Another openly stated objective of Arabizationis to unite the country, an idea common tolanguage planning policies.• Arabic already represents a unifying force,symbolising both Islam and the Arab nation,thus uniting Moroccans with the widercommunity of Muslims and Arabs.
• At national level, the language symbolises self-affirmation against foreigners, particularly theFrench, despite the fact that most people,immediately after independence, could notactually speak or understand Classical Arabic.• One logical consequence of Arabization wouldbe that all Moroccans would learn thenational language and, with time, thevernaculars would disappear, following theFrench model.
• As language of Divine Revelation, it is relativelyeasy to persuade people that it is the onlyappropriate language for a Muslim state. ( atnational level)• One of the drawbacks of Arabization is “the waylanguage and religion have been conflated inofficial discourse, such that Moroccan identity ispresented as Muslim and therefore Arab andArabic speaking, whilst Berber language andculture is seen as a regional detail, synonymouswith inferiority and ignorance.” Ziri (2000)• Additionally, Arabization results in the failure ofthe whole educational system.
The change of policy in 2000• The Charter for Educational Reform, produced in2000, represents a dramatic change of policy• Article 110 states that Morocco will now beadopting a ‘clear, coherent and constant languagepolicy within education’. This policy has threemajor thrusts: ‘the reinforcement andimprovement of Arabic teaching’, ‘diversificationof languages for teaching science and technology’and an ‘openness to Tamazight’.
• The Charter does not mention the word Arabization,an admission of the negative connotations of the term.• acknowledges that science and technology should betaught in schools in the most appropriate languages,preferably those used in higher education.• French is never mentioned by name, although atpresent this is the language of science and technologyin much of higher education.• It is implied, however, that other languages could alsobe used, the obvious implication being English. TheCharter therefore appears to acknowledge tacitly thefailure of Arabization in the area of science andtechnology teaching and to herald at least a temporaryreturn to bilingual education in this field.
Amazigh• Berber is the oldest language in Morocco andindeed North Africa (cf. Ayache 1964, Laroui1977, Chafik 1982).• Three major varieties of Berber are found inMorocco: Tashelhit in the south, Tamazight in thecenter, and Tarifit in the north. According to the1994 official statistics, Morocco has 28 millioninhabitants, of which 30% speak one of theBerber varieties.• However, some linguists state that almost half ofthe Moroccan population speaks Berber(Boukous 1995, Ennaji 1997, Sadiqi 1997).
• 1994:• News in Tamazight started to broadcast onnational TV in 1994. The King Hassan II hadannounced in a speech (20/08/1994) thatBerber language deserves a place in schools.• Berber associations, groups, radio & televisionprograms, interviews, newspapers, magazines,and websites were created by the end of thedecade to express the new rights ofmovement.
• In September 2004, Berber started to betaught in 300 Moroccan primary schools afterits codification through its original alphabet:Tifinagh.• This initiative was preceded by the creation ofthe Royal Institute of the Amazigh Culture inOctober 2001.
• The Charter for Educational Reform states‘opening up’ to Tamazight: the recognition thatnot all Moroccans are Arabic speakers, and thattheir education could be greatly facilitated if theirearly years learning could be done through themedium of their mother tongue.• Article 115 allows local authorities to use anylocal dialect in order to facilitate the learning ofthe national language. It also provides for thecreation of research and development projects insome universities, and support for teachertraining in Tamazight.
Tamazight An Official Language:• On the 12th of June 2011, a constitutionalreform was passed to the king of Moroccorecommending the recognition of Tamazight(Berber Language) as one of the officiallanguages of Morocco.
• Hassani dialect is a dialect derived from the nomadicArab, which was spoken by the tribes of Bani Hassan,who had controlled most of the deserts of Mauritaniaand southern Morocco between the fifteenth andseventeenth centuries. This dialect spread as asubstitute for Amazigh previous speaking tribes. theclosest of other Maghreb dialects to the Hassanidialect is the Libyan dialect, and tone of southernTunisia. Hassani dialect is considered one of the mosteloquent Arabic dialects, due to the virtue of isolation,Since Bani Hassan Arab tribes lived in the depths of theSahara for a long time.
• According to Ethnologue.com, in 2006 therewere around 3,123,190 hassaniya speakers(excluding South of Morocco), distributed in:• Mauritania: 2,770,000 (2006)• Algeria: 150,000 (1985)• Mali: 106,000 (1991)• Morocco: 195,000 (1995)• Libya: 40,000 (1985)• Niger: 10,000 (1998)• Senegal: 7,190 (2006)
Hassaniya Arabic - Also known as Moor, KlemEl Bithan. Over 40 000 in Southern Moroccopeople speak this form of Arabic.The media representation of HASSANI Dialectis quite modest: Morocco TVs first channelairs about Two hours daily in the afternoons.No newsletters, since it is not a separatelanguage; it has the same dialects as ClassicalArabic.
The direct impact of Spanish comes to be obvious onlyafter Spanish colonization of the first areas of moroccoby 1860. (escuelo hispano-àrabe) at that time CastilianSpanish was the official language. The Spanish had established a presence in Tétouan(capital of the later French protectorate) and by 1906they occupied South of Morocco “Sahara”.In the colonial era Spanish children went to SpanishSchools, First school opened in Nador (Del Rio 2005).Spanish libraries operated in the protectorate, thelargest one was in Tétouan. However, educatingMoroccans was not the focus of attention.
Spanish - Over 20 000 people in Morocco are capableof speaking Spanish. Besides being only a shortdistance away, Spain also acted as a protectorate ofMorocco for a while after 1912. This resulted inSpanish influence in culture and languageThe media representation of Spanish is quite modest:Morocco TVs first channel airs half-hour newsreels andstate radio has hour-long daily news bulletins. LaMañana daily closed down in 2006 due to poorcirculation figures (Marruecos Digital, 14 September2006).
The position of Spanish is duly enhanced bythe fact that it can be used in state-run publictenders and selecting candidates for senioradministrative posts (Moustaoui 2006, 24).
There are many Spanish institutes in modernMorocco. Chief among them are: The Institutos Cervantes in big cities.
The country also has eleven schools (colegios,institutos) with Spanish curricula:attended by 4,208 registered students in2004, 81% of whom being Moroccan(Mayordomo 2004). In academic 2007/2008 enrolment increasedto 4,723 (Ministerio de Educación Políticasocial y Deporte).
State schools provide a choice of Spanish, taught as aforeign language from the first year of high schooleducation. Private primary schools offer this possibilityfrom first grade. The Spanish language and literatureare taught by eight university faculties (Ennaji 2005,112). Coordination of spreading Spanish through theMoroccan education system with the ministry ofeducation is assisted by the Consejeria de Educación yCiencia, supervised by the Spanish embassy in Rabat,which has several advisory bureaus (Moustaoui 2006,24)
The faculty of letters in Agadir First opened adepartment of Spanish in 1992 with a total of56 students which increased to 187 in 1995.(Moha Ennaji 2005, 113)
• Crossroads between Africa, Europe and theMiddle East• Meeting point for various languages• Indigenous ‘Berber’ languages• Arabic, introduced by Arab invasion in 7th century,reinforced by later influxes, and adoption of Islam• European languages – English, French,Portuguese and Spanish – invaded or tradedalong the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts.
• Arabization implemented to replace French for 4reasons: (Bentaouet-Kattan: 1990)o The universalization of education for allMoroccanso The unification of diverse educational systems inplace durin colonizationo The Arabization of all classes from French toArabic as the language of instructiono The Moroccanization of the teaching staff as allthe teachers in the colonial period used to beFrench
• Arabization was not fully successful for a numberof connected reasons:- MSA not mother tongue, even of the ruling class- No communication problem, majority speakDarija- motivation to discard French is weak: perceivedas more modern, and as a means to access theoutside modern world• Role of the media and communications inencouraging to learn French
• Article 5 concerns language policy• Arabic remains the official language• Amazighe is also an official language• Hassani and other regional languages to beprotected• Foreign language learning to be encouraged• To be created a National Council for thepromotion of languages and the Moroccanculture.
• Many more French-speaking Moroccans today,but also many more Moroccans competent inMSA• Neither language used as a mother tongue, yetboth highly visible• Roles of Darija and Standard Arabic changing as aresult of mass education and improvedcommunication and mass media• Changes also tied to issues of identity, Islam• MSA more attractive to younger generation
• Classical Arabic: used in the religious, political,administrative, legal and cultural spheres & education• Darija: mother tongue of most people, through whichthey acquire education and popular culture. Spokenthroughout all the Moroccan territory• Berber: the most ancient language in the Maghreb,and the mother tongue of a high percentage ofMoroccans especially in the remote rural areas• Hassani: the mother tongue of people in the Saharanregions• French: Remains very widespread in Morocco, mainlyin the administrations and education spheres.
• Darija – or Moroccan Arabic - is spoken bymost Moroccans in cities and also remotetowns• It has no standardized written form, exceptlately by some press like Nichane• Recently, used increasingly in advertisementsof all types• Used with Latin scripts in electronic texts(online chatting, SMS, etc)
• Moroccan Darija is considered a spoken variety ofArabic and not a separate language. Superficially,Moroccan Arabic (or perhaps a combinedMoroccan–Tunisian–Algerian or "Maghrebi"Arabic) may appear to be a separate language;thorough study shows many common pointsbetween Maghreb dialects and dialects of theEast, though they are hardly mutually intelligible;Arabic is a good example of a dialectcontinuum in which clear boundaries cannot bedrawn (i.e. Moroccan Arabic is similar to AlgerianArabic, which is similar to Tunisian Arabic, whichis similar to Egyptian Arabic, and so on, but theMoroccan and Gulf dialects are largely mutuallyunintelligible.)
• Like other spoken varieties (dialects),Moroccan Arabic is rarely used in literatureand lacks prestige compared to StandardArabic (fuṣḥa). Moroccan Arabic continues toevolve by integrating new French or Englishwords, notably in technical fields, or byreplacing old French and Spanish ones withStandard Arabic words within some circles.
Darija (which means "current") can be divided into twogroups:• The pre-French protectorate: when Morocco wasofficially colonized by France in 1912, it had anaccelerated French influence in aspects of everydaylife. The pre-French Darija is one that is spoken byolder and more conservative people. It is an Arabicdialect that can be found in texts and poems ofMalhoun, and Andalusi music for example. Later, in the1970s, traditionalist bands like Nass El Ghiwane and JilJilala followed this course, and only sang in "classicalDarija".• The post-French protectorate: after the coming of theFrench, any French word, whether a verb or a noun,could be thrown into a sentence. ("Code switching")This is most common among the young, educated,urban class.
Many Moroccan Arabic speakers among the educated class,especially in the territory which was previously knownas French Morocco, also practice code-switching. In thenorthern parts of Morocco, as in Tangier, it is common forcode-switching to occur between Moroccan Arabicand Spanish, as Spain had previously controlled part of theregion, and also continues to possess the territoriesof Ceuta and Melilla in North Africa bordering only Morocco.On the other hand, some educated Moroccans, particularlythose sympathetic to the ideas of Arab nationalism, generallyattempt to avoid French and Spanish influences (save thoseSpanish influences from al-Andalus) on their speech, evenwhen speaking in darija; consequently, their speech tends toresemble old Andalusi Arabic and pre-occupation Maghrebi.
• Code switching is also noticed in Berberspeaking rural areas where speakers tend toshift from their local dialect to MoroccanDarija – which is considered a higher andmore modern variety. School pupils, too, tendto speak to each others in these rural zones inDarija rather than Berber, especially at school.
• In general, Moroccan Arabic is one of the most innovative(in the technical sense of "least conservative") of all Arabicdialects. Nowadays Moroccan Arabic continues to integratenew French words, mainly technological and modernwords. However, in recent years constant exposure torevived classical forms on television and in print media anda certain desire among many Moroccans for a revitalizationof an Arab identity has inspired many Moroccans tointegrate words from Standard Arabic, replacing theirFrench or Spanish counterparts or even speaking inModern Standard Arabic while keeping theMoroccan accent to sound less pedantic. This phenomenonmostly occurs among literate people.
• Though rarely written, Moroccan Arabic is currentlyundergoing an unexpected and pragmatic revival. It isnow the preferred language in Moroccan chat rooms orfor sending SMS, using Arabic Chat Alphabet composedof Latin letters supplemented with thenumbers 2( ), 3( ), 5( ), 7( ) and 9( ) for codingspecific Arabic sounds as is the case with other Arabicspeakers.• The language continues to evolve quickly as can benoted when consulting the Colin dictionary. Manywords and idiomatic expressions recorded between1921 and 1977 are now obsolete.
While being a natural localization of ClassicalArabic for geographic and historical reasons,as French has evolved from Vulgar Latin,Moroccan Arabic is considered as a languageof low prestige whereas it is Modern StandardArabic that is used in more formal contexts.While Moroccan Arabic is the mothertongue of nearly twenty million people inMorocco it is rarely used in written form.
Policy-makers on the eve of independence had to choosewhether to continue the French language curriculum orcommence Arabization:• This debate about whether to choose MSA or French asthe language of instruction is much larger than adebate about language: For some, it is about choosing loyalties or abouthaving an eye to the future. It is about whether tofocus on culture, tradition, and religious identity byturning East or on economic and political progress byturning West For still others, the need to synthesize any number ofvalues from both the East and West from emergingcultural, professional, and financial identitiesdominates their perspective on Morocco’s linguisticchoices with respect to education . (Daniel and Ball:2010)
Despite the Arabization policy, in effect for over50 years, the significance of French cannot bedenied. Although the educational system hasbeen Arabized in secondary schools, French isthe sole language of instruction at the tertiarylevel in all scientific subjects, medicine,agriculture, and technical fields. It dominatesthe business field, administration, and a vastpart of the media (Benaouet-Kattan 26)
• Thus the two languages create a paradox by which astudent educated in Arabic must suddenly perform at auniversity-level in a language he/she does notcomprehend at a high fluency. Of course this dependsupon the student, as elite, private, French-basedschools are in great demand.• In fact there exists a certain irony that the politicallyand economically elite, including education ministrypersonnel, are often products of French education andcontinue the practice by sending their children toFrench schools (Sirles 1985)
• One suggested solution is to simply remove allFrench from the university level similar to whathas been done at the elementary and secondarylevels. However, an eradication of French (as wellas English and German) at the university levelwould cut off Moroccan scholars from access toboth an established body of research and aninternational audience. Additionally, Arabizeddegrees are not deemed equal to degrees inbilingual programs (Hammoud, 1982)
• The language of instruction is much more thansimply a decolonization procedure. “IfMorocco’s language and educational plannerson the eve of independence had thought thatArabization could be achieved without unduepolitical turmoil nor decline in instructionalquality, they have been proven wrong” (Sirles:ibid).
• No official status• Morocco is an associate member of the OIF (Organisation Mondiale de la Francophonie)• 4 144 500 people speak French (13.5 % of thepopulation) and 5 986 500 are partialfrancophones (19.5%)• Rarely used as a mother tongue, but standardFrench is widely used among the elite• French is associated with upward social mobilityand success, hence French/Darija code switching
• (Landry and Bourhis, 1997:25) ‘the languageof public road signs, street names, placenames, commercial shop signs, and publicsigns on government buildings combine toform the linguistic landscape’• Morocco looks like an officially bilingual state,since Arabic-French dominates
Media• Press: available in most towns and all cities inFrench including newspapers, magazines,brochures, etc• TV: all channels broadcast the news in French,but some are more French oriented like 2Mand Medi1 TV• Radio: most of them are bilingual like radio2M and others French like Chaîne Inter
Results of a survey conducted by: Janet Yearousunder the sponsorship of Dr. Jennifer Howell,Department of Modern Languages:French in the Face of Arabization:Language Attitudes among HighSchool Students in RabatUW-L Journal of Undergraduate Research XV (2012)
• 50 students• Rabat and suburbs high schools randomlychosen• May and June 2011
References• Bentaouet-Kattan, Raja. Language Planning in Education Reform:The Case Study of Morocco. Ann Arbor: Bell and Howell Informationand Learning, 1999. Print.• Daniel, Mayra C. and Ball, Alexis. “The Moroccan EducationalContext: Evolving Multilingualism.” International Journal ofEducational Development. 30.2 (2010): 130-135. EBSCOhost. Web.31 Jul. 2011.• Landry, Rodrigue; Richard Y. Bourhis (1997). "Linguistic Landscapeand Ethnolinguistic Vitality An Empirical Study". Journal ofLanguage and Social Psychology.• Janet Yearous (2012) “French in the Face of Arabization: LanguageAttitudes among High School Students in Rabat. UW-L Journal ofUndergraduate Research XV• Constitution of Morocco (2011)• Fatima Sadiqi (2006) “Language Situation in Morocco” Encyclopediaof Language and linguistics. 2nd edition (2006)
• Rachel Salia (2011) “Between Arabic and French Lies theDialect: Moroccan Code-Weaving on Facebook” LinguisticsThesis• Samantha Ross (2004) “The Mother Tongue in Morocco: Thepolitics of an indigenous education” Masters of Artsdissertation. University of East Anglia• TOMAŠTÍK, Karel. (2010) “Language Policy in the Kingdom ofMorocco: Arabic, Tamazight and French in Interaction”. TheAnnual of Language & Politics and Politics of Identity, Vol. IV.• Dawn Marley (2011) “Competing Varieties of French andArabic in Morocco” Conference of non-dominating varietiesof pluricentric languages. University of Graz, Austria. July2011• MOUSTAOUI SRHIR Adil (2011) “Language Planning,Standardizatation and Dynamics of Change in MoroccanArabic” Universidad Complutense de Madrid