Information Processing andCognitive Theories of Learning Prepared by: Younes TAIA
What is meant by cognitiveinformation processing theory?
• CIP theory refers to information processing, applied to various theoretical perspectives dealing with the sequence and execution of cognitive events.
Models of information processing theory Sensory Memory Stage Short Term Memory Stage Long Term Memory Stage
Processes of keeping information alive retrieval Encoding Attention Rehearsal perception
What cognitive strategies help students learn best?
Note Taking is common study strategy in reading and learning from lectures. NT can be effective for certain types of materials, because it requires mental processing of main ideas, as one makes decisions about what to write. Several studies have found that the practice,combined with student note-taking and review, increases student learning .
Underlying/ highlighting key term information that are most important and require a higher level of processing to make dicisions about critical materials…
Summarizing involves writing brief statements that represent the main ideas of the information being read. an effective way that helps have clear idea and remember easily intriguing components.
Outlining and mapping: study strategy that requires the student to represent the material studied in skeletal form.Outlining presents the main points of the material in a hierarchical format, with each detail organized under a higher-level and category while mapping identify main ideas and then diagram connections between them
1- MEMORY What is memory? Encoding Retrieval & Forgetting
What is Memory?“ Life is all memory except the one present moment that goes by so quickly that you can hardly catch it going.” Tennessee WILLIAMS
Memory is:• Retention of information over time• Educational psychologists: View memoryStudy howinformation is in terms of howplaced into childrenmemory, how it is activelystored, and how it construct theiris retrieved memory
1. Encoding: involves many processes• a. Rehearsal: Conscious repetition of information over time to increase the time it will stay in memory• it works best when you need to encode and remember a list of items for a brief period of time. ( it doesn’t work well for retaining information over the long term.)
b. Deep processing: the processing of information occurs on different levels, from shallow to deep, with deep processing producing better memory:
Shallow Proc: Analysis of physical features intermediate Proc: Recognition and Labeling Deep Proc: Process information semantically If a child sees the word “BOAT”: Shallow: Notice the shapes of the letters Intermediate: Notice the characteristics of the word, it rhymes with the word: COAT Deep: Think about the last time he went with his dad fishing on a boat
C. Elaboration: the extensiveness of information involved in encoding. It works well because it adds to the distinctiveness of memory code:when you’re searching for a friend in Souk Lhad on a crowded Sunday. if he has common features, it’s very difficult to find him. But if he is quite tall with flaming red hair, it could be easier to find him.
d. Constructing images: Memories are stored as verbal codes or images codes. The more detailed and distinctive the image code, the better your memory will be.
e. Organization: organizing information in meaningful ways when encoding is very good for memory. The more you present information in an organized way, the easier your SS will remember it.
2. Storage Children encode information and store it. Afterwards, they remember some info for less than a second, some for a minute, and other info for mns/hours/ even for a life time. these time frames correspond to memory types: Sensory memory Short-term memory Long-term memory
Sensory memory: holds info from the world in its original sensory form for only an instant / a fleeting moment, then it fades. Short-term memory: a limited-capacity memory system which is relatively longer. SS can keep track of 7 +/- items without external aids. Long-term memory: holds enormous amount of info for a long period of time. But not all info is retrieved easily from long-term memory. (Search engines)
3.Retrieval & forgettingDue to some factors, SS might be able to retrieve information but might forget some. Retrieval can be as easy as automatic, or as difficult as it requires more effort: Ex: the months of the year
A. Retrieval the position of the item affects how easy or difficult to retrieve it. Recall is better for items at the beginning and end rather than for items in the middle. Encoding specificity model: associations formed at the time of encoding or learning.
B: Acquiring expertisewhat determines whether or not someone becomes an expert?
2. EXPERTISE Expertise and Learning Acquiring Expertise Expertise and Teaching
a. Expertise and Learning The contribution of prior knowledge to our ability to remember is evident. (expert VS novice) organization and depth of knowledge: when knowledge is organized around important ideas/concepts in meaningful ways, it is easier to retrieve it.
Fluent retrieval: the effort involved in retrieving relevant info varies greatly, experts do that “fluently” and effortlessly but novice people / learners need a great deal of effort. Adaptive expertise: adaptive experts are able to approach new situations flexibly: teachers who are adaptive experts are flexible and open to rethinking ideas and practices to improve their SS learning.
• use of good strategies helps SS become effective: note taking, PQ4R PREVIEW QUESTION READ REFLECT RECITE REVIEW
b. Acquiring expertisewhat determines whether or not someone becomes an expert?
c. Expertise and Teaching “Being an expert in a particulardomain does not mean that the expertis good at helping others learn it.” Bransford, 2006
Characteristics of an expert teacher PEDAGOGICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE: good at monitoring SS learning and assessing SS progress Aware of the difficulties their SS are likely to encounter Aware of SS existing knowledge Makes new info relevant TECHNOLOGY
“ in the absence of the expert pedagogical awareness of their own SS, inexpert teachers simply rely on textbook publishers’ materials, which, of course, contain no information about the particular pedagogical needs of SS in the teacher’s classroom.” Brophy, 2004
MetacognitionThe learner’s knowledge abouther/his own cognitive processes. Dr. Dov liberman