Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Hiddas
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Hiddas

312
views

Published on


0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
312
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. A MultidisciplinaryApproach to Sexism in Language M. Hiddas; ENS, Meknes
  • 2. Sexism as a concept and behaviour• The term sexism coined by Pauline M. Leet in US in 1965 . Sexism a model on Racism.• Sexism in language involves words or expressions that carry negative, discriminatory attitudes towards people on gender basis.• People’s gender: involving mainly males and females• Male sexism and Female sexism.
  • 3. The most apparent form is Language male sexism• Theories and constructs have been developed, since the first feminist wave.Worth mentioning:• Intentional and unintentional language sexism• Hostile and benevolent sexism- Hostile sexism: manifest in people’s words and actions.- Benevolent sexism: perceiving women as “pure creatures who ought to be protected, supported, and adored and whose love is necessary to make a man complete” (Glick and Fiske, 2001: 109). Averts criticism
  • 4. Generic “he”• Dear Ladies and gentlemen, if someone loses his way, no one can help him; he can help himself by using the map which has now become his.• Dear fathers, if someone loses his way, no one can help him; he can help himself by using the map which has now become his.• Dear mothers, if someone loses his way, no one can help him; he can help himself by using the map which has now become his.
  • 5. Generic “she”!• Dear ladies and gentlemen, if someone loses her way, no one can help her; she can help herself by using the map which has now become hers.
  • 6. A direct feminist riposte Generic she
  • 7. Alternatives to generic “he”• Reformulation: plural they, generic you, plural If someone loses his way, they can use the map…• Replacement: “he or she” -- “he/she” -- “s/he” -- “(s)he” -- “she or he” -- she/he “thon”, “co”, “se”, “yo”, “e” , “hu”, “zhe” , “phe”
  • 8. Other sexist words and expressions• Generic “man”:All men are mortal, Sara is a man; therefore, Sara is mortal. Mind a feminist riposte time!• Asymmetrical pairs:[bachelor – spinster]- Bachelor: a man who has never been married.- Spinster: a woman who is not married, especially an older woman who is not likely to marry.
  • 9. • Longer statements:- Women are the snares of Satan.- Long hair, short wit.- Behind every successful man is a woman.- Beware two things: a winter blue sky and a praying crone.- All women are whores, except those who can’t (be so).
  • 10. Do generic words actually enhance generic images?• 115 Moroccan high-school Baccalaureate students, 63 females and 52 males.• 25 generic, non sexist appellations ranging from negative (eg: delinquent, criminal) to positive words (eg: architect and doctor).• Attribution of a common female or female first name (like Ahmed, Nezha, Adil, Shaima).
  • 11. Results• 41.66% of the attributed names were female and 58.33% were male.• The subjects’ mental image is more male-oriented with very close results between the two sexes:- Females’ attribution to female names: ….. 41.14%- Males’ attribution to female names: ……. 42.30%- Females’ attribution to male names: ………58.85%- Males’ attribution to male names: ………. 57.69%• Language reflects our thought rather than tailor them.
  • 12. 41,14 - 58,86% 42,03% - 57,69%60.00%50.00%40.00% Female image30.00% Male Image20.00%10.00% 0.00% Females Males
  • 13. Implications• Sexism in language is a global issue.• Which enhances which, sexism or language? There is an interactive relationship, but language reflects rather than generates sexism.• Language sexism is an additional burden on the part of the language learners and users.• English suffers from many inconsistencies, one of which is sexism.• English needs a rational reform.
  • 14. • Thank you dear MATERS and MATEES

×