What about the treaty? In July of 1987, the United States entered into a treaty with the Canadian government to protect the Porcupine Caribou herd in ANWR because the herd was recognized as a "unique and irreplaceable natural resource of great value which each generation should maintain and make use of so as to conserve them for future generations."
History• In 1923, the 23-million acre Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 4 was established in northwestern Alaska to secure a supply of oil for future national security needs, later renamed the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPR-A).• During World War II, the entire North Slope of Alaska - 48.8 million acres - was withdrawn from entry under the public land laws and thus held for exclusive use by the U.S. government for military purposes• In 1957, Secretary of Interior Fred Seaton of the Eisenhower Administration revoked the previous military withdrawal on 20 million acres of the North Slope of Alaska to make it available for commercial oil and gas leasing. This was in addition to the previously established 23 million acre Naval Petroleum Reserve.
History Continued• In 1960, Secretary Seaton designated 8.9 million acres of coastal plain and mountains of northeast Alaska as the Arctic National Wildlife Range to protect its "unique wildlife, wilderness and recreation values."• 43 million acres for multiple land uses including oil and gas development, while the northeastern corner 1.5 acres was protected for wildlife and wilderness conservation.
Cost/Time of Drilling• $300 billion will need to be invested in ANWR oil development.• Drilling for an onshore well of 10,000 to 12,499 feet increased from $111 per foot drilled to $294 per foot drilled.• Alaskan onshore drilling costs increased from $283 to $1,880 per foot drilled in the same period• Equipment must be fortified to withstand harsh Alaskan conditions (more $)
Time of Drilling• At the least 8 years, at the most 12 years until findings are sent to produce oil into gas.• 2 to 3 years to obtain leases• 2 to 3 years to drill a single exploratory well• 1 to 2 years to develop a production development plan• 3 to 4 years to construct the feeder pipelines
•There is a 95% chance of finding 1.9 billion barrels (BBO) of economicallyrecoverable oil in the Arctic Refuges 1002 Area•5% chance of finding 9.4 BBO•a 50% chance of finding 5.3 BBO•Nearly 1 million barrels of oil a day are produced from the existing oil fieldsin areas west of the Arctic Refuge, and new wells are brought into productioneach year•. Americans use 19 million barrels of oil each day, or 7 billion barrels of oil peryear. There is, therefore, a 50% chance of finding a 9 months supply of oil inthe 1002 Area, at $24 per barrel
Nature Issues• Eisenhower Administration established the original Arctic Range in 1960 and said “one of the worlds great wildlife areas. The great diversity of vegetation and topography in this compact area, together with its relatively undisturbed condition, led to its selection as ... one of our remaining wildlife and wilderness frontiers."• Major effects were defined as "widespread, long-term change in habitat availability or quality which would likely modify natural abundance or distribution of species."• Major restrictions on subsistence activities by Kaktovik residents would also be expected• Home to over 45 different specieies
Nature Issues continued..• 60 miles west to Prudhoe Bay -- a gargantuan oil complex that has turned 1,000 square miles of fragile tundra into a sprawling industrial zone containing 1,500 miles of roads and pipelines, 1,400 producing wells and three jetports.• The result is a landscape defaced by mountains of sewage sludge, scrap metal, garbage and more than 60 contaminated waste sites that contain -- and often leak -- acids, lead, pesticides, solvents and diesel fuel