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Introduction to BCI


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  • 1. A Short Introduction toBRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE
  • 2. Outline• Definitions• History• Types• EEG• Commercialization• Outlook• Hands on!
  • 3. Definitions• Brain–computer interface (BCI)• A direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device• A.K.A. – mind-machine interface (MMI) – direct neural interface – brain–machine interface (BMI)
  • 4. Current BCI Systems
  • 5. History• Hans Berger – First EEG recording in 1924 – Find oscillation activity: alpha wave (8-12Hz)
  • 6. History• Animal Study – 1970s University of Washington School of Medicine in Seattle – 1980s Johns Hopkins University
  • 7. Types• Invasive – Put the whole module into the brain• Partially Invasive – Attach sensors on the surface of the brain• Non-invasive – Leave everything outside of the skull
  • 8. Invasive BCI• Sci-Fi – “Plug in” to human central neural system – Qualia: subjective feelings• Real world – Vision • William Dobelle – Movement • Robotic arms
  • 9. Partially Invasive BCI• Electrode on the brain surface – Better signals – Lower risks
  • 10. Non-Invasive BCI• EEG – the electrical activity along the scalp• MEG – the magnetic fields produced by brain• MRI – Use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to image nuclei of atoms inside the body
  • 11. MRI• Magnetic resonance imaging – uses a powerful magnetic field to systematically alter the alignment of this magnetization – causes the nuclei to produce a rotating magnetic field which can be detected
  • 12. MEG• Magnetoencephalography – Record magnetic fields produced by electrical currents occurring naturally in the brain – SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference devices)
  • 13. EEG• Electroencephalography – the most studied – fine temporal resolution – ease of use – portability – low set-up cost
  • 14. EEG Measurement• Measure the “wave” generated by the brain
  • 15. Brain Waves• Different Brain waves 腦波種類 腦波頻率 心理及活動狀態 Delta 0.1Hz ~ 3Hz 深度睡眠、無意識狀態 Theta 4Hz ~ 7Hz 想像力活躍的狀態,幻想、回想,以及作夢 安靜、清醒、放鬆的狀態,但沒有到昏昏欲睡 Alpha 8Hz ~ 12Hz 的程度 Low Beta 12Hz ~ 15Hz 放鬆,但是注意力集中 Midrange Beta 16Hz ~ 20Hz 思考中,並且意識到自身和環境的變化 High Beta 21Hz ~ 30Hz 警戒、焦慮的狀態
  • 16. Brain Waves• Different Brain waves Delta Theta Alpha Beta
  • 17. Commercialization• BrainGate – Cyberkinetics – Neural Signals• For PC users – Neural Impulse Actuator (April, 2008) – Emotiv Systems (December, 2009) – NeuroSky (2009-)
  • 18. Current BCI Systems
  • 19. Toward a Natural User Interface• Signal Acquisition – Non-intrusive• Signal Processing – Convert what we measured to bits and bytes• Translation – Convert intention to action
  • 20. Challenges of BCI to NUI• Lost in Translation 1. What is in your mind? 2. How is your brain work? 3. What are the corresponding EEG patterns? Brain Activity EEG Thoughts
  • 21. Outlook• Artificial Sensory Channel – Hearing – Vision – Motion – Neural disorder control• Portable, non-invasive BCI is not yet intuitive – Need to solve translation problems
  • 22. Tan Le from Emotive System• Tan Le 展示一個影響深遠 應用程式,只需要運用意 念和一點專注力,這令人 耳目一新的電腦界面可以 透過頭戴式耳機來解讀使 用者的大腦電波,從而控 制虛擬物件和家電用品
  • 23. Hands On: Neurosky • Mindset / Mindwave
  • 24. Necomimi from Neurowear• Time Magazine 2011 – Best Invention of the Year
  • 25. THANK YOU!