Advanced English1Chapter 1IntroductionBackground of the History of English LanguageIn this chapter I have tried to conclud...
Advanced English2Syntactic: Syntax governs the way words come together to createsentences. The syntax of English has becom...
Advanced English3of the Scandinavian branch of the Germanic language family, who conquered and colonizedparts of Britain i...
Advanced English4communications, science, information technology, business, seafaring, aviation,entertainment, radio and d...
Advanced English5international treaty, the official language for aeronautical11and maritime12communications.English is an ...
Advanced English6Chapter 2Sentence StructureBasic Sentence StructureAccording to my own experiences in learning English gr...
Advanced English7Nothing was there.S-V-N Subject-Verb-Noun She is my girlfriend.These women are doctors.Mr. Yota is the te...
Advanced English8The people like rice. Specific subjectThe friendly people like rice. Subject modified with an adjectiveTh...
Advanced English9The women are doctors. Using plural noun and verbMy father is a nice guy. Modified subject and complement...
Advanced English10The predicate expresses action or being within the sentence. Thesimple predicate contains the verb and c...
Advanced English11Summary of Sentence Pattern1. Basic Sentence PatternsSubject + VerbI swim. Joe swims. They swam.Subject ...
Advanced English123. OtherPossessionI have a camera. He owns a car. This house belongs to them.LocationI am here. He swims...
Advanced English13He appears very comfortable.George became sick last night.1.3 Please translate these Thai sentenses into...
Advanced English14+Collocation1.5 Please translate these English sentences into Thai sentencesA : How many brothers and si...
Advanced English15Chapter 3Sentence PatternsBasically in learning process of every language, the understanding of sentence...
Advanced English16Action verb patterns (6, 7, 8, 9,10) use one of the many action verbs as the main verbin the sentence. T...
Advanced English17The adverbial indicating where or when may be a prepositional phrase.2. NP1 + V-be + ADJThe verb of bein...
Advanced English18The linking verb is followed by an adjective functioning as a subjective complement.The adjectival funct...
Advanced English19Even if the action verb is followed by a prepositional phrase, the verb is stillintransitive as long as ...
Advanced English209. NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + ADJThe action verb is followed by a direct object. The direct object is followed b...
Advanced English21...........................................................................................................
Advanced English223.3 Please build the sentences following the structural forms below:NP1 + V-be + ADV/TP....................
Advanced English23Chapter 4Elements of Sentence StructuringIn this chapter that I will explain and give the example which ...
Advanced English24Adverbmodifies a verb, adjective, or otheradverbsoftly, lazily, oftenPreposition shows a relationship be...
Advanced English25Sometimes a verb will express being or existence instead of action.Example:Sometimes we use sentences in...
Advanced English26A predicate is a verb that expresses the subjects action or state of being.Example:Sometimes the predica...
Advanced English27PhrasesA phrase is a group of related words that1. does not express a complete thought2. does not have a...
Advanced English28However, clause #2 gives an incomplete thought or idea, one that cannot stand byitself, one that needs s...
Advanced English29PhrasesClausesWhen entire independent clauses (simple sentences) are joined this way, they becomecompoun...
Advanced English30Look at these examples:Avoiding Comma Splices and Fused SentencesSometimes two independent clauses (simp...
Advanced English311. By adding an appropriate coordinating conjunction2. By changing the comma to a semicolon3. By changin...
Advanced English322. By placing a semicolon between the two clauses3. By adding the needed punctuation and an appropriate ...
Advanced English33Punctuation note: NO commas separate compound elements (subject, verb, directobject, indirect object, su...
Advanced English34Punctuation patterns (to match A, B, C and D above):A. Dependent clause, independent clauseB. Independen...
Advanced English352. Conjunctive adverbs Ic; therefore, ic.A dependent (subordinate) Clause may be Introduced by1. Subordi...
Advanced English36A conjunction comes between two independent clauses.Usually a comma is used immediately in front of a co...
Advanced English372. To show joint ownership with nounsExample3. To show individual ownership with nounsExample4. To show ...
Advanced English385. To form the plural of letters, numbers, and signs, and of words referred to aswords.ExamplesParenthes...
Advanced English39Note: Unlike parentheses, which minimize the importance of the parentheticalmaterial, dashes emphasize p...
Advanced English40TV programs, long musical works, long poems, works of art, names of ships and airplanes.ExamplesQuotatio...
Advanced English41If the quotation within another quotation is a question or an exclamation, placeappropriate punctuation ...
Advanced English42An English teacher wrote these words on the board:31Woman without her man is nothing.The teacher then as...
Advanced English43colonYou have two choices: finish thework today or lose the contract.hyphen This is a rather out-of-date...
Advanced English44apostrophe This is Johns car.underline Have you read War and Peace?underscore bin_lad@cia.govroundbracke...
Advanced English45Directions: Please write these abbreviate words to be full word and give twoexamples by writing the full...
Advanced English467. Nuncount................................................................................................
Advanced English47...........................................................................................................
Advanced English48Predicate =4. Two beautiful goldfish in the pond were eating the insects on the top of the water.Subject...
Advanced English491. Four young soldiers led the troops into battle.Subject = soldiers Predicate = ledYour answers: subjec...
Advanced English509. The farmers in that part of the county are planting their fields this week.Subject = farmers Predicat...
Advanced English51Verb phrases express action or state of being.We may have been mistaken about the car’s reliability.The ...
Advanced English52(When Laney scratched off the final number on the lottery ticket,) sheremembered the reason for her nick...
Advanced English53You will notice that these basic sentence types can be expanded by dependent(subordinate) structures lik...
Advanced English54a. as adjectivesb. as adverbs2. Adjectival phrases (free from government control)3. Verbal –ing phrase [...
Advanced English55Examples:(1) I admire the person who _____.Sample sentence #1: I admire the person who first dared to ea...
Advanced English56Seeing the snake, the boy shouted.When the boy saw the snake, he shouted.We didn‘t go out because of the...
Advanced English57To Create the Transformation,1. Make the direct object into the subject,2. Add the "be" auxiliary and th...
Advanced English58Consider = is consideredMade = was madeTransform to the Expletive there is / there areThis transformatio...
Advanced English59Transform to Cleft/DivideThis transformation allows the writer to emphasize the sentence subject or obje...
Advanced English60In the above example, the first cleft transformation emphasizes the direct object, Joe,using three words...
Advanced English61It was the bone that the dog ate.What the dog ate was the bone.Present Tense:We consider Joe intelligent...
Advanced English62Example - linking verb3. With an action or linking verb that does not have an auxiliary verb: Add not an...
Advanced English632. with an action or linking verb that has an auxiliary verb (have or be): Transposethe position of the ...
Advanced English64This transformation provides questions that will produce more than a yes/no answer.It may be used with a...
Advanced English65Example - linking verb without auxiliary verbNote: Sentences using which or whose to create the interrog...
Advanced English66Transform to ImperativeThis transformation creates a command. It may be used with all sentence patterns....
Advanced English67Example - passive, negative, and interrogative yes-noExample - cleft, emphasis, and interrogative yes-no...
Advanced English681. The words were explained by the teacher yesterday.The teacher explained the words yesterday.2. Many d...
Advanced English691. The words were explained by the teacher yesterday.The teacher explained the words yesterday.2. Many d...
Advanced English70Chapter 7Clause and Sentence StructureIn this chapter I would like the learners please remind and rememb...
Advanced English71Melt!Ice melts.The ice melts quickly.The ice on the river melts quickly under the warm March sun.Lying e...
Advanced English72Today at school Mr. Moore brought in his pet rabbit, and he showed it to theclass, and I got to pet it, ...
Advanced English73Sir John A. Macdonald had a serious drinking problem; whensober, however, he could be a formidable foe i...
Advanced English74A complex sentence is very different from a simple sentence or a compound sentencebecause it makes clear...
Advanced English75Adjective - modifying following nounConnective conjunction - other examples include: and, or, etc.Determ...
Advanced English76Take a daily English course by subscribing to English Tip of the Day which providesa new English learnin...
Advanced English77Obviously, the fish wasn‘t walking! But in this sentence walking must refer to fish, sothe whole thing i...
Advanced English78Since coming to the U.S.A., I have been studying English.After I finished my homework, I went to the par...
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
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Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters

  1. 1. Advanced English1Chapter 1IntroductionBackground of the History of English LanguageIn this chapter I have tried to conclude the historical background and the importanceof English language. Here this objective for making an understanding particularly the basicknowledge about history and the importance of English language in briefly description.The history of the English language really started with the arrival of three Germanictribes who invaded Britain during the 5thcentury AD. These tribes, the Angles, the Saxonsand the Jutes, crossed the North Sea from what today is Denmark and northern Germany. Atthat time the inhabitants of Britain spoke a Celtic language. But most of the Celtic speakerswere pushed west and north by the invaders - mainly into what is now Wales, Scotland andIreland. The Angles came from "Englaland" and their language was called "Englisc" - fromwhich the words "England" and "English" are derived.1Language is a conventional, arbitrary system of sounds used for communication in ahuman linguistic community. Language is a system at many levels, including the following:2Phonemic: Phonemes are the smallest meaningless components thatconstitute the sound system of a language.Morphemic: Morphemes are the smallest meaningful components of alanguage. For example, the word cats consists of two morphemes, {cat} and {-s}. Morphemes can be grammatical (having dictionary definitions) or lexical (affixesand function words). They can be free (able to stand alone) or bound (complete onlywhen combined with other morphemes. Bound lexical morphemes (or affixes) can beeither derivational (used to create new words) or inflectional (used to signalgrammatical relationships).1 a bShore, Thomas William (1906), Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race – A of the Settlement of England and the Tribal Originof the English People (1nd ed.), London, pp. 3, 393.2All notes are loosely drawn from Pyles and Algeos The Origins and Development of the English Language, 5thedition,Harcourt Brace College Publishers, New York, 2005. Please see Sources, which can be accessed from the mainlobby, for a complete list of references.
  2. 2. Advanced English2Syntactic: Syntax governs the way words come together to createsentences. The syntax of English has become less synthetic (grammatical structuresare signaled primarily by inflectional endings) and more analytic (grammaticalstructures are signaled primarily by word order and function words).Semantic: Semantics concerns the meaning of words, including but notlimited to etymologies.Lexical: Lexicology includes spelling, the formation and use of words.F. Stylistic: Linguistic choice and options.Language is a human activity. Though animals can communicate in a primal way,they do not have innate language abilities that allow for an unlimited number of novelutterances. Though some apes have been taught to use sign language (a paralanguage, orparallel system of communication), the breadth of ideas that they express are limited.Language is arbitrary. Aside from echoic words, there is no intrinsic relationship betweenwords and the objects or concepts that they represent. Language is conventional. Language ispassed down from one generation to the next. It is the nature of language to change. Notionsof absolute correctness are imposed by writers, linguists, scholars, etc. and may slow downbut do not prevent the natural process of language evolution. Language is sound. Linguistsare primarily concerned with speech. Writing is a secondary activity. The English languageis one that most widely spread around the world in around the world in using as a universallanguage.English is a West Germanic language that originated from the Anglo-Frisian dialectsbrought to Britain by Germanic invaders and/or settlers from various parts of what is nownorthwest Germany and the Netherlands. Initially, Old English was a diverse group ofdialects, reflecting the varied origins of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Britain. One of thesedialects, Late West Saxon, eventually became predominant.The English language underwent extensive change in the middle Ages. Written OldEnglish of AD 1000 is similar in vocabulary and grammar to other old Germanic languagessuch as Old High German and Old Norse, and completely unintelligible to modern speakers,while the modern language is already largely recognizable in written Middle English of AD1400. The transformation was caused by two further waves of invasion: the first by speakers
  3. 3. Advanced English3of the Scandinavian branch of the Germanic language family, who conquered and colonizedparts of Britain in the 8th and 9thcenturies; the second by the Normans in the 11thcentury,who spoke Old Norman and ultimately developed an English variety of this called Anglo-Norman. A large proportion of the modern English vocabulary comes directly from Anglo-Norman.English is a member of the Germanic family of languages. Germanic is abranch of the Indo-European language family. Creative diagram byhttp://www.englishclub.com/english-language-history.htmClose contact with the Scandinavians resulted in a significant grammaticalsimplification and lexical enrichment of the Anglo-Frisian core of English. However, thesechanges had not reached South West England by the 9thcentury AD, where Old English wasdeveloped into a full-fledged literary language. The Norman invasion occurred in 1066, andwhen literary English rose anew in the 13thcentury, it was based on the speech of London,much closer to the centre of Scandinavian settlement. Technical and cultural vocabulary waslargely derived from Old Norman, with particularly heavy influence in the church, the courts,and government. With the coming of the Renaissance, as with most other developingEuropean languages such as German and Dutch, Latin and Ancient Greek supplantedNorman and French as the main source of new words. Thus, English developed into verymuch a "borrowing" language with an enormously disparate vocabulary.3The Importance of English LanguageModern English, sometimes described as the first global lingua franca,4is thedominant language or in some instances even the required international language of3 a bShore, Thomas William (1906), Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race – A of the Settlement of England and the Tribal Originof the English People (1nd ed.), London, pp. 3, 393.4http://www. "Global English: gift or curse?". Retrieved 4 April 2005. a b c dDavid Graddol (1997). ―The Future of
  4. 4. Advanced English4communications, science, information technology, business, seafaring, aviation,entertainment, radio and diplomacy.5Its spread beyond the British Isles began with thegrowth of the British Empire, and by the late 19thcentury its reach was truly global.6Following British colonization from the 16thto 19thcenturies, it became the dominantlanguage in the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. The growing economicand cultural influence of the US and its status as a global superpower since World War IIhave significantly accelerated the languages spread across the planet.7English replacedGerman as the dominant language of science Nobel Prize laureates during the second half ofthe 20th century. English equal and may have surpassed French as the dominant language ofdiplomacy during the last half of the 19th century.A working knowledge of English has become a requirement in a number of fields,occupations and professions such as medicine and computing; as a consequence over a billionpeople speak English to at least a basic level (see English as a foreign or second language). Itis one of six official languages of the United Nations.8One impact of the growth of English is the reduction of native linguistic diversity inmany parts of the world. Its influence continues to play an important role in languageattrition. Conversely, the natural internal varieties of English along with creoles and pidginshave the potential to produce new distinct languages from English over time.9Because English is so widely spoken, it has often been referred to as a "worldlanguage", the lingua franca of the modern era,10and while it is not an official language inmost countries, it is currently the language most often taught as a foreign language. It is, byEnglish” (PDF). The British Council. Retrieved 15 April 2007.5http://www."FAQ – Language proficiency requirements for licence holders – In which languages does a licence holderneed to demonstrate proficiency?". International Civil Aviation Organization – Air Navigation Bureau. Retrieved 2June 2011.6McGrath, Charles (2007-05-17). "Magazine Suspends Its Run in History". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-03-08.7http://www. a b c dDavid Graddol (1997). "The Future of English?" (PDF). The British Council. Retrieved 15 April 2007.8"UN official languages". UN.org.9Cheshire, Jenny (1991). English Around The World: Sociolinguistic Perspectives. Cambridge University Press.doi:10.2277/0521395658. ISBN 0-521-39565-8.10http://www.a b c dDavid Graddol (1997). "The Future of English" (PDF). The British Council. Retrieved 15 April 2007.
  5. 5. Advanced English5international treaty, the official language for aeronautical11and maritime12communications.English is an official language of the United Nations and many other internationalorganizations, including the International Olympic Committee.English is the language most often studied as a foreign language in the EuropeanUnion, by 89% of schoolchildren, ahead of French at 32%, while the perception of theusefulness of foreign languages among Europeans is 68% in favour of English ahead of 25%for French.13Among some non-English-speaking EU countries, a large percentage of theadult population claims to be able to converse in English – in particular: 85% in Sweden,83% in Denmark, 79% in the Netherlands, 66% in Luxembourg and over 50% in Finland,Slovenia, Austria, Belgium, and Germany.14Books, magazines, and newspapers written in English are available in many countriesaround the world, and English is the most commonly used language in the sciences15withScience Citation Index reporting as early as 1997 that 95% of its articles were written inEnglish, even though only half of them came from authors in English-speaking countries.This increasing use of the English language globally has had a large impact on manyother languages, leading to language shift and even language death,16and to claims oflinguistic imperialism.17English itself has become more open to language shift as multipleregional varieties feed back into the language as a whole.1811http://www."ICAO Promotes Aviation Safety by Endorsing English Language Testing". International Civil AviationOrganization. 13 October 2011.12http:www."IMO Standard Marine Communication Phrases". International Maritime Organization. Archived from theoriginal on 27 December 2003.132006 survey by Eurobarometer, in the Official EU languages website14http://www."IMO Standard Marine Communication Phrases". International Maritime Organization. Archived from theoriginal on 27 December 2003.15http://www.a b c dDavid Graddol (1997). "The Future of English" (PDF). The British Council. Retrieved 15 April 2007.16David Crystal (2000) Language Death, Preface; viii, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge17 a bJambor, Paul Z. English Language Imperialism: Points of View, Journal of English as an International Language,April 2007 – Volume 1, pages 103–123 (Accessed in 2007)18Ibid.p.115.
  6. 6. Advanced English6Chapter 2Sentence StructureBasic Sentence StructureAccording to my own experiences in learning English grammar mostly it is notdifficult as many learners feared or worried about. Every word in a sentence serves a specificpurpose within the structure of that particular sentence. According to rules of grammar,sentence structure can sometimes be quite complicated. For the sake of simplicity, however,the basic parts of sentences will discussed here can be made easier to all learner Englishgrammar as follows:Sentence StructureThere are five basic patterns around which most English sentences are built. They areas follows:19S-V Subject-Verb Yota sleeps.Joy is eating.Job will arrive next week.S-V-O Subject-Verb- Object I like rice.Joy loves her job.Jobs eating an orange.S-V-Adj Subject-Verb-Adjective He is good.They are lazy.She seems angry.S-V-Adv Subject-Verb-Adverb Jay is here.Plants are everywhere.19Omaggio, Alice C. 1986. Teaching Language in Context: Proficiency-oriented instruction. Boston: Heinle and Heinle.479pp
  7. 7. Advanced English7Nothing was there.S-V-N Subject-Verb-Noun She is my girlfriend.These women are doctors.Mr. Yota is the teacher.Note: At the heart of every English sentence is the Subject-Verb relationship. Otherelements can be added to make a sentence more interesting, but they are not essential to itsformation.The following sentences are examples of the S-V pattern.She sleeps. Core sentenceShe sleeps soundly. An adverb is added to describe how shesleeps.She sleeps on the sofa. A prepositional phrase is added to tellwhere she sleeps.She sleeps every afternoon. A time expression is added to tell whenshe sleeps.She is sleeping right now. Verb tense is changed, but S-Vrelationship remains the same.Mary will sleep later. Subject is named and another tense isused.The dogs are sleeping in the garage. New subject may require a different formof the verb.Note: Any action verb can be used with this sentence pattern. The followingsentences are examples of the S-V-O pattern.They like rice. Core sentence
  8. 8. Advanced English8The people like rice. Specific subjectThe friendly people like rice. Subject modified with an adjectiveThe people in the restaurant like rice. Subject modified with an adjectiveThe people like boiled rice. Object modified with an adjectiveThe people like hot, white rice. Object modified with more than oneadjectiveNote: Only transitive action verbs can be used with this sentence pattern.The following sentences are examples of the S-V-Adj. pattern.He is fine. Basic sentence with "be" verbHe seems happy. Basic sentence with another linking verbYota is tall, black & white and handsome. Series of adjectivesHe appears very comfortable. Adverb or intensifier addedGeorge became sick last night. Different tense and linking verbNote: Only linking verbs can be used with this sentence pattern.The following sentences are examples of the S-V-Adv pattern.The teacher is here. Basic sentenceThe teacher is over there. Using an adverb phraseTeachers are everywhere. Plural noun and verb usedThe teachers are in the lobby. Prepositional phrase functioning asadverbNote: Only linking verbs can be used with this sentence pattern.The following sentences are examples of the S-V-N pattern.The man is a doctor. Basic sentence
  9. 9. Advanced English9The women are doctors. Using plural noun and verbMy father is a nice guy. Modified subject and complementMy grandparents are senior citizens. Modified plural subject and complementNote: Only linking verbs can be used with this sentence pattern. Other, less commonstructures are dealt with in another unit. See also: parts of sentences: subject, predicate, directobject, indirect object, complements.There are many different ways of organizing words into sentences. (Or we might say,Words can be organized into sentences in many different ways.)20For this reason, describinghow to put a sentence together isnt as easy as explaining how to bake a cake or assemble amodel plane. There are no easy recipes, no step-by-step instructions. But that doesnt meanthat crafting an effective sentence depends on magic or good luck.Experienced writers understand that the basic parts of a sentence can be combined andarranged in countless ways. So as we work to improve our writing, its important tounderstand what these basic structures are and how to use them effectively.Well begin by introducing the traditional parts of speech and the most commonsentence structures. For practice in shaping these words and structures into strong sentences,follow examples, and expanded discussions. The two most basic parts of a sentence are thesubject and predicateSubjects and PredicatesSubjectThe subject of a sentence is the person, place, or thing that isperforming the action of the sentence. The subject represents what or whomthe sentence is about. The simple subject usually contains a noun or pronounand can include modifying words, phrases, or clauses.The monk . . .Predicate20Cheshire, Jenny (1991). English around the World: Sociolinguistic Perspectives, Cambridge University Press.
  10. 10. Advanced English10The predicate expresses action or being within the sentence. Thesimple predicate contains the verb and can also contain modifying words,phrases, or clauses.The monk / builds a pagoda.The subject and predicate make up the two basic structural parts of anycomplete sentence. In addition, there are other elements, contained within thesubject or predicate, that add meaning or detail. These elements include thedirect object, indirect object, and subject complement. All of these elementscan be expanded and further combined into simple, compound, complex, orcompound/complex sentences.Direct ObjectThe direct object receives the action of the sentence. The direct objectis usually a noun or pronoun.The monk builds a pagoda.The monk builds it.Indirect ObjectThe indirect object indicates to whom or for whom the action of thesentence is being done. The indirect object is usually a noun or pronoun.The monk builds his temple a pagoda.The monk builds it a pagoda.Subject ComplementA subject complement either renames or describes the subject, andtherefore is usually a noun, pronoun, or adjective. Subject complements occurwhen there is a linking verb within the sentence (often a linking verb is a formof the verb to be).The monk is a good person. ( person = noun which renames the subject)The monk seems kind. ( kind = adjective which describes the subject)Note: As an example of the difference between parts of speech and parts of asentence, a noun can function within a sentence as subject, direct object, indirect object,object of a preposition, or subject complement.
  11. 11. Advanced English11Summary of Sentence Pattern1. Basic Sentence PatternsSubject + VerbI swim. Joe swims. They swam.Subject + Verb + ObjectI drive a car. Joe plays the guitar. They ate dinner.Subject + Verb + ComplementI am busy. Joe became a doctor. They look sick.Subject + Verb + Indirect Object + Direct ObjectI gave her a gift. She teaches us English.Subject + Verb + Object + ComplementI left the door open. We elected him president. They named her Jane.2. TensesPresent ContinuousI am swimming. Joe is sleeping. They are jogging.Present SimpleI play tennis. He swims every day. I usually swim for two hours.Present PerfectI have eaten. He has just come home. Theyve already gone.Past SimpleI rested. He played tennis yesterday. They drove to Boston.Past ContinuousI was sleeping. She was cooking a while ago. They were talking.Past PerfectI had already seen it. He had played tennis.
  12. 12. Advanced English123. OtherPossessionI have a camera. He owns a car. This house belongs to them.LocationI am here. He swims in the river. They live in the mountains.Its fun to swim. (Using adjectives similar to fun.)It isnt healthy to smoke. Smoking is dangerous.They agreed to swim. (Using verbs similar to agree.)He didnt desire to work. They like to play.They asked him to swim. (Using verbs similar to ask.)He didnt advise me to work. They often encourage me to work harder.They enjoy swimming. (Using verbs similar to enjoy.)He didnt advise me to work. They often encourage me to work harder.Exercise1.1 Please build the sentense following the abbreviate forms below.S-VS-V-OS-V-AdjS-VAdvS-V-N1.2 Please write these sentences to be abbreviate formsHe is fine.He seems happy.Jordan is tall, dark and handsome.
  13. 13. Advanced English13He appears very comfortable.George became sick last night.1.3 Please translate these Thai sentenses into English sentenses........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1.4. Please change these English sentenses to be the breviate structural forms (Ex.s+V+N)1. "Igo toschool.....................................................................................................2. Igo home.....................................................................................................3. Happybirthdayto you....................................................................................................4.He passedby....................................................................................................(Subject)+(Verb)+Object)3(Vocabulary)+(Grammar) = Sentence)
  14. 14. Advanced English14+Collocation1.5 Please translate these English sentences into Thai sentencesA : How many brothers and sisters do you have?B : I have an older sister and two younger brothers.A : Do you live with your parents?B : Yes, I do. What about you? How many people are there in your family?A : There are six people in my family; my dad, my mom, my older brother, my youngersister, my twin and I.B: How are your family members?A : My parents have got a cold, but the others are fine.B : Hope your parents get well soon.A : Thank you
  15. 15. Advanced English15Chapter 3Sentence PatternsBasically in learning process of every language, the understanding of sentencepatterns is one of important thing that all learner need for. The knowledge of how groups ofwords function to convey units of thought further enhances our ability to communicateclearly. This is why we need to know about sentence patterns, the fundamentals of how thoseunits of thought that we call sentences are constructed. Just about all sentences in the Englishlanguage fall into ten patterns determined by the presence and functions of nouns, verbs,adjectives, and adverbs.21Verb of Being PatternsThe patterns are most easily classified according to the type of verb used:22Verb of being patterns (1, 2, 3) use a form of the verb to be as the main verb in thesentence.is are was werehas been have been had beenLinking Verb PatternLinking verb patterns (4, 5) use one of the linking verbs as the main verb in thesentence. The linking verb is followed by a noun or adjective functioning as a subjectivecomplement.smell taste look feel seem become appear grow etc.Action Verb Pattern21http://www.englishmistakeswelcome.com/sentence_patterns.htm retrieved on 12/2/201222http://www.lovekraw.blogspot.com/2012/09/sentence-patterns-1.html retrieved on 4/9/2012
  16. 16. Advanced English16Action verb patterns (6, 7, 8, 9,10) use one of the many action verbs as the main verbin the sentence. The action verb may be either transitive (take a direct object) or intransitive(not take a direct object).see jump embrace write imagine buy plummetthink etc.Terms used to identify various parts of each sentence pattern include the following:NP = noun phraseThis abbreviation refers to a headword noun and its modifiers ("noun phrase")functioning as a subject, direct object, indirect object, subjective complement, or objectivecomplement.NP1, NP2, NP3, etc. = designations for different noun phrase functionsNumbers in sequential order are used with each NP to designate its difference from orsimilarity to other NPs before and after it.V-be = verb of beingLV = linking verbV-int = intransitive verbV-tr = transitive verbADV/TP = adverbial of time or placeADJ = adjectiveThe Ten Sentence Patterns1. NP1 + V-be + ADV/TPThe verb of being is followed by an adverb indicating where or when.See more information on subjects form
  17. 17. Advanced English17The adverbial indicating where or when may be a prepositional phrase.2. NP1 + V-be + ADJThe verb of being is followed by an adjective that functions as the subjective complement.See more information on subjective complements formThe adjectival functioning as the subjective complement may be a prepositionalphrase.3. NP1 + V-be + NP1The verb of being is followed by a noun that functions as the subjective complement.Note: The second NP receives the same numerical designation as the first NP becausethe second NP, the subjective complement, is the same as the subject (Mr. James = teacher).4. NP1 + LV + ADJ
  18. 18. Advanced English18The linking verb is followed by an adjective functioning as a subjective complement.The adjectival functioning as the subjective complement may be a prepositionalphrase.5. NP1 + LV + NP1The linking verb is followed by a noun functioning as a subjective complement.Note: The second NP receives the same numerical designation as the first NPbecause the second NP, the subjective complement, is the same as the subject (Joan =Buddhist).6. NP1 + V-intThe action verb takes no direct object.
  19. 19. Advanced English19Even if the action verb is followed by a prepositional phrase, the verb is stillintransitive as long as it does not take a direct object.7. NP1 + V-tr + NP2The action verb is followed by a direct object.See more-information on direct objects formNote: The second NP, the direct object, receives a different numerical designation(NP2) because it is not the same as the subject (NP1).8. NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP3The action verb is followed by an indirect object and then a direct object.See more information on indirect objectsNote: The indirect object and the direct object each receive a new numericaldesignation because each is different from the other and both are different from the subject.
  20. 20. Advanced English209. NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + ADJThe action verb is followed by a direct object. The direct object is followed by anadjective functioning as an objective complement.See more information on objective complements formNote: The second NP, the direct object, receives a different numerical designation(NP2) because it is not the same as the subject (NP1).10. NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP2The action verb is followed by a direct object. The direct object is followed by a nounfunctioning as an objective complement.Note: The second NP, the direct object, receives a different numerical designation(NP2) because it is not the same as the subject (NP1). The third NP, the objectivecomplement, receives the same numerical designation as the direct object (NP2) because it isthe same as the direct object (Jacobsen = friend).Exercise3.1. Please build the sentences by use the whole kinds of verb as follows:is are was werehas been have been had been............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  21. 21. Advanced English21....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................smell taste look feel seem becomeappear grow....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................see jump embrace write imagine buy think....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3.2 Please write the whole kinds of verb of being or (V. to be)as follows:V-be = verb of being....................................................................................................................................LV = linking verb....................................................................................................................................V-int = intransitive verb........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................V-tr = transitive verb....................................................................................................................................ADV/TP = adverbial of time or place....................................................................................................................................ADJ = adjective....................................................................................................................................
  22. 22. Advanced English223.3 Please build the sentences following the structural forms below:NP1 + V-be + ADV/TP........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................NP1 + V-be + ADJ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................NP1 + V-be + NP1..............................................................................................................................................NP1 + LV + ADJ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................NP1 + LV + NP1........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................NP1 + V-int........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................NP1 + V-tr + NP2........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP3........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + ADJ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP2........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  23. 23. Advanced English23Chapter 4Elements of Sentence StructuringIn this chapter that I will explain and give the example which it concerned withelements of sentence structuring, there are eight components to consist of each sentence. Partof speech is the common name for a word class--a category into which words are placedaccording to the work they do in a sentence.23Here well be introduced to the eighttraditional parts of speech. Parts of speech have specific tasks to perform when they are puttogether in a sentence. See an example below:Table Chart of Parts of SpeechPart of Speech Basic Function ExamplesNoun names a person, place, or thing pirate, Caribbean, shipPronoun takes the place of a noun I, you, he, she, it, ours, them,whoVerb identifies action or state of being sing, dance, believe, beAdjective modifies a noun hot, lazy, funny23http://www.towson.edu/ows/sentpatttrans.html by Margaret L. Benner, benner@towson.edu. For educational purposesonly. All commercial uses strictly prohibited. Copyright © 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005,2004, 2003 Towson University. All rights reserved. Retrieved on 8/4/2012.
  24. 24. Advanced English24Adverbmodifies a verb, adjective, or otheradverbsoftly, lazily, oftenPreposition shows a relationship between a noun (orpronoun) and other words in a sentenceup, over, against, by, forConjunction joins words, phrases, and clauses and, but, or, yetInterjection expresses emotion ah, whoops, ouchSee more details about English grammar in part of speechNote: Though some traditional grammars have treated articles (the, a[n]) as a distinctpart of speech, contemporary grammars more often include articles in the category ofdeterminers.A noun or pronoun functions as the sentence subject when it is paired with a verbfunctioning as the sentence predicate. Every sentence has a subject and predicate.24SubjectA subject can be a noun or pronoun that is partnered with an action verb.Example:24Learn English Network. ―English Grammar – Simple Sentence Construction.‖ Learn English: LEO Network. (2007). Seemore details: http://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/sentencetext.htm#Object.
  25. 25. Advanced English25Sometimes a verb will express being or existence instead of action.Example:Sometimes we use sentences in which a subject is not actually stated, but is,nevertheless, understood in the meaning.Example:A sentence like this gives an order or a request to someone.Because we use such statements when we are talking directly to someone, we omit theword you. It is understood in the sentence. Therefore, in statements like this one, we say thesubject isYou (understood).This kind of sentence is an imperative sentence.Predicate
  26. 26. Advanced English26A predicate is a verb that expresses the subjects action or state of being.Example:Sometimes the predicate will be composed of two or three verbs that fit together - the mainverb preceded by one or more auxiliary (helping) verbs.Note: To be a predicate, a verb that ends in -ing must always have a helping verbwith it. An -ing verb without a helping verb cannot be a predicate in a sentence. A subjectand predicate may not always appear together or in the normal order, as the followingexamples show:
  27. 27. Advanced English27PhrasesA phrase is a group of related words that1. does not express a complete thought2. does not have a subject and predicate pairOne type of phrase is a prepositional phrase.Examples:Another kind of phrase is a verbal phrase.Examples:Even though these phrases contain nouns (pronouns) and/or verb forms, none of thenouns/pronouns/verbs are subjects or predicates. None of them work as a partnership.Also, these phrases do not express complete thoughts.ClausesWords and phrases can be put together to make clauses.A clause is a group of related words that contain a subject and predicate. Notethe difference between phrases and clauses in the following examples:Only one of the clauses is a sentence.Clause #1 gives a thought or an idea that is complete, that can stand by itself,independent of other words.
  28. 28. Advanced English28However, clause #2 gives an incomplete thought or idea, one that cannot stand byitself, one that needs some more words to make it whole. The word after changes themeaning, making the thought incomplete, after reading this clause, we are left hanging.These two clauses illustrate the two kinds of clauses:Independent Clauses and Dependent ClausesAn independent clause is a group of words that contains a subject, apredicate, and a complete thought.A dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and apredicate, but does not express a complete thought.Compounding Sentence ElementsWords, phrases, and clauses may be joined to one another inside a sentence with aconjunction. The coordinating conjunctions and, but, or, and nor may join subjects,predicates, adjectives, adverbs, prepositional phrases or dependent clauses within asentence. This process is called "compounding."25The following examples show the processof compoundingWords25http://www.towson.edu/ows/sentpatttrans.htmby Margaret L. Benner, benner@towson.edu. For educational purposesonly. All commercial uses strictly prohibited. Copyright © 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005,2004, 2003 Towson University. All rights reserved, Retrieved on 8/4/2012.
  29. 29. Advanced English29PhrasesClausesWhen entire independent clauses (simple sentences) are joined this way, they becomecompound sentences.Avoiding FragmentsA complete sentence needs only two elements:a subject - predicate unit and a complete thoughtIn other words, a simple sentence is actually the same thing as an independentclause.Dependent clauses or phrases are called fragments because they are missingone or more parts needed to make a sentence. Therefore, they are only pieces orfragments of complete sentences.
  30. 30. Advanced English30Look at these examples:Avoiding Comma Splices and Fused SentencesSometimes two independent clauses (simple sentences) can be joined to form anotherkind of sentence: the compound sentence.26Two major errors can occur when constructingcompound sentences.Error #1: The Comma SpliceWriters make this error when they try to separate the two independent clauses in acompound sentence with a comma alone. A comma is not a strong enough punctuation markto separate the two independent clauses by itself; thus, using it causes the clauses to bespliced together.Example of a comma splice:27This sentence can be repaired in three ways:26The New Fowlers Modern English Usage edited by R.W. Burchfield. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. 1996. Used withthe permission of Oxford University Press.27Longman Guide to English Usage,Practical English Usage The Oxford Companion to the English Language,This messagehas been edited. Last edited by: PromegaX, March 09, 2005.
  31. 31. Advanced English311. By adding an appropriate coordinating conjunction2. By changing the comma to a semicolon3. By changing the punctuation and adding an appropriate conjunctive adverbError #2: The Fused SentenceWriters make this error by joining two independent clauses into a compound sentencewithout using any punctuation between them. No punctuation between the two independentclauses causes them to "fuse" into an incorrect compound sentence.Example of a fused sentence:28This sentence is also repaired in three ways:1. By adding a comma and an appropriate coordinating conjunction28http://www.grammar.about.com/od/fh/g/fusedsentenceterm.htm, fused sentence By Richard Nordquist,retrieved 5/29/2012.For more guiding: http://www.americanheritage.yourdictionary.com/fused-sentence, The American Heritage®Dictionary of the English Language, 4thedition Copyright © 2010 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt PublishingCompany. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.
  32. 32. Advanced English322. By placing a semicolon between the two clauses3. By adding the needed punctuation and an appropriate conjunctive adverbAnother way to repair a comma splice or fused sentence is to make each independentclause into a simple sentence.Sentence Types and PunctuationA sentence may be one of four kinds, depending upon the number and type(s)of clauses it contains.An independent clause contains a subject, a verb, and a complete thought.A dependent clause contains a subject and a verb, but no complete thought.A Simple Sentence has one independent clause.
  33. 33. Advanced English33Punctuation note: NO commas separate compound elements (subject, verb, directobject, indirect object, subjective complement, etc.) in a simple sentence.29A Compound SentenceA Compound Sentence has two independent clauses joined byA. a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so),B. a conjunctive adverb (e.g. however, therefore), orC. a semicolon alone.Punctuation patterns (to match A, B, and C above):A. Independent clause, coordinating conjunction independentclauseB. Independent clause; conjunctive adverb, independent clause.C. Independent clause; independent clause.A Complex SentenceA Complex Sentence has one dependent clause (headed by a subordinatingconjunction or a relative pronouns) joined to an independent clause.29Fries Charles, Carpenter. (1952). The Structure of English; an introduction to the construction of English sentences, NewYork: Harcourt, Brace.
  34. 34. Advanced English34Punctuation patterns (to match A, B, C and D above):A. Dependent clause, independent clauseB. Independent clause dependent clauseC. Independent, nonessential dependent clause, clause.D. Independent essential dependent clause clause.A Compound-Complex SentenceA Compound-Complex Sentence has two independent clauses joined to one or moredependent clauses.Punctuation Patterns:Follow the rules given above for compound and complex sentences.A compound-complex sentence is merely a combination of the two.Connectors-Compound and Complex SentencesTwo independent clauses may be joined by1. Coordinating conjunctions (Fanboys) Ic, and ic
  35. 35. Advanced English352. Conjunctive adverbs Ic; therefore, ic.A dependent (subordinate) Clause may be Introduced by1. Subordinating conjunctions (Adverb Clause) Dc, ic. Or Icdc.2. Relative pronouns (Adjective Clause) I, dc, c. or Idc c.3. Relative pronoun, subordinating conjunctions, or adverbs (NounClause)PunctuationsAdverb clause:Examples:Because she was sick, she didn‘t come to attend thespeech.She didn‘t come to attend the speech because she wassick.An adverb clause may precede or follow anindependent clause.A comma is used if the adverb clause comes first.PrepositionBecause of her sickness, she didn‘t come to attend the speech.She didn‘t come to attend the speech because of her sickness.A preposition is followed by a noun, not by a subject and verb.A comma is usually used if the prepositional phrase precedes the subjectand verb of the independent clause.ConjunctionShe was sick, so she didn‘t come to attend the speech.
  36. 36. Advanced English36A conjunction comes between two independent clauses.Usually a comma is used immediately in front of a conjunction.TransitionHe worked very hard. (;) Therefore, he passed his exams.He worked very hard. (;) He, therefore, he passed his exams.He worked very hard. (;) He passed his exams, therefore.Either a period or a semicolon may be used between the two dependent clauses. Acomma may not be used to separate the clauses.Commas are usually used to set the transition off from the rest of the sentence.Review: Punctuation MarksApostrophesColonsCommasDashesItalicsParenthesesQuotation MarksSemicolonsApostrophe1. To show ownership (to form the possessive case of nouns)Examples
  37. 37. Advanced English372. To show joint ownership with nounsExample3. To show individual ownership with nounsExample4. To show ownership with indefinite pronounsExamplesNote: Do not use an apostrophe to form the possessive case of the personal possessivepronoun its.ExampleDo use an apostrophe with its to mean it is or it hasCorrect
  38. 38. Advanced English385. To form the plural of letters, numbers, and signs, and of words referred to aswords.ExamplesParentheses1. To enclose interrupting elements that added information or identificationExamples2. To enclose figures or letters when used for enumeration within a sentenceExampleDashTo set off parenthetical matterExample
  39. 39. Advanced English39Note: Unlike parentheses, which minimize the importance of the parentheticalmaterial, dashes emphasize parenthetical material.Notice the different emphasis in each sentence.Italics (underlining)1. For words, letters, and figures referred to as suchExamples2. For foreign, technical (including mathematical expressions), or unusual wordsand phrases.Examples3. For titles of books, newspapers, magazines, journals, plays, movies, radio programs,
  40. 40. Advanced English40TV programs, long musical works, long poems, works of art, names of ships and airplanes.ExamplesQuotation Marks1. To enclose titles of minor works: articles, essays, poems, songs, chapters of books,short stories, episodes of radio/TV programs.Examples2. To enclose words used ironically or where the term so-called could be inserted.Examples3. To enclose a direct quotation: a persons exact wordsExampleNote: Do not use quotation marks to enclose indirect quotations.IncorrectCorrect
  41. 41. Advanced English41If the quotation within another quotation is a question or an exclamation, placeappropriate punctuation next to the item concerned.ExamplesQuestion quotation inside statementQuotation:Statement quotation inside question quotationQuestion quotation inside question quotationExclamation quotation inside question quotation or Question quotationinside exclamation quotationNote: Punctuation is the system of symbols (. , ! - : etc) that we use to separatesentences and parts of sentences, and to make their meaning clear. Each symbol is called a"punctuation mark".30The Value of Punctuation30Robbins, Sonia Jaffe. ―Punctuation: A Brief History.‖ Editing Workshop, Journalism Department. New York University,Journalism Department, NYU Web (2005, January 16) See morehttp://www.englishclub.com/writing/punctuation.htm retrieved on 5/18/2012.
  42. 42. Advanced English42An English teacher wrote these words on the board:31Woman without her man is nothing.The teacher then asked the students to punctuate the words correctly. The menwrote the top line. The women wrote the bottom line.Table Chart of Punctuation MarksPunctuation Mark Name Examplefull stop orperiod I like English.comma I speak English, French and Thai.semi-colonI dont often go swimming; Iprefer to play tennis.31Robbins, Sonia Jaffe. ―Punctuation: A Brief History.‖ Editing Workshop, Journalism Department. New York University,Journalism Department, NYU Web (2005, January 16).http://www.nyu.edu/classes/copyXediting/Punctuation.html#history,―A Grammar Toolkit (10.).‖ The AmericanHeritage Book of English Usage: A Practical and Authoritative Guide to Contemporary English [Electronicversion]. (1996). http://www.bartleby.com/64/10.html
  43. 43. Advanced English43colonYou have two choices: finish thework today or lose the contract.hyphen This is a rather out-of-date book.dashIn each town—London, Paris andRome—we stayed in youthhostels.questionmark Where is Shangri-La?exclamationmarkexclamationpoint (AmE)"Help!" she cried. "Imdrowning!"slash,forward slashor obliquePlease press your browsersRefresh/Reload button.backslash C:UsersFilesjse.docdoublequotationmarks"I love you," she said.singlequotationmarks I love you, she said.
  44. 44. Advanced English44apostrophe This is Johns car.underline Have you read War and Peace?underscore bin_lad@cia.govroundbracketsI went to Bangkok (my favouritecity) and stayed there for twoweeks.squarebracketsThe newspaper reported that thehostages [most of them French]had been released.ellipsis markOne happy customer wrote: "Thisis the best program...that I haveever seen."The Table of Summary of Punctuation Marks By http://www.englishclub.comEnglish TipsAlthough there are general rules for English punctuation, there are differences of stylebetween, for example, British and American English, some publishers and some writers.Anyone seeking guidance at an advanced level is recommended to consult a style guide(often included in good dictionaries) for their particular variety of English or editorial style.ExerciseWriting Skill in Grammar Structures
  45. 45. Advanced English45Directions: Please write these abbreviate words to be full word and give twoexamples by writing the full sentence:2Ex. S. = Subject I, You, We, They, He, She, It1. N................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2. NP.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3. VP. Or Gerund ing. To................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4. Nprop. Obarma..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5. Ncom. bird................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6. Ncount.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  46. 46. Advanced English467. Nuncount.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................8. Nsing.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................9. Npl.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................10. Art.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................11. Art Def.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................12. Art Indef.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................13. Num.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................14. NumC.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................15. NumO.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  47. 47. Advanced English47........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................16. Aux.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................17. Adj.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................18. Adv.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................19. V.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ExerciseDirections: In the text boxes provided below each item, identify the sentencessimple subject and simple predicate.1. Four young soldiers led the troops into battle.Subject =Predicate =2. In less than two hours, the entire cake had been eaten.Subject =Predicate =3. For most of his career, Jim has ridden his bicycle to his office.Subject =
  48. 48. Advanced English48Predicate =4. Two beautiful goldfish in the pond were eating the insects on the top of the water.Subject =Predicate =5. Until that last telephone call, I was having a wonderful day.Subject =Predicate =6. Last weeks fire was started by an arsonist from a nearby town.Subject =Predicate =7. Her latest statement to the press was carefully worded.Subject =Predicate =8. Novels by E. L. Doctorow are my favorite.Subject =Predicate =9. The farmers in that part of the county are planting their fields this week.Subject =Predicate =10. You eat your food slowly.Subject =Predicate =Answer KeyIdentifying Subjects and Predicates - Exercise 1The correct answers are given below. For help with subjects and predicates,
  49. 49. Advanced English491. Four young soldiers led the troops into battle.Subject = soldiers Predicate = ledYour answers: subject= predicate=2. In less than two hours, the entire cake had been eaten.Subject = cake Predicate = had been eatenYour answers: subject= predicate=3. For most of his career, Jim has ridden his bicycle to his office.Subject = Jim Predicate = has riddenYour answers: subject= predicate=4. Two beautiful goldfish in the pond were eating the insects on the top of the water.Subject = goldfish Predicate = were eatingYour answers: subject= predicate=5. Until that last telephone call, I was having a wonderful day.Subject = I Predicate = was havingYour answers: subject= predicate=6. Last weeks fire was started by an arsonist from a nearby town.Subject = fire Predicate = was startedYour answers: subject= predicate=7. Her latest statement to the press was carefully worded.Subject = statement Predicate = was wordedYour answers: subject= predicate=8. Novels by E. L. Doctorow are my favorite.Subject = novels Predicate = areYour answers: subject= predicate=
  50. 50. Advanced English509. The farmers in that part of the county are planting their fields this week.Subject = farmers Predicate = are plantingYour answers: subject= predicate=10. Eat your food slowly.Subject = "you" understood Predicate = eatYour answers: subject= predicate=Chapter 5Expansion of Phrases to ClausesThis chapter I would like to give you understanding the definition of phrases andclauses, how can we identify phrases and clauses included with explaining and giving theexample about the structure of simple sentences throughout guiding to phrases and clauses,here we‘ll continue what are phrases and clauses.What are Phrases and Clauses?Phrases and clauses are groups of related words that serve as building blocks ofsentences on a larger scale than parts of speech. A clause contains both a subject and a verbwhereas a phrase does not. Understanding phrases and clauses and knowing how to recognizethem help writers create varied sentences and avoid problems such as run-on sentences,fragments, and punctuation errors.32How Can We Identify Phrases and Clauses?A phrase, which generally consists of multiple parts of speech, behaves as a unit like asingle part of speech. In the following examples, note how phrases take on the roles of nouns,verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. (Phrases that begin with a preposition—called ―prepositionalphrases‖—can fulfill various functions, particularly as adjective phrases, adverb phrases, orpart of noun phrases.33)Noun phrases name a person, place, thing, or idea.Buying a home can be a stressful ordeal.My elegant Aunt Ida adores that mangy one-eyed mutt of hers.32http://web.cn.edu/kwheeler/gram_clauses_n_phrases.htmlCopyright Dr. L. Kip Wheeler 1998-2012. Permission is grantedfor non-profit, educational, and student reproduction. Last updated 2 January, 201333http://www.eslgold.com/grammar/clauses_phrases.html/Last updated: 15 February, 2010.
  51. 51. Advanced English51Verb phrases express action or state of being.We may have been mistaken about the car’s reliability.The Sampson twins will be traveling in Belize all next month.Adjective phrases describe nouns.The bird, a beautiful yellow grosbeak, is chirping gleefully.The tree on your left is a popular haven for such species.Adverb phrases describe verbs, adjectives, other adverbs, or even whole sentences.Because of the recent rainfall, our vegetable garden is thriving.I wish all people could live with music in their hearts.Clauses fit into two main categories: independent and dependent.An independent clause may stand alone as a complete sentence because it contains asubject and a verb and forms a complete idea. A sentence made of one independent clause iscalled a ―simple sentence.‖34A sentence made of two or more independent clauses is called a―compound sentence.‖35Note that these distinctions rely on the particular combination ofsubject (underlined) and verb (double-underlined) rather than the length of the sentence.(Uncle Jay’s two Siamese kittens kept me awake all night long with theirconstant mewing and wrestling.)(I sing,] and [she dances.)A dependent clause contains a subject and a verb but does not form a complete idea.(When Laney scratched off the final number on the lottery ticket)Do you feel the suspense?A dependent clause needs an independent clause to finish the thought andbecome a complete sentence. This type of sentence is called a ―complex sentence.‖36A sentence with at least one dependent clause and at least two independent clauses iscalled a ―compound-complex sentence.‖3734Omaggio, Alice C. 1986. Teaching language in context : Proficiency-oriented instruction. Boston: Heinle and Heinle.479pp.35http://www.orl.devry.edu/tutoring/Phrase,%20Clause,%20Sentence.html retrieved on 3/3/2012.36http://www.englishpractice.com/improve/phrases-clauses/ EnglishPractice.com © 2013 - All rights Reserved. Posted on18.3.12.24.3037http://www.englishpractice.com/improve/phrases-clauses/ EnglishPractice.com © 2013 - All rights Reserved. Posted on18.3.12.24.30
  52. 52. Advanced English52(When Laney scratched off the final number on the lottery ticket,) sheremembered the reason for her nickname, Luckless Laney.The movie (that I saw last weekend) wasn’t nearly as good as the popcorn.Mr. Wu will not visit tomorrow (unless he can get his car repaired thisafternoon).Five Basic Structures of Simple SentencesRecognizing the five basic structures of simple sentences can be helpful as you laterbegin to identify subordinate structures that expand these simple structures. At the heart ofany complete sentence, you will find one or more of these basic patterns. Sometimes thepatterns are not obvious as they appear when listed together. However, as you becomefamiliar with these structures, you will become skilled in recognizing and expanding themwith subordinate structures.Basic Pattern Pattern Example1. Subject/Verb Edward laughed.The baby crawls and coos.Spring rain and flowers abound.2. Subject/Verb/Direct Object Margaret recalled a memory.Susan shovels snow.President Obama gave a speech.3. Subject/Verb/Complement The consultant seemed pleasant.All applicants were UM graduates.Our house is sturdy.4. Subject/Verb/Indirect Object/ The new candidate give me hope.Direct Object I offered the candidate mysupport.He gave the child a stern look.5. Subject/Verb/Direct Object/ The girl thinks herself intelligent.Object Complement The children made David ―it.‖Squirrels drove the dogs mad.
  53. 53. Advanced English53You will notice that these basic sentence types can be expanded by dependent(subordinate) structures like dependent adverbial clauses, dependent relative clauses, and thevariety of phrases made up of dependent prepositional, participial, appositive, and absolutephrases. These are all strategies of sentence expansion.Samples of Patterns Expanded with Clauses and PhrasesSubject/Verb expanded with a prepositional phrase:A herd of elk gathered (beside the stream.)New students arrive (at the end of August).Subject/Verb expanded with a dependent relative clause and a prepositionalphrase:The house, (which was originally built in the 1920s), stood (next to an oldmill).Her computer, (which was donated by a colleague), crashed (during a dataanalysis).Subject/Verb/Object expanded with a participial phrase:(Hearing a loud clap of thunder), the campers gathered their gear.(Intending to garner support for his campaign), the politician delivered hisspeech.Subject/Verb/Object expanded with a dependent adverbial clause:The campers packed their gear (while rain soaked the ground).(Although the forecast calls for freezing temperatures), she planted her garden.Subject/Verb/Object expanded with a dependent relative clause:The athlete, (who knew her own prowess), scored a goal.Her father, (who could hardly contain his excitement), let loose a cheer.Subject/Verb/Object expanded with all of the above:(Using all her strength), the athlete, (who knew her own prowess), scored agoal (while her father cheered from the stands).The other three basic sentence patterns can also be expanded in the samemanner.A Guide to Phrases and ClausesPhrases1. Prepositional phrases (over the rainbow)
  54. 54. Advanced English54a. as adjectivesb. as adverbs2. Adjectival phrases (free from government control)3. Verbal –ing phrase [present participle] (running five miles eachday)a. as adjectiveb. as nounc. as adverb (sometimes)4. Verbal –ed phrase [past participle] (written in 2001)a. as adjective5. Verbal to phrase [infinitive] (to win the game)6. Truncated clause [subordinating conjunction + five structures {adjphrase, -ing phrase, -ed phrase, prepositional phrase, noun} ] (when in Rome)7. Noun absolute [noun or pronoun + five structures] (his kneesshaking)8. Noun appositive (the reserve catcher)Clauses9. Dependent adjectival clause (she slept in the barn)a. as a restrictive that clauseb. as a nonrestrictive which clausec. as a restrictive and nonrestrictive who/whom/whose clause10. Dependent adverbial clause (because he enjoyed the specialeffects)11. Dependent noun clause (that he would prevail)See more concerned details in chapter 4 pp.19-25.ExerciseUsing the examples as a guide, expand each sentence or word group below by addingan appropriate adjective clause.
  55. 55. Advanced English55Examples:(1) I admire the person who _____.Sample sentence #1: I admire the person who first dared to eat a tomato.Sample sentence #2: I admire the person who has the courage to speak her mind.(2) The house in which _____ was run down and smelled like boiled cabbage.Sample sentence #1: The house in which my teacher lived was run down andsmelled like boiled cabbage.Sample sentence #2: The house in which the body was found was run down andsmelled like boiled cabbage.A simple sentence may be converted into a complex sentence by expanding a wordor phrase into a subordinate noun clause, adjective clause or adverb clause.Study the following examplesBy expanding a noun into a noun clauseA noun may be expanded into a noun clause.He admitted his mistake.He admitted that he had made a mistake. (Here the noun mistake is expanded intothe noun clause ‗that he had made a mistake‘.)We heard of his death. (Simple)We heard that he had died. (Complex)A noun phrase can also be expanded into a noun clause.He seems to be a fool. (Simple)It seems that he is a fool. (Complex. Here we expand the phrase ‗a fool‘ into theclause ‗that he is a fool‘.)I would like to know the secret of your success. (Simple)I would like to know how you succeed. (Complex)By expanding a word or phrase into an adverb clauseA word or phrase can be expanded into an adverb clause.It is too hot to go out without an umbrella. (Simple)It is so hot that we cannot go out without an umbrella. (Complex)
  56. 56. Advanced English56Seeing the snake, the boy shouted.When the boy saw the snake, he shouted.We didn‘t go out because of the rain.We didn‘t go out because it rained.By expanding a word or phrase into an adjective clauseA simple sentence may be converted into a complex sentence by expanding a word orphrase into an adjective clause.Prudent boys work hard. (Simple)Boys who are prudent work hard. (Complex)Chapter 6Sentence Pattern TransformationsIn this chapter I will try to give an easily example and make a shortly explanationabout the sentence pattern transformations how to write a sentence or clause, by changing theform of the sentence, the other forms, by trying to preserve the original meaning. Or maychange the meaning somewhat, Depending on the purpose of the author himself. Is there away to convert the sentence with a collection of them? The ideas presented are not wellenough. The basic sentence patterns in the English language may be transformed in thefollowing ways:Transform to Passive VoiceThis transformation requires using a sentence with an action verb and a direct object.The sentence may be any of the following patterns:38NP1 + V-tr + NP2 The dog ate the bone.NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP3 Joe gave Mary a ring.NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + Adj We consider Joe intelligent.NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP2 The people made Olaf king.38http://www.towson.edu/ows/sentpatttrans.htmby Margaret L. Benner, benner@towson.edu. For educational purposesonly. All commercial uses strictly prohibited. Copyright © 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005,2004, 2003 Towson University. All rights reserved, Retrieved on 8/4/2012.
  57. 57. Advanced English57To Create the Transformation,1. Make the direct object into the subject,2. Add the "be" auxiliary and the -en ending to the main verb, and3. Place the original doer of the action into a prepositional phrase beginningwith by.Examples:Note: Do not change verb tense when transforming sentences from active to passive.Ate = was eatenGave = was given
  58. 58. Advanced English58Consider = is consideredMade = was madeTransform to the Expletive there is / there areThis transformation requires using a sentence with a verb of being as the main verb.The sentence pattern must beNP1 + V-be + ADV/TP. A fly is on the wall.Two dogs were at the park.To Create the Transformation,1. Place there at the beginning of the sentence and2. Reverse positions of the subject and verb.Examples:Note: Do not change verb tense when creating the there is / there are transformation.is = there isis = There wasare = therewere = there were
  59. 59. Advanced English59Transform to Cleft/DivideThis transformation allows the writer to emphasize the sentence subject or object.This transformation may be used with any of the sentence patterns. There are two ways tocreate this transformation.Method 11. Begin the sentence with It and the appropriate number and tense of the verbof being,2. Focus on either the subject or direct object, and3. Create a second half for the sentence that begins with who, whom, orthat.Examples:In the above example, the first cleft transformation emphasizes the subject, dog, usingthree words to refer to the dog: it, dog, and that.The second cleft transformation emphasizes the direct object, bone, using three wordsto refer to the bone: it, bone, and that.
  60. 60. Advanced English60In the above example, the first cleft transformation emphasizes the direct object, Joe,using three words to refer to Joe: it, Joe, and whom.The second cleft transformation emphasizes the subject we, using three words to referto us it, we, and who.Method 21. Begin the sentence with What,2. Follow with the subject and verb, and3. Insert the appropriate tense of the verb of being and follow withthe direct object.Examples:In the above example, the cleft transformation emphasizes the direct object, bone,using two words to refer to bone: what and bone.This cleft transformation emphasizes the direct object, ring, using two words to referto the ring: what and ring.Note: Do not change verb tense when creating the cleft transformation.Past Tense:The dog ate the bone.It was the dog who ate the bone.
  61. 61. Advanced English61It was the bone that the dog ate.What the dog ate was the bone.Present Tense:We consider Joe intelligent.It is Joe whom we consider Intelligent.Past Tense:Joe gave Mary a ring.What Joe gave Mary was a ring.Transform to NegativeThis transformation may be used with any of the sentence patterns.To Create the Negative Transformation1. with a verb of being as the main verb: Add not to the verb.Example2. with an action or linking verb that has an auxiliary verb (have or be): Add not tothe verbExample - action verb
  62. 62. Advanced English62Example - linking verb3. With an action or linking verb that does not have an auxiliary verb: Add not andthe appropriate number and tense of do.Example - action verbExample - linking verbTransform to Interrogative with yes-no answerThis transformation may be used with any of the sentence patterns. To transformsentences into the interrogative with yes-no answer,1. with a verb of being as the main verb: Transpose the position of the subject andthe verb
  63. 63. Advanced English632. with an action or linking verb that has an auxiliary verb (have or be): Transposethe position of the subject and the auxiliary verbExample - action verbExample - linking verb3. With an action or linking verb that does not have an auxiliary verb: Add theappropriate number and tense of doExample - Action verbExample - Linking verbTransform to Interrogative
  64. 64. Advanced English64This transformation provides questions that will produce more than a yes/no answer.It may be used with any of the sentence patterns.To create the transformation,1. Place an interrogative word at the beginning of the sentence,2. Reverse positions of the subject and verb, and3. Add do/does/did if needed (action or linking verb without auxiliary verb).Interrogative Words:how when where why what which who whomExample - verb of beingExample - action verb with auxiliary verbExample - linking verb with auxiliary verbExample - action verb without auxiliary verb
  65. 65. Advanced English65Example - linking verb without auxiliary verbNote: Sentences using which or whose to create the interrogative may not requireadding do/does/did or transposing the positions of the subject and verb.Transform to Emphasis / EmphaticThis transformation may be usedWith all sentence patterns except the verb-of-being patterns.With action or linking verbs that do not have auxiliary verbs.To make the emphatic transformation, place do, does, or did in front of the verb, astense and number dictate.Examples
  66. 66. Advanced English66Transform to ImperativeThis transformation creates a command. It may be used with all sentence patterns. Tomake the imperative transformation, replace the sentence subject with you understood andchange the verb form to its infinitive form without toExamples:Note: There is only one tense, simple present, for the imperative transformation.Transform to ExclamatoryThis transformation creates a surprise statement. It may be used with all sentencepatterns. To make the exclamatory transformation,place what or how at the beginning of the sentencerearrange words in the sentence as neededplace an exclamation point at the end of the sentenceExamples:In many cases, more than one transformation may be performed at a time on a givensentence.Example - passive and interrogative
  67. 67. Advanced English67Example - passive, negative, and interrogative yes-noExample - cleft, emphasis, and interrogative yes-noAnswer the Question Active and PassiveExamples: Change the following active sentences into passive form.She wrote a letter.A letter was written by her.1. Julia rescued three cats.Three cats were rescued by Julia.2. Steven has forgotten the books.The books have been forgotten by Steven.3. The teacher will not open the window.The window will not (won’t) be opened by the teacher.4. Susan is baking a cake.A cake is being baked my Susan5. Tim washed many cars.Many cars were washed by Tim.Examples: Change the following passive sentences into active form.Pasta is being cooked by Jim.Jim is cooking Pasta.
  68. 68. Advanced English681. The words were explained by the teacher yesterday.The teacher explained the words yesterday.2. Many dishes were not washed by my little brother.My little brother didn’t wash many dishes.3. Photos are taken by me.I take photos.4. Housework is done by her.She does housework.5. Kevin asked Dennis a question.Denis was asked a question by Kevin. here change Active to bePassive)ExerciseThe Answer keys of Active and PassiveExercise: Change the following active sentences into passive form.0. She wrote a letter.A letter was written by her.1. Julia rescued three cats.Three cats were rescued by Julia.2. Steven has forgotten the books.The books have been forgotten by Steven.3. The teacher will not open the window.The window will not (won’t) be opened by the teacher.4. Susan is baking a cake.A cake is being baked my Susan5. Tim washed many cars.Many cars were washed by Tim.Exercise: Change the following passive sentences into active form.0. Pasta is being cooked by Jim.Jim is cooking Pasta.
  69. 69. Advanced English691. The words were explained by the teacher yesterday.The teacher explained the words yesterday.2. Many dishes were not washed by my little brother.My little brother didn’t wash many dishes.3. Photos are taken by me.I take photos.4. Housework is done by her.She does housework.5. Kevin asked Dennis a question.Denis was asked a question by Kevin. Active Passive)Complete the correct verb form with the passive.1. A song ..(sing)..........................by Ann now.2. Rice (usually eat) .............................by Thai people nationwide.3. English (teach).......................................by me for more than 20 years.4. Two snakes (kill).................................by my dog yesterday.5. My birthday party (hold) ...............................next Saturday.
  70. 70. Advanced English70Chapter 7Clause and Sentence StructureIn this chapter I would like the learners please remind and remember that every clauseis, in a sense, a miniature sentence. A simple sentence contains only a single clause, while acompound sentence, a complex sentence, or a compound-complex sentence contains at leasttwo clauses.39The Simple SentenceThe most basic type of sentence is the simple sentence, which contains only oneclause. A simple sentence can be as short as one word:40Run!Usually, however, the sentence has a subject as well as a predicate and both thesubject and the predicate may have modifiers. All of the following are simple sentences,because each contains only one clause:39The American Heritage Book of English Usage by American Heritage Dictionaries Hardcover, Houghton Mifflin,www.bookfinder.com/author/american-heritage-publishing-staff/ retrieved on 4/8/2012.40http://www.ehow.com/how_4714536_identify-clauses-sentence-structure.html© 1999-2013 Demand Media, Inc. Use ofthis web site constitutes acceptance of the eHow Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Report Copyright. Ad Choicesen-US,Read more: How to Identify Clauses and Sentence Structure | eHow.comhttp://www.ehow.com/how_4714536_identify-clauses-sentence-structure.html#ixzz2HAb9HiV3,retrieved9/22/2012.
  71. 71. Advanced English71Melt!Ice melts.The ice melts quickly.The ice on the river melts quickly under the warm March sun.Lying exposed without its blanket of snow, the ice on the river melts quickly underthe warm March sun.As you can see, a simple sentence can be quite long -- it is a mistake to think that youcan tell a simple sentence from a compound sentence or a complex sentence simply by itslength.The most natural sentence structure is the simple sentence: it is the first kind whichchildren learn to speak, and it remains by far the most common sentence in the spokenlanguage of people of all ages. In written work, simple sentences can be very effective forgrabbing a readers attention or for summing up an argument, but you have to use them withcare: too many simple sentences can make your writing seem childish.When you do use simple sentences, you should add transitional phrases to connectthem to the surrounding sentences.The Compound SentenceA compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses (or simplesentences) joined by co-ordinating conjunctions like "and," "but," and "or":SimpleCanada is a rich country.SimpleStill, it has many poor people.CompoundCanada is a rich country, but still it has many poor people.Compound sentences are very natural for English speakers -- small children learn touse them early on to connect their ideas and to avoid pausing (and allowing an adult tointerrupt):
  72. 72. Advanced English72Today at school Mr. Moore brought in his pet rabbit, and he showed it to theclass, and I got to pet it, and Kate held it, and we coloured pictures of it, and itate part of my carrot at lunch, and ...41Of course, this is an extreme example, but if you over-use compound sentences inwritten work, your writing might seem immature.A compound sentence is most effective when you use it to create a sense of balance orcontrast between two (or more) equally-important pieces of information:Montréal has better clubs, but Toronto has better cinemas.Special Cases of Compound SentencesThere are two special types of compound sentences which you might want to note.First, rather than joining two simple sentences together, a co-ordinating conjunctionsometimes joins two complex sentences, or one simple sentence and one complex sentence.In this case, the sentence is called a compound-complex sentence:42Compound-ComplexThe package arrived in the morning, but the courier left before Icould check the contents.The second special case involves punctuation. It is possible to join two originallyseparate sentences into a compound sentence using a semicolon instead of a co-ordinatingconjunction:41http://www.ehow.com/how_4714536_identify-clauses-sentence-structure.html© 1999-2013 Demand Media, Inc. Use ofthis web site constitutes acceptance of the How Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Report Copyright. Ad Choicesen-US,Read more: How to Identify Clauses and Sentence Structure | eHow.comhttp://www.ehow.com/how_4714536_identify-clauses-sentence-structure.html#ixzz2HAb9HiV3,retrieved9/22/2012.42http://www.ehow.com/how_4714536_identify-clauses-sentence-structure.html© 1999-2013 Demand Media, Inc. Use ofthis web site constitutes acceptance of the eHow Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Report Copyright. Ad Choicesen-US, Read more: How to Identify Clauses and Sentence Structure | eHow.comhttp://www.ehow.com/how_4714536_identify-clauses-sentence-structure.html#ixzz2HAb9HiV3,retrieved9/22/2012.
  73. 73. Advanced English73Sir John A. Macdonald had a serious drinking problem; whensober, however, he could be a formidable foe in the House ofCommons.Usually, a conjunctive adverb like43"however" or "consequently" will appear nearthe beginning of the second part, but it is not required:The sun rises in the east; it sets in the west.The Complex SentenceA complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one dependentclause. Unlike a compound sentence, however, a complex sentence contains clauses whichare not equal. Consider the following examples:SimpleMy friend invited me to a party. I do not want to go.CompoundMy friend invited me to a party, but I do not want to go.ComplexAlthough my friend invited me to a party, I do not want to go.In the first example, there are two separate simple sentences: "My friend invited me toa party" and "I do not want to go." The second example joins them together into a singlesentence with the co-ordinating conjunction "but," but both parts could still stand asindependent sentences -- they are entirely equal, and the reader cannot tell which is mostimportant. In the third example, however, the sentence has changed quite a bit: the firstclause, "Although my friend invited me to a party," has become incomplete, or a dependentclause.43http://www.ehow.com/how_4714536_identify-clauses-sentence-structure.html© 1999-2013 Demand Media, Inc. Use ofthis web site constitutes acceptance of the eHow Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Report Copyright. Ad Choicesen-US, Read more: How to Identify Clauses and Sentence Structure | eHow.comhttp://www.ehow.com/how_4714536_identify-clauses-sentence-structure.html#ixzz2HAb9HiV3,retrieved9/22/2012.
  74. 74. Advanced English74A complex sentence is very different from a simple sentence or a compound sentencebecause it makes clear which ideas are most important. When you write:My friend invited me to a party. I do not want to go.Or evenMy friend invited me to a party, but I do not want to go.The reader will have trouble knowing which piece of information is most important toyou. When you write the subordinating conjunction "although" at the beginning of the firstclause, however, you make it clear that the fact that your friend invited you is less importantthan, or subordinate, to the fact that you do not want to go.TerminologyCapital letter - use capital letters:To begin sentencesWith the first person subject pronoun "I"For all proper nouns including names, days of the week, month, names ofinstitutions, etc.Nationality adjectives (i.e., Italian)For the first letter in direct speechDeterminer: type - definite articleSubordinate clause - cannot stand aloneMain clause - can stand aloneConnective adverb - other examples include: firstly, finally, etc.
  75. 75. Advanced English75Adjective - modifying following nounConnective conjunction - other examples include: and, or, etc.Determiner: type - possessive adjective (also known as possessive pronoun)Determiner: type - demonstrative adjective (including this, that, these, those)Connective: relative pronounPeriod (US English), full stop (British English)CommaUpgradable adjective - these adjectives are already very (Example: wonderfulmeans very good. These adjectives can only be used with extreme modifiers like absolutely,extremely, etc.)44Exclamation mark - used for emphasisModifier - adverb. Other examples include: pretty, very, quite, etc.Question mark - used when asking questionsQuotation marks - used when employing direct speechSee more information on chapter 2 p.16-25English Learning Tip44http://www.ehow.com/how_4714536_identify-clauses-sentence-structure.html© 1999-2013 Demand Media, Inc. Use ofthis web site constitutes acceptance of the eHow Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Report Copyright. Ad Choicesen-US, Read more: How to Identify Clauses and Sentence Structure | eHow.comhttp://www.ehow.com/how_4714536_identify-clauses-sentence-structure.html#ixzz2HAb9HiV3,retrieved9/22/2012.
  76. 76. Advanced English76Take a daily English course by subscribing to English Tip of the Day which providesa new English learning tip every day. Each day you will receive an important Englishlearning tip with example sentences. The newsletter also provides links to a quiz of the dayand a worksheet of the day to help you practice your English.Chapter 8Reduction of Adverb Clauses to Modifying PhrasesHere for this part of the chapter, we‘ll take a look and make it clear understandinghow to write the correctly English grammar about reduction of adverb clauses to modifyingphrases. Now I will give you explain and show you easily examples forms of reduction ofadverb clauses to modifying phrases.These modifying phrases are often called ―participial phrases‖ because the main wordis a present participle (-ing form) or sometimes a past participle (-ed form, conveying apassive meaning). If the phrase doesn‘t modify the subject of the main clause, theunacceptable result is called a ―dangling participle‖—the participle has nothing to modify, soit dangles (hangs) unattached to any other word.45For example:While walking by the lake, a fish jumped out of the water.45http://www.docstoc.com/docs/77435586/Reduction-of-Adverb-Clauses-to-Modifying-Adverbial-Phrases © Docstoc®2011. All rights reserved. views:1248,posted:4/20/2011language:Maltese,pages:5
  77. 77. Advanced English77Obviously, the fish wasn‘t walking! But in this sentence walking must refer to fish, sothe whole thing is ungrammatical (as well as unscientific). Here we will start reduction ofadverb clauses to modifying Phrases as followsTime: Since, After, and BeforeGeneral RulesRule 1: If the main verb of the adverb clause is the be verb, omit thesubject and the be verb.While I was walking down the street, I came across a very strange guy.While walking down the street, I came across a very strange guy.Rule 2: If the main verb of the adverb clause is not the be verb, omitthe subject and change the verb to ~ing.Before I go to school in the morning, I usually take a shower.Before going to school in the morning, I usually take a shower.Rule 3: The reduction is possible only when the subjects of the adverb clauseand the main clause are the same. (In very formal English, is sometimes possible touse the different subjects.)(Different subjects)Before he came, I had already finished my homework.[The adverb clause in this sentence cannot be reduced to a phrase.]Since I came to the U.S.A., I have been studying English.
  78. 78. Advanced English78Since coming to the U.S.A., I have been studying English.After I finished my homework, I went to the party. After I had finished myhomework, I went to the party.After finishing my homework, I went to the party.After having finished my homework, I went to the party.Before I came to the U.S.A., I lived in Australia. I lived in Australia before I came tothe U.S.A.Before coming to the U.S.A., I lived in Australia. I lived in Australia before comingto the U.S.A.Reduction of Adverb Clauses to Modifying Phrases (continuous)Time: While (during the same time)While I was watching TV, I heard someone knock on the door.While watching TV, I heard someone knock on the door.Watching TV, I heard someone knock on the door.[While can be omitted.]Cause and EffectBecause he wanted more money, he accepted the offer.Wanting more money, he accepted the offer.[Because is omitted.]Because I didn‘t want to hurt her, I didn‘t tell her the truth.Not wanting to hurt her, I didn‘t tell her the truth.Because I (have) lived in the city before, I have many friends there.Having lived in the city before, I have many friends there.

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