• Save
Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Advanced text book advanced english 1 12 chapters

  • 1,325 views
Uploaded on

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,325
On Slideshare
1,325
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
3

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Advanced English1Chapter 1IntroductionBackground of the History of English LanguageIn this chapter I have tried to conclude the historical background and the importanceof English language. Here this objective for making an understanding particularly the basicknowledge about history and the importance of English language in briefly description.The history of the English language really started with the arrival of three Germanictribes who invaded Britain during the 5thcentury AD. These tribes, the Angles, the Saxonsand the Jutes, crossed the North Sea from what today is Denmark and northern Germany. Atthat time the inhabitants of Britain spoke a Celtic language. But most of the Celtic speakerswere pushed west and north by the invaders - mainly into what is now Wales, Scotland andIreland. The Angles came from "Englaland" and their language was called "Englisc" - fromwhich the words "England" and "English" are derived.1Language is a conventional, arbitrary system of sounds used for communication in ahuman linguistic community. Language is a system at many levels, including the following:2Phonemic: Phonemes are the smallest meaningless components thatconstitute the sound system of a language.Morphemic: Morphemes are the smallest meaningful components of alanguage. For example, the word cats consists of two morphemes, {cat} and {-s}. Morphemes can be grammatical (having dictionary definitions) or lexical (affixesand function words). They can be free (able to stand alone) or bound (complete onlywhen combined with other morphemes. Bound lexical morphemes (or affixes) can beeither derivational (used to create new words) or inflectional (used to signalgrammatical relationships).1 a bShore, Thomas William (1906), Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race – A of the Settlement of England and the Tribal Originof the English People (1nd ed.), London, pp. 3, 393.2All notes are loosely drawn from Pyles and Algeos The Origins and Development of the English Language, 5thedition,Harcourt Brace College Publishers, New York, 2005. Please see Sources, which can be accessed from the mainlobby, for a complete list of references.
  • 2. Advanced English2Syntactic: Syntax governs the way words come together to createsentences. The syntax of English has become less synthetic (grammatical structuresare signaled primarily by inflectional endings) and more analytic (grammaticalstructures are signaled primarily by word order and function words).Semantic: Semantics concerns the meaning of words, including but notlimited to etymologies.Lexical: Lexicology includes spelling, the formation and use of words.F. Stylistic: Linguistic choice and options.Language is a human activity. Though animals can communicate in a primal way,they do not have innate language abilities that allow for an unlimited number of novelutterances. Though some apes have been taught to use sign language (a paralanguage, orparallel system of communication), the breadth of ideas that they express are limited.Language is arbitrary. Aside from echoic words, there is no intrinsic relationship betweenwords and the objects or concepts that they represent. Language is conventional. Language ispassed down from one generation to the next. It is the nature of language to change. Notionsof absolute correctness are imposed by writers, linguists, scholars, etc. and may slow downbut do not prevent the natural process of language evolution. Language is sound. Linguistsare primarily concerned with speech. Writing is a secondary activity. The English languageis one that most widely spread around the world in around the world in using as a universallanguage.English is a West Germanic language that originated from the Anglo-Frisian dialectsbrought to Britain by Germanic invaders and/or settlers from various parts of what is nownorthwest Germany and the Netherlands. Initially, Old English was a diverse group ofdialects, reflecting the varied origins of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Britain. One of thesedialects, Late West Saxon, eventually became predominant.The English language underwent extensive change in the middle Ages. Written OldEnglish of AD 1000 is similar in vocabulary and grammar to other old Germanic languagessuch as Old High German and Old Norse, and completely unintelligible to modern speakers,while the modern language is already largely recognizable in written Middle English of AD1400. The transformation was caused by two further waves of invasion: the first by speakers
  • 3. Advanced English3of the Scandinavian branch of the Germanic language family, who conquered and colonizedparts of Britain in the 8th and 9thcenturies; the second by the Normans in the 11thcentury,who spoke Old Norman and ultimately developed an English variety of this called Anglo-Norman. A large proportion of the modern English vocabulary comes directly from Anglo-Norman.English is a member of the Germanic family of languages. Germanic is abranch of the Indo-European language family. Creative diagram byhttp://www.englishclub.com/english-language-history.htmClose contact with the Scandinavians resulted in a significant grammaticalsimplification and lexical enrichment of the Anglo-Frisian core of English. However, thesechanges had not reached South West England by the 9thcentury AD, where Old English wasdeveloped into a full-fledged literary language. The Norman invasion occurred in 1066, andwhen literary English rose anew in the 13thcentury, it was based on the speech of London,much closer to the centre of Scandinavian settlement. Technical and cultural vocabulary waslargely derived from Old Norman, with particularly heavy influence in the church, the courts,and government. With the coming of the Renaissance, as with most other developingEuropean languages such as German and Dutch, Latin and Ancient Greek supplantedNorman and French as the main source of new words. Thus, English developed into verymuch a "borrowing" language with an enormously disparate vocabulary.3The Importance of English LanguageModern English, sometimes described as the first global lingua franca,4is thedominant language or in some instances even the required international language of3 a bShore, Thomas William (1906), Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race – A of the Settlement of England and the Tribal Originof the English People (1nd ed.), London, pp. 3, 393.4http://www. "Global English: gift or curse?". Retrieved 4 April 2005. a b c dDavid Graddol (1997). ―The Future of
  • 4. Advanced English4communications, science, information technology, business, seafaring, aviation,entertainment, radio and diplomacy.5Its spread beyond the British Isles began with thegrowth of the British Empire, and by the late 19thcentury its reach was truly global.6Following British colonization from the 16thto 19thcenturies, it became the dominantlanguage in the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. The growing economicand cultural influence of the US and its status as a global superpower since World War IIhave significantly accelerated the languages spread across the planet.7English replacedGerman as the dominant language of science Nobel Prize laureates during the second half ofthe 20th century. English equal and may have surpassed French as the dominant language ofdiplomacy during the last half of the 19th century.A working knowledge of English has become a requirement in a number of fields,occupations and professions such as medicine and computing; as a consequence over a billionpeople speak English to at least a basic level (see English as a foreign or second language). Itis one of six official languages of the United Nations.8One impact of the growth of English is the reduction of native linguistic diversity inmany parts of the world. Its influence continues to play an important role in languageattrition. Conversely, the natural internal varieties of English along with creoles and pidginshave the potential to produce new distinct languages from English over time.9Because English is so widely spoken, it has often been referred to as a "worldlanguage", the lingua franca of the modern era,10and while it is not an official language inmost countries, it is currently the language most often taught as a foreign language. It is, byEnglish” (PDF). The British Council. Retrieved 15 April 2007.5http://www."FAQ – Language proficiency requirements for licence holders – In which languages does a licence holderneed to demonstrate proficiency?". International Civil Aviation Organization – Air Navigation Bureau. Retrieved 2June 2011.6McGrath, Charles (2007-05-17). "Magazine Suspends Its Run in History". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-03-08.7http://www. a b c dDavid Graddol (1997). "The Future of English?" (PDF). The British Council. Retrieved 15 April 2007.8"UN official languages". UN.org.9Cheshire, Jenny (1991). English Around The World: Sociolinguistic Perspectives. Cambridge University Press.doi:10.2277/0521395658. ISBN 0-521-39565-8.10http://www.a b c dDavid Graddol (1997). "The Future of English" (PDF). The British Council. Retrieved 15 April 2007.
  • 5. Advanced English5international treaty, the official language for aeronautical11and maritime12communications.English is an official language of the United Nations and many other internationalorganizations, including the International Olympic Committee.English is the language most often studied as a foreign language in the EuropeanUnion, by 89% of schoolchildren, ahead of French at 32%, while the perception of theusefulness of foreign languages among Europeans is 68% in favour of English ahead of 25%for French.13Among some non-English-speaking EU countries, a large percentage of theadult population claims to be able to converse in English – in particular: 85% in Sweden,83% in Denmark, 79% in the Netherlands, 66% in Luxembourg and over 50% in Finland,Slovenia, Austria, Belgium, and Germany.14Books, magazines, and newspapers written in English are available in many countriesaround the world, and English is the most commonly used language in the sciences15withScience Citation Index reporting as early as 1997 that 95% of its articles were written inEnglish, even though only half of them came from authors in English-speaking countries.This increasing use of the English language globally has had a large impact on manyother languages, leading to language shift and even language death,16and to claims oflinguistic imperialism.17English itself has become more open to language shift as multipleregional varieties feed back into the language as a whole.1811http://www."ICAO Promotes Aviation Safety by Endorsing English Language Testing". International Civil AviationOrganization. 13 October 2011.12http:www."IMO Standard Marine Communication Phrases". International Maritime Organization. Archived from theoriginal on 27 December 2003.132006 survey by Eurobarometer, in the Official EU languages website14http://www."IMO Standard Marine Communication Phrases". International Maritime Organization. Archived from theoriginal on 27 December 2003.15http://www.a b c dDavid Graddol (1997). "The Future of English" (PDF). The British Council. Retrieved 15 April 2007.16David Crystal (2000) Language Death, Preface; viii, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge17 a bJambor, Paul Z. English Language Imperialism: Points of View, Journal of English as an International Language,April 2007 – Volume 1, pages 103–123 (Accessed in 2007)18Ibid.p.115.
  • 6. Advanced English6Chapter 2Sentence StructureBasic Sentence StructureAccording to my own experiences in learning English grammar mostly it is notdifficult as many learners feared or worried about. Every word in a sentence serves a specificpurpose within the structure of that particular sentence. According to rules of grammar,sentence structure can sometimes be quite complicated. For the sake of simplicity, however,the basic parts of sentences will discussed here can be made easier to all learner Englishgrammar as follows:Sentence StructureThere are five basic patterns around which most English sentences are built. They areas follows:19S-V Subject-Verb Yota sleeps.Joy is eating.Job will arrive next week.S-V-O Subject-Verb- Object I like rice.Joy loves her job.Jobs eating an orange.S-V-Adj Subject-Verb-Adjective He is good.They are lazy.She seems angry.S-V-Adv Subject-Verb-Adverb Jay is here.Plants are everywhere.19Omaggio, Alice C. 1986. Teaching Language in Context: Proficiency-oriented instruction. Boston: Heinle and Heinle.479pp
  • 7. Advanced English7Nothing was there.S-V-N Subject-Verb-Noun She is my girlfriend.These women are doctors.Mr. Yota is the teacher.Note: At the heart of every English sentence is the Subject-Verb relationship. Otherelements can be added to make a sentence more interesting, but they are not essential to itsformation.The following sentences are examples of the S-V pattern.She sleeps. Core sentenceShe sleeps soundly. An adverb is added to describe how shesleeps.She sleeps on the sofa. A prepositional phrase is added to tellwhere she sleeps.She sleeps every afternoon. A time expression is added to tell whenshe sleeps.She is sleeping right now. Verb tense is changed, but S-Vrelationship remains the same.Mary will sleep later. Subject is named and another tense isused.The dogs are sleeping in the garage. New subject may require a different formof the verb.Note: Any action verb can be used with this sentence pattern. The followingsentences are examples of the S-V-O pattern.They like rice. Core sentence
  • 8. Advanced English8The people like rice. Specific subjectThe friendly people like rice. Subject modified with an adjectiveThe people in the restaurant like rice. Subject modified with an adjectiveThe people like boiled rice. Object modified with an adjectiveThe people like hot, white rice. Object modified with more than oneadjectiveNote: Only transitive action verbs can be used with this sentence pattern.The following sentences are examples of the S-V-Adj. pattern.He is fine. Basic sentence with "be" verbHe seems happy. Basic sentence with another linking verbYota is tall, black & white and handsome. Series of adjectivesHe appears very comfortable. Adverb or intensifier addedGeorge became sick last night. Different tense and linking verbNote: Only linking verbs can be used with this sentence pattern.The following sentences are examples of the S-V-Adv pattern.The teacher is here. Basic sentenceThe teacher is over there. Using an adverb phraseTeachers are everywhere. Plural noun and verb usedThe teachers are in the lobby. Prepositional phrase functioning asadverbNote: Only linking verbs can be used with this sentence pattern.The following sentences are examples of the S-V-N pattern.The man is a doctor. Basic sentence
  • 9. Advanced English9The women are doctors. Using plural noun and verbMy father is a nice guy. Modified subject and complementMy grandparents are senior citizens. Modified plural subject and complementNote: Only linking verbs can be used with this sentence pattern. Other, less commonstructures are dealt with in another unit. See also: parts of sentences: subject, predicate, directobject, indirect object, complements.There are many different ways of organizing words into sentences. (Or we might say,Words can be organized into sentences in many different ways.)20For this reason, describinghow to put a sentence together isnt as easy as explaining how to bake a cake or assemble amodel plane. There are no easy recipes, no step-by-step instructions. But that doesnt meanthat crafting an effective sentence depends on magic or good luck.Experienced writers understand that the basic parts of a sentence can be combined andarranged in countless ways. So as we work to improve our writing, its important tounderstand what these basic structures are and how to use them effectively.Well begin by introducing the traditional parts of speech and the most commonsentence structures. For practice in shaping these words and structures into strong sentences,follow examples, and expanded discussions. The two most basic parts of a sentence are thesubject and predicateSubjects and PredicatesSubjectThe subject of a sentence is the person, place, or thing that isperforming the action of the sentence. The subject represents what or whomthe sentence is about. The simple subject usually contains a noun or pronounand can include modifying words, phrases, or clauses.The monk . . .Predicate20Cheshire, Jenny (1991). English around the World: Sociolinguistic Perspectives, Cambridge University Press.
  • 10. Advanced English10The predicate expresses action or being within the sentence. Thesimple predicate contains the verb and can also contain modifying words,phrases, or clauses.The monk / builds a pagoda.The subject and predicate make up the two basic structural parts of anycomplete sentence. In addition, there are other elements, contained within thesubject or predicate, that add meaning or detail. These elements include thedirect object, indirect object, and subject complement. All of these elementscan be expanded and further combined into simple, compound, complex, orcompound/complex sentences.Direct ObjectThe direct object receives the action of the sentence. The direct objectis usually a noun or pronoun.The monk builds a pagoda.The monk builds it.Indirect ObjectThe indirect object indicates to whom or for whom the action of thesentence is being done. The indirect object is usually a noun or pronoun.The monk builds his temple a pagoda.The monk builds it a pagoda.Subject ComplementA subject complement either renames or describes the subject, andtherefore is usually a noun, pronoun, or adjective. Subject complements occurwhen there is a linking verb within the sentence (often a linking verb is a formof the verb to be).The monk is a good person. ( person = noun which renames the subject)The monk seems kind. ( kind = adjective which describes the subject)Note: As an example of the difference between parts of speech and parts of asentence, a noun can function within a sentence as subject, direct object, indirect object,object of a preposition, or subject complement.
  • 11. Advanced English11Summary of Sentence Pattern1. Basic Sentence PatternsSubject + VerbI swim. Joe swims. They swam.Subject + Verb + ObjectI drive a car. Joe plays the guitar. They ate dinner.Subject + Verb + ComplementI am busy. Joe became a doctor. They look sick.Subject + Verb + Indirect Object + Direct ObjectI gave her a gift. She teaches us English.Subject + Verb + Object + ComplementI left the door open. We elected him president. They named her Jane.2. TensesPresent ContinuousI am swimming. Joe is sleeping. They are jogging.Present SimpleI play tennis. He swims every day. I usually swim for two hours.Present PerfectI have eaten. He has just come home. Theyve already gone.Past SimpleI rested. He played tennis yesterday. They drove to Boston.Past ContinuousI was sleeping. She was cooking a while ago. They were talking.Past PerfectI had already seen it. He had played tennis.
  • 12. Advanced English123. OtherPossessionI have a camera. He owns a car. This house belongs to them.LocationI am here. He swims in the river. They live in the mountains.Its fun to swim. (Using adjectives similar to fun.)It isnt healthy to smoke. Smoking is dangerous.They agreed to swim. (Using verbs similar to agree.)He didnt desire to work. They like to play.They asked him to swim. (Using verbs similar to ask.)He didnt advise me to work. They often encourage me to work harder.They enjoy swimming. (Using verbs similar to enjoy.)He didnt advise me to work. They often encourage me to work harder.Exercise1.1 Please build the sentense following the abbreviate forms below.S-VS-V-OS-V-AdjS-VAdvS-V-N1.2 Please write these sentences to be abbreviate formsHe is fine.He seems happy.Jordan is tall, dark and handsome.
  • 13. Advanced English13He appears very comfortable.George became sick last night.1.3 Please translate these Thai sentenses into English sentenses........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1.4. Please change these English sentenses to be the breviate structural forms (Ex.s+V+N)1. "Igo toschool.....................................................................................................2. Igo home.....................................................................................................3. Happybirthdayto you....................................................................................................4.He passedby....................................................................................................(Subject)+(Verb)+Object)3(Vocabulary)+(Grammar) = Sentence)
  • 14. Advanced English14+Collocation1.5 Please translate these English sentences into Thai sentencesA : How many brothers and sisters do you have?B : I have an older sister and two younger brothers.A : Do you live with your parents?B : Yes, I do. What about you? How many people are there in your family?A : There are six people in my family; my dad, my mom, my older brother, my youngersister, my twin and I.B: How are your family members?A : My parents have got a cold, but the others are fine.B : Hope your parents get well soon.A : Thank you
  • 15. Advanced English15Chapter 3Sentence PatternsBasically in learning process of every language, the understanding of sentencepatterns is one of important thing that all learner need for. The knowledge of how groups ofwords function to convey units of thought further enhances our ability to communicateclearly. This is why we need to know about sentence patterns, the fundamentals of how thoseunits of thought that we call sentences are constructed. Just about all sentences in the Englishlanguage fall into ten patterns determined by the presence and functions of nouns, verbs,adjectives, and adverbs.21Verb of Being PatternsThe patterns are most easily classified according to the type of verb used:22Verb of being patterns (1, 2, 3) use a form of the verb to be as the main verb in thesentence.is are was werehas been have been had beenLinking Verb PatternLinking verb patterns (4, 5) use one of the linking verbs as the main verb in thesentence. The linking verb is followed by a noun or adjective functioning as a subjectivecomplement.smell taste look feel seem become appear grow etc.Action Verb Pattern21http://www.englishmistakeswelcome.com/sentence_patterns.htm retrieved on 12/2/201222http://www.lovekraw.blogspot.com/2012/09/sentence-patterns-1.html retrieved on 4/9/2012
  • 16. Advanced English16Action verb patterns (6, 7, 8, 9,10) use one of the many action verbs as the main verbin the sentence. The action verb may be either transitive (take a direct object) or intransitive(not take a direct object).see jump embrace write imagine buy plummetthink etc.Terms used to identify various parts of each sentence pattern include the following:NP = noun phraseThis abbreviation refers to a headword noun and its modifiers ("noun phrase")functioning as a subject, direct object, indirect object, subjective complement, or objectivecomplement.NP1, NP2, NP3, etc. = designations for different noun phrase functionsNumbers in sequential order are used with each NP to designate its difference from orsimilarity to other NPs before and after it.V-be = verb of beingLV = linking verbV-int = intransitive verbV-tr = transitive verbADV/TP = adverbial of time or placeADJ = adjectiveThe Ten Sentence Patterns1. NP1 + V-be + ADV/TPThe verb of being is followed by an adverb indicating where or when.See more information on subjects form
  • 17. Advanced English17The adverbial indicating where or when may be a prepositional phrase.2. NP1 + V-be + ADJThe verb of being is followed by an adjective that functions as the subjective complement.See more information on subjective complements formThe adjectival functioning as the subjective complement may be a prepositionalphrase.3. NP1 + V-be + NP1The verb of being is followed by a noun that functions as the subjective complement.Note: The second NP receives the same numerical designation as the first NP becausethe second NP, the subjective complement, is the same as the subject (Mr. James = teacher).4. NP1 + LV + ADJ
  • 18. Advanced English18The linking verb is followed by an adjective functioning as a subjective complement.The adjectival functioning as the subjective complement may be a prepositionalphrase.5. NP1 + LV + NP1The linking verb is followed by a noun functioning as a subjective complement.Note: The second NP receives the same numerical designation as the first NPbecause the second NP, the subjective complement, is the same as the subject (Joan =Buddhist).6. NP1 + V-intThe action verb takes no direct object.
  • 19. Advanced English19Even if the action verb is followed by a prepositional phrase, the verb is stillintransitive as long as it does not take a direct object.7. NP1 + V-tr + NP2The action verb is followed by a direct object.See more-information on direct objects formNote: The second NP, the direct object, receives a different numerical designation(NP2) because it is not the same as the subject (NP1).8. NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP3The action verb is followed by an indirect object and then a direct object.See more information on indirect objectsNote: The indirect object and the direct object each receive a new numericaldesignation because each is different from the other and both are different from the subject.
  • 20. Advanced English209. NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + ADJThe action verb is followed by a direct object. The direct object is followed by anadjective functioning as an objective complement.See more information on objective complements formNote: The second NP, the direct object, receives a different numerical designation(NP2) because it is not the same as the subject (NP1).10. NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP2The action verb is followed by a direct object. The direct object is followed by a nounfunctioning as an objective complement.Note: The second NP, the direct object, receives a different numerical designation(NP2) because it is not the same as the subject (NP1). The third NP, the objectivecomplement, receives the same numerical designation as the direct object (NP2) because it isthe same as the direct object (Jacobsen = friend).Exercise3.1. Please build the sentences by use the whole kinds of verb as follows:is are was werehas been have been had been............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  • 21. Advanced English21....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................smell taste look feel seem becomeappear grow....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................see jump embrace write imagine buy think....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3.2 Please write the whole kinds of verb of being or (V. to be)as follows:V-be = verb of being....................................................................................................................................LV = linking verb....................................................................................................................................V-int = intransitive verb........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................V-tr = transitive verb....................................................................................................................................ADV/TP = adverbial of time or place....................................................................................................................................ADJ = adjective....................................................................................................................................
  • 22. Advanced English223.3 Please build the sentences following the structural forms below:NP1 + V-be + ADV/TP........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................NP1 + V-be + ADJ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................NP1 + V-be + NP1..............................................................................................................................................NP1 + LV + ADJ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................NP1 + LV + NP1........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................NP1 + V-int........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................NP1 + V-tr + NP2........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP3........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + ADJ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP2........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  • 23. Advanced English23Chapter 4Elements of Sentence StructuringIn this chapter that I will explain and give the example which it concerned withelements of sentence structuring, there are eight components to consist of each sentence. Partof speech is the common name for a word class--a category into which words are placedaccording to the work they do in a sentence.23Here well be introduced to the eighttraditional parts of speech. Parts of speech have specific tasks to perform when they are puttogether in a sentence. See an example below:Table Chart of Parts of SpeechPart of Speech Basic Function ExamplesNoun names a person, place, or thing pirate, Caribbean, shipPronoun takes the place of a noun I, you, he, she, it, ours, them,whoVerb identifies action or state of being sing, dance, believe, beAdjective modifies a noun hot, lazy, funny23http://www.towson.edu/ows/sentpatttrans.html by Margaret L. Benner, benner@towson.edu. For educational purposesonly. All commercial uses strictly prohibited. Copyright © 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005,2004, 2003 Towson University. All rights reserved. Retrieved on 8/4/2012.
  • 24. Advanced English24Adverbmodifies a verb, adjective, or otheradverbsoftly, lazily, oftenPreposition shows a relationship between a noun (orpronoun) and other words in a sentenceup, over, against, by, forConjunction joins words, phrases, and clauses and, but, or, yetInterjection expresses emotion ah, whoops, ouchSee more details about English grammar in part of speechNote: Though some traditional grammars have treated articles (the, a[n]) as a distinctpart of speech, contemporary grammars more often include articles in the category ofdeterminers.A noun or pronoun functions as the sentence subject when it is paired with a verbfunctioning as the sentence predicate. Every sentence has a subject and predicate.24SubjectA subject can be a noun or pronoun that is partnered with an action verb.Example:24Learn English Network. ―English Grammar – Simple Sentence Construction.‖ Learn English: LEO Network. (2007). Seemore details: http://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/sentencetext.htm#Object.
  • 25. Advanced English25Sometimes a verb will express being or existence instead of action.Example:Sometimes we use sentences in which a subject is not actually stated, but is,nevertheless, understood in the meaning.Example:A sentence like this gives an order or a request to someone.Because we use such statements when we are talking directly to someone, we omit theword you. It is understood in the sentence. Therefore, in statements like this one, we say thesubject isYou (understood).This kind of sentence is an imperative sentence.Predicate
  • 26. Advanced English26A predicate is a verb that expresses the subjects action or state of being.Example:Sometimes the predicate will be composed of two or three verbs that fit together - the mainverb preceded by one or more auxiliary (helping) verbs.Note: To be a predicate, a verb that ends in -ing must always have a helping verbwith it. An -ing verb without a helping verb cannot be a predicate in a sentence. A subjectand predicate may not always appear together or in the normal order, as the followingexamples show:
  • 27. Advanced English27PhrasesA phrase is a group of related words that1. does not express a complete thought2. does not have a subject and predicate pairOne type of phrase is a prepositional phrase.Examples:Another kind of phrase is a verbal phrase.Examples:Even though these phrases contain nouns (pronouns) and/or verb forms, none of thenouns/pronouns/verbs are subjects or predicates. None of them work as a partnership.Also, these phrases do not express complete thoughts.ClausesWords and phrases can be put together to make clauses.A clause is a group of related words that contain a subject and predicate. Notethe difference between phrases and clauses in the following examples:Only one of the clauses is a sentence.Clause #1 gives a thought or an idea that is complete, that can stand by itself,independent of other words.
  • 28. Advanced English28However, clause #2 gives an incomplete thought or idea, one that cannot stand byitself, one that needs some more words to make it whole. The word after changes themeaning, making the thought incomplete, after reading this clause, we are left hanging.These two clauses illustrate the two kinds of clauses:Independent Clauses and Dependent ClausesAn independent clause is a group of words that contains a subject, apredicate, and a complete thought.A dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and apredicate, but does not express a complete thought.Compounding Sentence ElementsWords, phrases, and clauses may be joined to one another inside a sentence with aconjunction. The coordinating conjunctions and, but, or, and nor may join subjects,predicates, adjectives, adverbs, prepositional phrases or dependent clauses within asentence. This process is called "compounding."25The following examples show the processof compoundingWords25http://www.towson.edu/ows/sentpatttrans.htmby Margaret L. Benner, benner@towson.edu. For educational purposesonly. All commercial uses strictly prohibited. Copyright © 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005,2004, 2003 Towson University. All rights reserved, Retrieved on 8/4/2012.
  • 29. Advanced English29PhrasesClausesWhen entire independent clauses (simple sentences) are joined this way, they becomecompound sentences.Avoiding FragmentsA complete sentence needs only two elements:a subject - predicate unit and a complete thoughtIn other words, a simple sentence is actually the same thing as an independentclause.Dependent clauses or phrases are called fragments because they are missingone or more parts needed to make a sentence. Therefore, they are only pieces orfragments of complete sentences.
  • 30. Advanced English30Look at these examples:Avoiding Comma Splices and Fused SentencesSometimes two independent clauses (simple sentences) can be joined to form anotherkind of sentence: the compound sentence.26Two major errors can occur when constructingcompound sentences.Error #1: The Comma SpliceWriters make this error when they try to separate the two independent clauses in acompound sentence with a comma alone. A comma is not a strong enough punctuation markto separate the two independent clauses by itself; thus, using it causes the clauses to bespliced together.Example of a comma splice:27This sentence can be repaired in three ways:26The New Fowlers Modern English Usage edited by R.W. Burchfield. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. 1996. Used withthe permission of Oxford University Press.27Longman Guide to English Usage,Practical English Usage The Oxford Companion to the English Language,This messagehas been edited. Last edited by: PromegaX, March 09, 2005.
  • 31. Advanced English311. By adding an appropriate coordinating conjunction2. By changing the comma to a semicolon3. By changing the punctuation and adding an appropriate conjunctive adverbError #2: The Fused SentenceWriters make this error by joining two independent clauses into a compound sentencewithout using any punctuation between them. No punctuation between the two independentclauses causes them to "fuse" into an incorrect compound sentence.Example of a fused sentence:28This sentence is also repaired in three ways:1. By adding a comma and an appropriate coordinating conjunction28http://www.grammar.about.com/od/fh/g/fusedsentenceterm.htm, fused sentence By Richard Nordquist,retrieved 5/29/2012.For more guiding: http://www.americanheritage.yourdictionary.com/fused-sentence, The American Heritage®Dictionary of the English Language, 4thedition Copyright © 2010 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt PublishingCompany. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.
  • 32. Advanced English322. By placing a semicolon between the two clauses3. By adding the needed punctuation and an appropriate conjunctive adverbAnother way to repair a comma splice or fused sentence is to make each independentclause into a simple sentence.Sentence Types and PunctuationA sentence may be one of four kinds, depending upon the number and type(s)of clauses it contains.An independent clause contains a subject, a verb, and a complete thought.A dependent clause contains a subject and a verb, but no complete thought.A Simple Sentence has one independent clause.
  • 33. Advanced English33Punctuation note: NO commas separate compound elements (subject, verb, directobject, indirect object, subjective complement, etc.) in a simple sentence.29A Compound SentenceA Compound Sentence has two independent clauses joined byA. a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so),B. a conjunctive adverb (e.g. however, therefore), orC. a semicolon alone.Punctuation patterns (to match A, B, and C above):A. Independent clause, coordinating conjunction independentclauseB. Independent clause; conjunctive adverb, independent clause.C. Independent clause; independent clause.A Complex SentenceA Complex Sentence has one dependent clause (headed by a subordinatingconjunction or a relative pronouns) joined to an independent clause.29Fries Charles, Carpenter. (1952). The Structure of English; an introduction to the construction of English sentences, NewYork: Harcourt, Brace.
  • 34. Advanced English34Punctuation patterns (to match A, B, C and D above):A. Dependent clause, independent clauseB. Independent clause dependent clauseC. Independent, nonessential dependent clause, clause.D. Independent essential dependent clause clause.A Compound-Complex SentenceA Compound-Complex Sentence has two independent clauses joined to one or moredependent clauses.Punctuation Patterns:Follow the rules given above for compound and complex sentences.A compound-complex sentence is merely a combination of the two.Connectors-Compound and Complex SentencesTwo independent clauses may be joined by1. Coordinating conjunctions (Fanboys) Ic, and ic
  • 35. Advanced English352. Conjunctive adverbs Ic; therefore, ic.A dependent (subordinate) Clause may be Introduced by1. Subordinating conjunctions (Adverb Clause) Dc, ic. Or Icdc.2. Relative pronouns (Adjective Clause) I, dc, c. or Idc c.3. Relative pronoun, subordinating conjunctions, or adverbs (NounClause)PunctuationsAdverb clause:Examples:Because she was sick, she didn‘t come to attend thespeech.She didn‘t come to attend the speech because she wassick.An adverb clause may precede or follow anindependent clause.A comma is used if the adverb clause comes first.PrepositionBecause of her sickness, she didn‘t come to attend the speech.She didn‘t come to attend the speech because of her sickness.A preposition is followed by a noun, not by a subject and verb.A comma is usually used if the prepositional phrase precedes the subjectand verb of the independent clause.ConjunctionShe was sick, so she didn‘t come to attend the speech.
  • 36. Advanced English36A conjunction comes between two independent clauses.Usually a comma is used immediately in front of a conjunction.TransitionHe worked very hard. (;) Therefore, he passed his exams.He worked very hard. (;) He, therefore, he passed his exams.He worked very hard. (;) He passed his exams, therefore.Either a period or a semicolon may be used between the two dependent clauses. Acomma may not be used to separate the clauses.Commas are usually used to set the transition off from the rest of the sentence.Review: Punctuation MarksApostrophesColonsCommasDashesItalicsParenthesesQuotation MarksSemicolonsApostrophe1. To show ownership (to form the possessive case of nouns)Examples
  • 37. Advanced English372. To show joint ownership with nounsExample3. To show individual ownership with nounsExample4. To show ownership with indefinite pronounsExamplesNote: Do not use an apostrophe to form the possessive case of the personal possessivepronoun its.ExampleDo use an apostrophe with its to mean it is or it hasCorrect
  • 38. Advanced English385. To form the plural of letters, numbers, and signs, and of words referred to aswords.ExamplesParentheses1. To enclose interrupting elements that added information or identificationExamples2. To enclose figures or letters when used for enumeration within a sentenceExampleDashTo set off parenthetical matterExample
  • 39. Advanced English39Note: Unlike parentheses, which minimize the importance of the parentheticalmaterial, dashes emphasize parenthetical material.Notice the different emphasis in each sentence.Italics (underlining)1. For words, letters, and figures referred to as suchExamples2. For foreign, technical (including mathematical expressions), or unusual wordsand phrases.Examples3. For titles of books, newspapers, magazines, journals, plays, movies, radio programs,
  • 40. Advanced English40TV programs, long musical works, long poems, works of art, names of ships and airplanes.ExamplesQuotation Marks1. To enclose titles of minor works: articles, essays, poems, songs, chapters of books,short stories, episodes of radio/TV programs.Examples2. To enclose words used ironically or where the term so-called could be inserted.Examples3. To enclose a direct quotation: a persons exact wordsExampleNote: Do not use quotation marks to enclose indirect quotations.IncorrectCorrect
  • 41. Advanced English41If the quotation within another quotation is a question or an exclamation, placeappropriate punctuation next to the item concerned.ExamplesQuestion quotation inside statementQuotation:Statement quotation inside question quotationQuestion quotation inside question quotationExclamation quotation inside question quotation or Question quotationinside exclamation quotationNote: Punctuation is the system of symbols (. , ! - : etc) that we use to separatesentences and parts of sentences, and to make their meaning clear. Each symbol is called a"punctuation mark".30The Value of Punctuation30Robbins, Sonia Jaffe. ―Punctuation: A Brief History.‖ Editing Workshop, Journalism Department. New York University,Journalism Department, NYU Web (2005, January 16) See morehttp://www.englishclub.com/writing/punctuation.htm retrieved on 5/18/2012.
  • 42. Advanced English42An English teacher wrote these words on the board:31Woman without her man is nothing.The teacher then asked the students to punctuate the words correctly. The menwrote the top line. The women wrote the bottom line.Table Chart of Punctuation MarksPunctuation Mark Name Examplefull stop orperiod I like English.comma I speak English, French and Thai.semi-colonI dont often go swimming; Iprefer to play tennis.31Robbins, Sonia Jaffe. ―Punctuation: A Brief History.‖ Editing Workshop, Journalism Department. New York University,Journalism Department, NYU Web (2005, January 16).http://www.nyu.edu/classes/copyXediting/Punctuation.html#history,―A Grammar Toolkit (10.).‖ The AmericanHeritage Book of English Usage: A Practical and Authoritative Guide to Contemporary English [Electronicversion]. (1996). http://www.bartleby.com/64/10.html
  • 43. Advanced English43colonYou have two choices: finish thework today or lose the contract.hyphen This is a rather out-of-date book.dashIn each town—London, Paris andRome—we stayed in youthhostels.questionmark Where is Shangri-La?exclamationmarkexclamationpoint (AmE)"Help!" she cried. "Imdrowning!"slash,forward slashor obliquePlease press your browsersRefresh/Reload button.backslash C:UsersFilesjse.docdoublequotationmarks"I love you," she said.singlequotationmarks I love you, she said.
  • 44. Advanced English44apostrophe This is Johns car.underline Have you read War and Peace?underscore bin_lad@cia.govroundbracketsI went to Bangkok (my favouritecity) and stayed there for twoweeks.squarebracketsThe newspaper reported that thehostages [most of them French]had been released.ellipsis markOne happy customer wrote: "Thisis the best program...that I haveever seen."The Table of Summary of Punctuation Marks By http://www.englishclub.comEnglish TipsAlthough there are general rules for English punctuation, there are differences of stylebetween, for example, British and American English, some publishers and some writers.Anyone seeking guidance at an advanced level is recommended to consult a style guide(often included in good dictionaries) for their particular variety of English or editorial style.ExerciseWriting Skill in Grammar Structures
  • 45. Advanced English45Directions: Please write these abbreviate words to be full word and give twoexamples by writing the full sentence:2Ex. S. = Subject I, You, We, They, He, She, It1. N................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2. NP.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3. VP. Or Gerund ing. To................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4. Nprop. Obarma..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5. Ncom. bird................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6. Ncount.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  • 46. Advanced English467. Nuncount.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................8. Nsing.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................9. Npl.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................10. Art.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................11. Art Def.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................12. Art Indef.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................13. Num.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................14. NumC.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................15. NumO.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  • 47. Advanced English47........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................16. Aux.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................17. Adj.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................18. Adv.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................19. V.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ExerciseDirections: In the text boxes provided below each item, identify the sentencessimple subject and simple predicate.1. Four young soldiers led the troops into battle.Subject =Predicate =2. In less than two hours, the entire cake had been eaten.Subject =Predicate =3. For most of his career, Jim has ridden his bicycle to his office.Subject =
  • 48. Advanced English48Predicate =4. Two beautiful goldfish in the pond were eating the insects on the top of the water.Subject =Predicate =5. Until that last telephone call, I was having a wonderful day.Subject =Predicate =6. Last weeks fire was started by an arsonist from a nearby town.Subject =Predicate =7. Her latest statement to the press was carefully worded.Subject =Predicate =8. Novels by E. L. Doctorow are my favorite.Subject =Predicate =9. The farmers in that part of the county are planting their fields this week.Subject =Predicate =10. You eat your food slowly.Subject =Predicate =Answer KeyIdentifying Subjects and Predicates - Exercise 1The correct answers are given below. For help with subjects and predicates,
  • 49. Advanced English491. Four young soldiers led the troops into battle.Subject = soldiers Predicate = ledYour answers: subject= predicate=2. In less than two hours, the entire cake had been eaten.Subject = cake Predicate = had been eatenYour answers: subject= predicate=3. For most of his career, Jim has ridden his bicycle to his office.Subject = Jim Predicate = has riddenYour answers: subject= predicate=4. Two beautiful goldfish in the pond were eating the insects on the top of the water.Subject = goldfish Predicate = were eatingYour answers: subject= predicate=5. Until that last telephone call, I was having a wonderful day.Subject = I Predicate = was havingYour answers: subject= predicate=6. Last weeks fire was started by an arsonist from a nearby town.Subject = fire Predicate = was startedYour answers: subject= predicate=7. Her latest statement to the press was carefully worded.Subject = statement Predicate = was wordedYour answers: subject= predicate=8. Novels by E. L. Doctorow are my favorite.Subject = novels Predicate = areYour answers: subject= predicate=
  • 50. Advanced English509. The farmers in that part of the county are planting their fields this week.Subject = farmers Predicate = are plantingYour answers: subject= predicate=10. Eat your food slowly.Subject = "you" understood Predicate = eatYour answers: subject= predicate=Chapter 5Expansion of Phrases to ClausesThis chapter I would like to give you understanding the definition of phrases andclauses, how can we identify phrases and clauses included with explaining and giving theexample about the structure of simple sentences throughout guiding to phrases and clauses,here we‘ll continue what are phrases and clauses.What are Phrases and Clauses?Phrases and clauses are groups of related words that serve as building blocks ofsentences on a larger scale than parts of speech. A clause contains both a subject and a verbwhereas a phrase does not. Understanding phrases and clauses and knowing how to recognizethem help writers create varied sentences and avoid problems such as run-on sentences,fragments, and punctuation errors.32How Can We Identify Phrases and Clauses?A phrase, which generally consists of multiple parts of speech, behaves as a unit like asingle part of speech. In the following examples, note how phrases take on the roles of nouns,verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. (Phrases that begin with a preposition—called ―prepositionalphrases‖—can fulfill various functions, particularly as adjective phrases, adverb phrases, orpart of noun phrases.33)Noun phrases name a person, place, thing, or idea.Buying a home can be a stressful ordeal.My elegant Aunt Ida adores that mangy one-eyed mutt of hers.32http://web.cn.edu/kwheeler/gram_clauses_n_phrases.htmlCopyright Dr. L. Kip Wheeler 1998-2012. Permission is grantedfor non-profit, educational, and student reproduction. Last updated 2 January, 201333http://www.eslgold.com/grammar/clauses_phrases.html/Last updated: 15 February, 2010.
  • 51. Advanced English51Verb phrases express action or state of being.We may have been mistaken about the car’s reliability.The Sampson twins will be traveling in Belize all next month.Adjective phrases describe nouns.The bird, a beautiful yellow grosbeak, is chirping gleefully.The tree on your left is a popular haven for such species.Adverb phrases describe verbs, adjectives, other adverbs, or even whole sentences.Because of the recent rainfall, our vegetable garden is thriving.I wish all people could live with music in their hearts.Clauses fit into two main categories: independent and dependent.An independent clause may stand alone as a complete sentence because it contains asubject and a verb and forms a complete idea. A sentence made of one independent clause iscalled a ―simple sentence.‖34A sentence made of two or more independent clauses is called a―compound sentence.‖35Note that these distinctions rely on the particular combination ofsubject (underlined) and verb (double-underlined) rather than the length of the sentence.(Uncle Jay’s two Siamese kittens kept me awake all night long with theirconstant mewing and wrestling.)(I sing,] and [she dances.)A dependent clause contains a subject and a verb but does not form a complete idea.(When Laney scratched off the final number on the lottery ticket)Do you feel the suspense?A dependent clause needs an independent clause to finish the thought andbecome a complete sentence. This type of sentence is called a ―complex sentence.‖36A sentence with at least one dependent clause and at least two independent clauses iscalled a ―compound-complex sentence.‖3734Omaggio, Alice C. 1986. Teaching language in context : Proficiency-oriented instruction. Boston: Heinle and Heinle.479pp.35http://www.orl.devry.edu/tutoring/Phrase,%20Clause,%20Sentence.html retrieved on 3/3/2012.36http://www.englishpractice.com/improve/phrases-clauses/ EnglishPractice.com © 2013 - All rights Reserved. Posted on18.3.12.24.3037http://www.englishpractice.com/improve/phrases-clauses/ EnglishPractice.com © 2013 - All rights Reserved. Posted on18.3.12.24.30
  • 52. Advanced English52(When Laney scratched off the final number on the lottery ticket,) sheremembered the reason for her nickname, Luckless Laney.The movie (that I saw last weekend) wasn’t nearly as good as the popcorn.Mr. Wu will not visit tomorrow (unless he can get his car repaired thisafternoon).Five Basic Structures of Simple SentencesRecognizing the five basic structures of simple sentences can be helpful as you laterbegin to identify subordinate structures that expand these simple structures. At the heart ofany complete sentence, you will find one or more of these basic patterns. Sometimes thepatterns are not obvious as they appear when listed together. However, as you becomefamiliar with these structures, you will become skilled in recognizing and expanding themwith subordinate structures.Basic Pattern Pattern Example1. Subject/Verb Edward laughed.The baby crawls and coos.Spring rain and flowers abound.2. Subject/Verb/Direct Object Margaret recalled a memory.Susan shovels snow.President Obama gave a speech.3. Subject/Verb/Complement The consultant seemed pleasant.All applicants were UM graduates.Our house is sturdy.4. Subject/Verb/Indirect Object/ The new candidate give me hope.Direct Object I offered the candidate mysupport.He gave the child a stern look.5. Subject/Verb/Direct Object/ The girl thinks herself intelligent.Object Complement The children made David ―it.‖Squirrels drove the dogs mad.
  • 53. Advanced English53You will notice that these basic sentence types can be expanded by dependent(subordinate) structures like dependent adverbial clauses, dependent relative clauses, and thevariety of phrases made up of dependent prepositional, participial, appositive, and absolutephrases. These are all strategies of sentence expansion.Samples of Patterns Expanded with Clauses and PhrasesSubject/Verb expanded with a prepositional phrase:A herd of elk gathered (beside the stream.)New students arrive (at the end of August).Subject/Verb expanded with a dependent relative clause and a prepositionalphrase:The house, (which was originally built in the 1920s), stood (next to an oldmill).Her computer, (which was donated by a colleague), crashed (during a dataanalysis).Subject/Verb/Object expanded with a participial phrase:(Hearing a loud clap of thunder), the campers gathered their gear.(Intending to garner support for his campaign), the politician delivered hisspeech.Subject/Verb/Object expanded with a dependent adverbial clause:The campers packed their gear (while rain soaked the ground).(Although the forecast calls for freezing temperatures), she planted her garden.Subject/Verb/Object expanded with a dependent relative clause:The athlete, (who knew her own prowess), scored a goal.Her father, (who could hardly contain his excitement), let loose a cheer.Subject/Verb/Object expanded with all of the above:(Using all her strength), the athlete, (who knew her own prowess), scored agoal (while her father cheered from the stands).The other three basic sentence patterns can also be expanded in the samemanner.A Guide to Phrases and ClausesPhrases1. Prepositional phrases (over the rainbow)
  • 54. Advanced English54a. as adjectivesb. as adverbs2. Adjectival phrases (free from government control)3. Verbal –ing phrase [present participle] (running five miles eachday)a. as adjectiveb. as nounc. as adverb (sometimes)4. Verbal –ed phrase [past participle] (written in 2001)a. as adjective5. Verbal to phrase [infinitive] (to win the game)6. Truncated clause [subordinating conjunction + five structures {adjphrase, -ing phrase, -ed phrase, prepositional phrase, noun} ] (when in Rome)7. Noun absolute [noun or pronoun + five structures] (his kneesshaking)8. Noun appositive (the reserve catcher)Clauses9. Dependent adjectival clause (she slept in the barn)a. as a restrictive that clauseb. as a nonrestrictive which clausec. as a restrictive and nonrestrictive who/whom/whose clause10. Dependent adverbial clause (because he enjoyed the specialeffects)11. Dependent noun clause (that he would prevail)See more concerned details in chapter 4 pp.19-25.ExerciseUsing the examples as a guide, expand each sentence or word group below by addingan appropriate adjective clause.
  • 55. Advanced English55Examples:(1) I admire the person who _____.Sample sentence #1: I admire the person who first dared to eat a tomato.Sample sentence #2: I admire the person who has the courage to speak her mind.(2) The house in which _____ was run down and smelled like boiled cabbage.Sample sentence #1: The house in which my teacher lived was run down andsmelled like boiled cabbage.Sample sentence #2: The house in which the body was found was run down andsmelled like boiled cabbage.A simple sentence may be converted into a complex sentence by expanding a wordor phrase into a subordinate noun clause, adjective clause or adverb clause.Study the following examplesBy expanding a noun into a noun clauseA noun may be expanded into a noun clause.He admitted his mistake.He admitted that he had made a mistake. (Here the noun mistake is expanded intothe noun clause ‗that he had made a mistake‘.)We heard of his death. (Simple)We heard that he had died. (Complex)A noun phrase can also be expanded into a noun clause.He seems to be a fool. (Simple)It seems that he is a fool. (Complex. Here we expand the phrase ‗a fool‘ into theclause ‗that he is a fool‘.)I would like to know the secret of your success. (Simple)I would like to know how you succeed. (Complex)By expanding a word or phrase into an adverb clauseA word or phrase can be expanded into an adverb clause.It is too hot to go out without an umbrella. (Simple)It is so hot that we cannot go out without an umbrella. (Complex)
  • 56. Advanced English56Seeing the snake, the boy shouted.When the boy saw the snake, he shouted.We didn‘t go out because of the rain.We didn‘t go out because it rained.By expanding a word or phrase into an adjective clauseA simple sentence may be converted into a complex sentence by expanding a word orphrase into an adjective clause.Prudent boys work hard. (Simple)Boys who are prudent work hard. (Complex)Chapter 6Sentence Pattern TransformationsIn this chapter I will try to give an easily example and make a shortly explanationabout the sentence pattern transformations how to write a sentence or clause, by changing theform of the sentence, the other forms, by trying to preserve the original meaning. Or maychange the meaning somewhat, Depending on the purpose of the author himself. Is there away to convert the sentence with a collection of them? The ideas presented are not wellenough. The basic sentence patterns in the English language may be transformed in thefollowing ways:Transform to Passive VoiceThis transformation requires using a sentence with an action verb and a direct object.The sentence may be any of the following patterns:38NP1 + V-tr + NP2 The dog ate the bone.NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP3 Joe gave Mary a ring.NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + Adj We consider Joe intelligent.NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP2 The people made Olaf king.38http://www.towson.edu/ows/sentpatttrans.htmby Margaret L. Benner, benner@towson.edu. For educational purposesonly. All commercial uses strictly prohibited. Copyright © 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005,2004, 2003 Towson University. All rights reserved, Retrieved on 8/4/2012.
  • 57. Advanced English57To Create the Transformation,1. Make the direct object into the subject,2. Add the "be" auxiliary and the -en ending to the main verb, and3. Place the original doer of the action into a prepositional phrase beginningwith by.Examples:Note: Do not change verb tense when transforming sentences from active to passive.Ate = was eatenGave = was given
  • 58. Advanced English58Consider = is consideredMade = was madeTransform to the Expletive there is / there areThis transformation requires using a sentence with a verb of being as the main verb.The sentence pattern must beNP1 + V-be + ADV/TP. A fly is on the wall.Two dogs were at the park.To Create the Transformation,1. Place there at the beginning of the sentence and2. Reverse positions of the subject and verb.Examples:Note: Do not change verb tense when creating the there is / there are transformation.is = there isis = There wasare = therewere = there were
  • 59. Advanced English59Transform to Cleft/DivideThis transformation allows the writer to emphasize the sentence subject or object.This transformation may be used with any of the sentence patterns. There are two ways tocreate this transformation.Method 11. Begin the sentence with It and the appropriate number and tense of the verbof being,2. Focus on either the subject or direct object, and3. Create a second half for the sentence that begins with who, whom, orthat.Examples:In the above example, the first cleft transformation emphasizes the subject, dog, usingthree words to refer to the dog: it, dog, and that.The second cleft transformation emphasizes the direct object, bone, using three wordsto refer to the bone: it, bone, and that.
  • 60. Advanced English60In the above example, the first cleft transformation emphasizes the direct object, Joe,using three words to refer to Joe: it, Joe, and whom.The second cleft transformation emphasizes the subject we, using three words to referto us it, we, and who.Method 21. Begin the sentence with What,2. Follow with the subject and verb, and3. Insert the appropriate tense of the verb of being and follow withthe direct object.Examples:In the above example, the cleft transformation emphasizes the direct object, bone,using two words to refer to bone: what and bone.This cleft transformation emphasizes the direct object, ring, using two words to referto the ring: what and ring.Note: Do not change verb tense when creating the cleft transformation.Past Tense:The dog ate the bone.It was the dog who ate the bone.
  • 61. Advanced English61It was the bone that the dog ate.What the dog ate was the bone.Present Tense:We consider Joe intelligent.It is Joe whom we consider Intelligent.Past Tense:Joe gave Mary a ring.What Joe gave Mary was a ring.Transform to NegativeThis transformation may be used with any of the sentence patterns.To Create the Negative Transformation1. with a verb of being as the main verb: Add not to the verb.Example2. with an action or linking verb that has an auxiliary verb (have or be): Add not tothe verbExample - action verb
  • 62. Advanced English62Example - linking verb3. With an action or linking verb that does not have an auxiliary verb: Add not andthe appropriate number and tense of do.Example - action verbExample - linking verbTransform to Interrogative with yes-no answerThis transformation may be used with any of the sentence patterns. To transformsentences into the interrogative with yes-no answer,1. with a verb of being as the main verb: Transpose the position of the subject andthe verb
  • 63. Advanced English632. with an action or linking verb that has an auxiliary verb (have or be): Transposethe position of the subject and the auxiliary verbExample - action verbExample - linking verb3. With an action or linking verb that does not have an auxiliary verb: Add theappropriate number and tense of doExample - Action verbExample - Linking verbTransform to Interrogative
  • 64. Advanced English64This transformation provides questions that will produce more than a yes/no answer.It may be used with any of the sentence patterns.To create the transformation,1. Place an interrogative word at the beginning of the sentence,2. Reverse positions of the subject and verb, and3. Add do/does/did if needed (action or linking verb without auxiliary verb).Interrogative Words:how when where why what which who whomExample - verb of beingExample - action verb with auxiliary verbExample - linking verb with auxiliary verbExample - action verb without auxiliary verb
  • 65. Advanced English65Example - linking verb without auxiliary verbNote: Sentences using which or whose to create the interrogative may not requireadding do/does/did or transposing the positions of the subject and verb.Transform to Emphasis / EmphaticThis transformation may be usedWith all sentence patterns except the verb-of-being patterns.With action or linking verbs that do not have auxiliary verbs.To make the emphatic transformation, place do, does, or did in front of the verb, astense and number dictate.Examples
  • 66. Advanced English66Transform to ImperativeThis transformation creates a command. It may be used with all sentence patterns. Tomake the imperative transformation, replace the sentence subject with you understood andchange the verb form to its infinitive form without toExamples:Note: There is only one tense, simple present, for the imperative transformation.Transform to ExclamatoryThis transformation creates a surprise statement. It may be used with all sentencepatterns. To make the exclamatory transformation,place what or how at the beginning of the sentencerearrange words in the sentence as neededplace an exclamation point at the end of the sentenceExamples:In many cases, more than one transformation may be performed at a time on a givensentence.Example - passive and interrogative
  • 67. Advanced English67Example - passive, negative, and interrogative yes-noExample - cleft, emphasis, and interrogative yes-noAnswer the Question Active and PassiveExamples: Change the following active sentences into passive form.She wrote a letter.A letter was written by her.1. Julia rescued three cats.Three cats were rescued by Julia.2. Steven has forgotten the books.The books have been forgotten by Steven.3. The teacher will not open the window.The window will not (won’t) be opened by the teacher.4. Susan is baking a cake.A cake is being baked my Susan5. Tim washed many cars.Many cars were washed by Tim.Examples: Change the following passive sentences into active form.Pasta is being cooked by Jim.Jim is cooking Pasta.
  • 68. Advanced English681. The words were explained by the teacher yesterday.The teacher explained the words yesterday.2. Many dishes were not washed by my little brother.My little brother didn’t wash many dishes.3. Photos are taken by me.I take photos.4. Housework is done by her.She does housework.5. Kevin asked Dennis a question.Denis was asked a question by Kevin. here change Active to bePassive)ExerciseThe Answer keys of Active and PassiveExercise: Change the following active sentences into passive form.0. She wrote a letter.A letter was written by her.1. Julia rescued three cats.Three cats were rescued by Julia.2. Steven has forgotten the books.The books have been forgotten by Steven.3. The teacher will not open the window.The window will not (won’t) be opened by the teacher.4. Susan is baking a cake.A cake is being baked my Susan5. Tim washed many cars.Many cars were washed by Tim.Exercise: Change the following passive sentences into active form.0. Pasta is being cooked by Jim.Jim is cooking Pasta.
  • 69. Advanced English691. The words were explained by the teacher yesterday.The teacher explained the words yesterday.2. Many dishes were not washed by my little brother.My little brother didn’t wash many dishes.3. Photos are taken by me.I take photos.4. Housework is done by her.She does housework.5. Kevin asked Dennis a question.Denis was asked a question by Kevin. Active Passive)Complete the correct verb form with the passive.1. A song ..(sing)..........................by Ann now.2. Rice (usually eat) .............................by Thai people nationwide.3. English (teach).......................................by me for more than 20 years.4. Two snakes (kill).................................by my dog yesterday.5. My birthday party (hold) ...............................next Saturday.
  • 70. Advanced English70Chapter 7Clause and Sentence StructureIn this chapter I would like the learners please remind and remember that every clauseis, in a sense, a miniature sentence. A simple sentence contains only a single clause, while acompound sentence, a complex sentence, or a compound-complex sentence contains at leasttwo clauses.39The Simple SentenceThe most basic type of sentence is the simple sentence, which contains only oneclause. A simple sentence can be as short as one word:40Run!Usually, however, the sentence has a subject as well as a predicate and both thesubject and the predicate may have modifiers. All of the following are simple sentences,because each contains only one clause:39The American Heritage Book of English Usage by American Heritage Dictionaries Hardcover, Houghton Mifflin,www.bookfinder.com/author/american-heritage-publishing-staff/ retrieved on 4/8/2012.40http://www.ehow.com/how_4714536_identify-clauses-sentence-structure.html© 1999-2013 Demand Media, Inc. Use ofthis web site constitutes acceptance of the eHow Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Report Copyright. Ad Choicesen-US,Read more: How to Identify Clauses and Sentence Structure | eHow.comhttp://www.ehow.com/how_4714536_identify-clauses-sentence-structure.html#ixzz2HAb9HiV3,retrieved9/22/2012.
  • 71. Advanced English71Melt!Ice melts.The ice melts quickly.The ice on the river melts quickly under the warm March sun.Lying exposed without its blanket of snow, the ice on the river melts quickly underthe warm March sun.As you can see, a simple sentence can be quite long -- it is a mistake to think that youcan tell a simple sentence from a compound sentence or a complex sentence simply by itslength.The most natural sentence structure is the simple sentence: it is the first kind whichchildren learn to speak, and it remains by far the most common sentence in the spokenlanguage of people of all ages. In written work, simple sentences can be very effective forgrabbing a readers attention or for summing up an argument, but you have to use them withcare: too many simple sentences can make your writing seem childish.When you do use simple sentences, you should add transitional phrases to connectthem to the surrounding sentences.The Compound SentenceA compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses (or simplesentences) joined by co-ordinating conjunctions like "and," "but," and "or":SimpleCanada is a rich country.SimpleStill, it has many poor people.CompoundCanada is a rich country, but still it has many poor people.Compound sentences are very natural for English speakers -- small children learn touse them early on to connect their ideas and to avoid pausing (and allowing an adult tointerrupt):
  • 72. Advanced English72Today at school Mr. Moore brought in his pet rabbit, and he showed it to theclass, and I got to pet it, and Kate held it, and we coloured pictures of it, and itate part of my carrot at lunch, and ...41Of course, this is an extreme example, but if you over-use compound sentences inwritten work, your writing might seem immature.A compound sentence is most effective when you use it to create a sense of balance orcontrast between two (or more) equally-important pieces of information:Montréal has better clubs, but Toronto has better cinemas.Special Cases of Compound SentencesThere are two special types of compound sentences which you might want to note.First, rather than joining two simple sentences together, a co-ordinating conjunctionsometimes joins two complex sentences, or one simple sentence and one complex sentence.In this case, the sentence is called a compound-complex sentence:42Compound-ComplexThe package arrived in the morning, but the courier left before Icould check the contents.The second special case involves punctuation. It is possible to join two originallyseparate sentences into a compound sentence using a semicolon instead of a co-ordinatingconjunction:41http://www.ehow.com/how_4714536_identify-clauses-sentence-structure.html© 1999-2013 Demand Media, Inc. Use ofthis web site constitutes acceptance of the How Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Report Copyright. Ad Choicesen-US,Read more: How to Identify Clauses and Sentence Structure | eHow.comhttp://www.ehow.com/how_4714536_identify-clauses-sentence-structure.html#ixzz2HAb9HiV3,retrieved9/22/2012.42http://www.ehow.com/how_4714536_identify-clauses-sentence-structure.html© 1999-2013 Demand Media, Inc. Use ofthis web site constitutes acceptance of the eHow Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Report Copyright. Ad Choicesen-US, Read more: How to Identify Clauses and Sentence Structure | eHow.comhttp://www.ehow.com/how_4714536_identify-clauses-sentence-structure.html#ixzz2HAb9HiV3,retrieved9/22/2012.
  • 73. Advanced English73Sir John A. Macdonald had a serious drinking problem; whensober, however, he could be a formidable foe in the House ofCommons.Usually, a conjunctive adverb like43"however" or "consequently" will appear nearthe beginning of the second part, but it is not required:The sun rises in the east; it sets in the west.The Complex SentenceA complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one dependentclause. Unlike a compound sentence, however, a complex sentence contains clauses whichare not equal. Consider the following examples:SimpleMy friend invited me to a party. I do not want to go.CompoundMy friend invited me to a party, but I do not want to go.ComplexAlthough my friend invited me to a party, I do not want to go.In the first example, there are two separate simple sentences: "My friend invited me toa party" and "I do not want to go." The second example joins them together into a singlesentence with the co-ordinating conjunction "but," but both parts could still stand asindependent sentences -- they are entirely equal, and the reader cannot tell which is mostimportant. In the third example, however, the sentence has changed quite a bit: the firstclause, "Although my friend invited me to a party," has become incomplete, or a dependentclause.43http://www.ehow.com/how_4714536_identify-clauses-sentence-structure.html© 1999-2013 Demand Media, Inc. Use ofthis web site constitutes acceptance of the eHow Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Report Copyright. Ad Choicesen-US, Read more: How to Identify Clauses and Sentence Structure | eHow.comhttp://www.ehow.com/how_4714536_identify-clauses-sentence-structure.html#ixzz2HAb9HiV3,retrieved9/22/2012.
  • 74. Advanced English74A complex sentence is very different from a simple sentence or a compound sentencebecause it makes clear which ideas are most important. When you write:My friend invited me to a party. I do not want to go.Or evenMy friend invited me to a party, but I do not want to go.The reader will have trouble knowing which piece of information is most important toyou. When you write the subordinating conjunction "although" at the beginning of the firstclause, however, you make it clear that the fact that your friend invited you is less importantthan, or subordinate, to the fact that you do not want to go.TerminologyCapital letter - use capital letters:To begin sentencesWith the first person subject pronoun "I"For all proper nouns including names, days of the week, month, names ofinstitutions, etc.Nationality adjectives (i.e., Italian)For the first letter in direct speechDeterminer: type - definite articleSubordinate clause - cannot stand aloneMain clause - can stand aloneConnective adverb - other examples include: firstly, finally, etc.
  • 75. Advanced English75Adjective - modifying following nounConnective conjunction - other examples include: and, or, etc.Determiner: type - possessive adjective (also known as possessive pronoun)Determiner: type - demonstrative adjective (including this, that, these, those)Connective: relative pronounPeriod (US English), full stop (British English)CommaUpgradable adjective - these adjectives are already very (Example: wonderfulmeans very good. These adjectives can only be used with extreme modifiers like absolutely,extremely, etc.)44Exclamation mark - used for emphasisModifier - adverb. Other examples include: pretty, very, quite, etc.Question mark - used when asking questionsQuotation marks - used when employing direct speechSee more information on chapter 2 p.16-25English Learning Tip44http://www.ehow.com/how_4714536_identify-clauses-sentence-structure.html© 1999-2013 Demand Media, Inc. Use ofthis web site constitutes acceptance of the eHow Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Report Copyright. Ad Choicesen-US, Read more: How to Identify Clauses and Sentence Structure | eHow.comhttp://www.ehow.com/how_4714536_identify-clauses-sentence-structure.html#ixzz2HAb9HiV3,retrieved9/22/2012.
  • 76. Advanced English76Take a daily English course by subscribing to English Tip of the Day which providesa new English learning tip every day. Each day you will receive an important Englishlearning tip with example sentences. The newsletter also provides links to a quiz of the dayand a worksheet of the day to help you practice your English.Chapter 8Reduction of Adverb Clauses to Modifying PhrasesHere for this part of the chapter, we‘ll take a look and make it clear understandinghow to write the correctly English grammar about reduction of adverb clauses to modifyingphrases. Now I will give you explain and show you easily examples forms of reduction ofadverb clauses to modifying phrases.These modifying phrases are often called ―participial phrases‖ because the main wordis a present participle (-ing form) or sometimes a past participle (-ed form, conveying apassive meaning). If the phrase doesn‘t modify the subject of the main clause, theunacceptable result is called a ―dangling participle‖—the participle has nothing to modify, soit dangles (hangs) unattached to any other word.45For example:While walking by the lake, a fish jumped out of the water.45http://www.docstoc.com/docs/77435586/Reduction-of-Adverb-Clauses-to-Modifying-Adverbial-Phrases © Docstoc®2011. All rights reserved. views:1248,posted:4/20/2011language:Maltese,pages:5
  • 77. Advanced English77Obviously, the fish wasn‘t walking! But in this sentence walking must refer to fish, sothe whole thing is ungrammatical (as well as unscientific). Here we will start reduction ofadverb clauses to modifying Phrases as followsTime: Since, After, and BeforeGeneral RulesRule 1: If the main verb of the adverb clause is the be verb, omit thesubject and the be verb.While I was walking down the street, I came across a very strange guy.While walking down the street, I came across a very strange guy.Rule 2: If the main verb of the adverb clause is not the be verb, omitthe subject and change the verb to ~ing.Before I go to school in the morning, I usually take a shower.Before going to school in the morning, I usually take a shower.Rule 3: The reduction is possible only when the subjects of the adverb clauseand the main clause are the same. (In very formal English, is sometimes possible touse the different subjects.)(Different subjects)Before he came, I had already finished my homework.[The adverb clause in this sentence cannot be reduced to a phrase.]Since I came to the U.S.A., I have been studying English.
  • 78. Advanced English78Since coming to the U.S.A., I have been studying English.After I finished my homework, I went to the party. After I had finished myhomework, I went to the party.After finishing my homework, I went to the party.After having finished my homework, I went to the party.Before I came to the U.S.A., I lived in Australia. I lived in Australia before I came tothe U.S.A.Before coming to the U.S.A., I lived in Australia. I lived in Australia before comingto the U.S.A.Reduction of Adverb Clauses to Modifying Phrases (continuous)Time: While (during the same time)While I was watching TV, I heard someone knock on the door.While watching TV, I heard someone knock on the door.Watching TV, I heard someone knock on the door.[While can be omitted.]Cause and EffectBecause he wanted more money, he accepted the offer.Wanting more money, he accepted the offer.[Because is omitted.]Because I didn‘t want to hurt her, I didn‘t tell her the truth.Not wanting to hurt her, I didn‘t tell her the truth.Because I (have) lived in the city before, I have many friends there.Having lived in the city before, I have many friends there.
  • 79. Advanced English79[The time in the adverb clause is before the main clause.]Because I had read the book before, I didn‘t read it again.Having read the book before, I didn‘t read it gain.Because she was anxious to see them, she couldn‘t sleep that night.Being anxious to see them, she couldn‘t sleep that night.Anxious to see them, she couldn‘t sleep that night.[Being can be omitted.]Time + Cause & Effect: Upon -ing / On –ingWhen she heard the news, Jennifer burst into tears.[Immediately after she heard the news (and because she heard it), sheburst into tears.]Upon hearing the news, Jennifer burst into tears.On hearing the news, Jennifer burst into tears.Adverb clausesPart 1: Adverb Clauses1. Introduction:Examples:When she was in Miami, she visited manyfriends.She visited many friends when she was inMiami.When she was in Miami: is an adverb clause.She visited many friends: Independent clause.
  • 80. Advanced English80The words used to introduce adverb clauses are called subordinating conjunction.Time:After, before, when, while, as by the time (that), whenever,since, until, as soon as, once, as so long as.Cause and effect:Because, since, now that, as so long as, inasmuch as, so (that), inorder that.Opposition:Even though, although, though, whereas, while.Condition:If, unless, only if, whether or not, even if, providing (that),provided (that), in case (that), in the event (that).2. Time relationships with adverb clausesExamples:After she (had) came, she turned on the radio.After she comes, she will turn on the radio.Before she came, she (had) turned on theradio.Before she comes, she will turn on the radio.The adverb clause contains a present tense while the independentclause contains a future time.When he came, she was turning on the radio.When he came, she had already turned on the radio.When he came, she turned on the radio.When he was out, she turned on the radio.When he comes tomorrow, she will turn on the radio.While she was listening to the radio, he knocked at the door.
  • 81. Advanced English81As she was listening to the radio, he knocked at the door.As, while = during this time.By the time he came, she had already listened the news.By the time he comes, she will listen the news.By the time = one event is completed before another event.She listens to the radio whenever he comes.Whenever = every time whenShe stayed at home until he came.Until = till = to that time and then no longer.She hasn‘t listened to the radio since he came.Since = from that time to the present.As soon as he knocks at the door, she will turn off the radio.Once he knocks at the door, she will turn off the radio.As soon as = once = when one event happens, another Event happens soonafterwards.He won‘t come as long as she smokes.He will never come so long as she doesn‘t call him.As long as = so long as = during all that time, from beginning to end.3. Cause and effect relationships with adverb clausesBecause:Examples:Because he wanted to visit his friends, hewent to Miami.He went to Miami because he wanted to visithis friends.Since:Examples:Since she never heard about cloning, shedecided to not speak about it.Since = becauseNow that:Now that he has a lot of money, he can afford a newcomputer.
  • 82. Advanced English82Now that = because now. It is used for present andfuture situations.As:As they graduated, they were looking for jobs.As = becauseAs/so long as:As long as he works for this company, he can‘t learnanything.As/so long as = becauseInasmuch as (very formal):Inasmuch as anybody is responsible, the situation becomesworse and worse. Inasmuch as = becausePart 2: Other ways of showing cause and effect relationships:1. Such … that and so … that:Such … that encloses a modified noun:Such + adjective +noun + thatSo … that encloses an adjective or adverb:So + adjective + thatSo + adverb + thatExamples:Because the exam was easy, they could passit.(1) It was such easy exam that they could pass it.(2) The exam was so easy that they could pass it.(3) (1), (2) and (3) have the same meaning.So … that is used with many, few, much and little.Examples:They worked so hard that they passed theexam.She made so many mistakes that she failedthe exam.
  • 83. Advanced English83He had so much time that he went to hike.They have so little work to do that they shareit.He has so few books that he wants to buysome.Sometimes in speaking, that is omitted.The exam was so easy that I could pass it.I had so much time that I went to hike.Using “In order to”:In order to = to. It is used to express purpose.It answers the question ―Why‖?Examples:He went to Miami because he wanted to visithis friends.He went to Miami (in order) to visit hisfriends.Don‘t use for with a verb to express purpose.SometimesWe use for to express purpose but with anoun.He went to Miami for business.Using: So …that:So that = in order toSo that = in order that.So that + can:So that is often used rather in order to when the idea of ability isbeing expressed.Examples:He is going to make a registration in order tobe able to take courses.He is going to make a registration so (that) hecan take courses.
  • 84. Advanced English84So that + could:Could is used after so that in past sentences.Examples:He repaired his car in order to enable hisfriend to use it.He repaired his car so (that) his friend coulduse it.May and might, may also be used after that,but are not as common as can and could.So that + will:The use of will after so that gives the idea that someonedoes something in order to make sure that something else is theresult.Examples:She fill her car up in order to make sure thatshe will not run out of gas during her trip across TheNevada desert.She fills her car up so (that) she will not runout of gas during her trip across The Nevada desert.So that would:Would is used in past tense.Examples:Last week, he early left his car in the garagein order to make sure that it would be ready by eleven.Last week, he left leaves his car in the garage so (that)it would be ready by eleven.Using: “because of” and “due to”:Examples:Because she was sick, she didn‘t come toattend the speech.Because of her sickness, she didn‘t come toattend the speech.
  • 85. Advanced English85Due to her sickness, she didn‘t come to attendthe speech.Because is an adverb. It introduces an adverbclause. It is followed by a subject and verb.Because of and due to are prepositions. Theyare followed by a noun object.Sometimes, usually, in more formal writing, due to isfollowed by a noun clause introduced by the fact that. Due to thefact that she was sick, she didn‘t come to attend the speech.Using “therefore”:Examples:He passed his exams because he worked veryhard.Therefore is called a transition (orconjunctive adverb)He worked very hard. Therefore, he passedhis exams.He worked very hard. He, therefore, hepassed his exams.He worked very hard. He passed his exams,therefore.A semicolon may be used instead a period:He worked very hard; therefore, he passed his exams.Consequently is also a transition and has the samemeaning as therefore:He worked very hard. Consequently, he passed hisexams.A transition is used with the second sentence of a pair.It shows the relationship of the second idea to the first idea. Atransition is movable within the second sentence.Part 3: Reduction of Adverb Clauses to Modifying Phrases
  • 86. Advanced English861. Changing time clauses to modifying phrases:Some adverb clauses may be changed to modifyingphrases. The way is the same as changing adjective clauses:Omit the subject and the ‗be‘ form of the verb of thedependant clause:Adverb clause:While she was going home, she runs into a friend.Modifying phrase:While going home, she runs into a friend.If there is no be form of a verb, omit the subject andchange the verb to -ing:Adverb clause: Before he came, he called us.Modifying phrase: Before coming, he called us.While he was reading a book, she knocks at the door.This adverb clause cannot be changed to a modifyingclause because the two clauses have different subjects.While Yota was reading, he felt very upset.While reading, Yota felt very upset.When Sunee was arrived at home, she began to call onher daughter.When arrived at home, Sunee began to call on herdaughter.
  • 87. Advanced English87When the adverb clause is changed to a modifyingphrase, the noun in the adverb clause becomes the subject of theindependent clause.2. Expressing the idea of “During the same time” in modifyingphrases:Examples:While he was reading, he felt very upset.While reading, he felt very upset.Reading, he felt very upset.Going home, she saw an ancient car on the sidewalk.Sometimes while is omitted but the - ing phrase at thebeginning of the sentence gives the same meaning (= during thesame time)3. Expressing cause and effect relationships in modifying phrases:Because is not used in a modifying phrase. It is omitted, but theresulting phrase expresses a cause and effect relationship.Because he worked, he didn‘t come to attend the speech.Working, he didn‘t come to attend the speech.Often an-ing phrase at the beginning of a sentence gives themeaning of ―because‖.Because she has moved, she doesn‘t remember the way to themarket.Having moved, she doesn‘t remember the way to the market.Having + past participle gives the meaning not only of because,but also of before.Because he was unable to afford the truth, he lied a lot.Being unable to afford the truth, he lied a lot.Unable to afford the truth, he lied a lot.The form of be in the adverb clause is often changed to being.The use of being makes the cause and effect relationship clear.
  • 88. Advanced English88Chapter 9The Four Skills of English LanguageIntroductionThis chapter contains suggestions for objectives, strategies, techniques, andactivities appropriate for each stage of our language learning. The guidelines are linked todetailed descriptions of language learning techniques and activities we can use at eachstage. These guidelines can be used in planning language learning lessons for self-directedlanguage learning.Language educators have long used the concepts of four basic language skills:1. Listening2. Speaking
  • 89. Advanced English893. Reading4. Writing46The four basic skills are related to each other by two parameters:1. The mode of communication: oral or written2. The direction of communication: receiving or producing the messageWe may represent the relationships among the skills in the following chart:Oral WrittenReceptive Listening ReadingProductive Speaking WritingTable Chart Created Idea By http://www.sil.org/lingualinksThe following modules will briefly describe some characteristics of each basic skill.Module Group1. Listening comprehension skill2. Speaking skill3. Reading skill4. Writing skillSee also: Index to guidelines by stage and basic language skill47When we learn a language, there are four skills that we need for completecommunication. When we learn our native language, we usually learn to listen first, then to46Anstrom, K., DiCerbo, P., Butler, F., Katz, A., Millet, J., & Rivera, C. (2010). A review of the literature on academicEnglish: Implications for K-12 English language learners. Arlington, VA: The George Washington UniversityCenter for Equity and Excellence. Education.www.ceee.gwu.edu.47http://www.sil.org/links/languagelearning/otherresources/gudlnsfralnggandcprgrm/FourbasicLanguageSkills.htp, this pageis an extract from the LinguaLinks Library, Version 3.5, published on CD-ROM by SIL International, 1999.[Ordering information.] Page content last modified: 15 September 1998
  • 90. Advanced English90speak, then to read, and finally to write. These are called the four "language skills": there isthe connecting process of the four language skills as below:Picture diagram by http://www.englishclub.comThe four language skills are related to each other in two ways:1. the direction of communication (in or out)2. the method of communication (spoken or written)English TipInput is sometimes called "reception" and output is sometimes called"production". Spoken is also known as "oral".48*Note that these four language skills are sometimes called the "macro-skills". This isin contrast to the "micro-skills", which are things like grammar, vocabulary, pronunciationand spelling.Listening SkillsSeveral years back there was a public service announcement that ran on television. Ittalked about the importance of good listening skills and the difference between hearing andlistening. Hearing is a physical ability while listening is a skill. Listening skills allow one tomake sense of and understand what another person is saying. In other words, listening skillsallow us to understand what someone is "talking about". In 1991 the United StatesDepartment of Labor Secretarys Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS)48http://www.englishclub.com/learn-english/language-skills.htm retrieved on 6/1/2012.
  • 91. Advanced English91identified five competencies and three foundation skills that are essential for those enteringthe workforce. Listening skills were among the foundation skills SCANS identified.49Why We Need Good Listening SkillsGood listening skills make workers more productive. The ability to listen carefullywill allow us to:1. Better understand assignments and what is expected of us;2. Build rapport with co-workers, bosses, and clients;3. Show support;4. Work better in a team-based environment;5. Resolve problems with customers, co-workers, and bosses;6. Answer questions; and7. Find underlying meanings in what others say.How to Listen WellThe following guides will help us listen well. Doing these things will alsodemonstrate to the speaker that we are paying attention, While we may in fact be able tolisten while looking down at the floor, doing so may imply that you are not.1. Maintain eye contact;2. Dont interrupt the speaker;3. Sit still;4. Nod our head;5. Lean toward the speaker;6. Repeat instructions and ask appropriate questions when the speaker has finished.A good listener knows that being attentive to what the speaker doesnt say is as49http://careerplanning.about.com/cs/miscskills/a/listening_skill.htm, retrieved on 10/3/2012
  • 92. Advanced English92important as being attentive to what he does say. Look for non-verbal cues such as facialexpressions and posture to get the full gist of what the speaker is telling us.Barriers to ListeningBeware of the following things that may get in the way of listening.1. Bias or prejudice;2. Language differences or accents;3. Noise;4. Worry, fear, or anger; and5. Lack of attention span.Listening Starts EarlyIf we have children we know what its like to feel like were talking to a wall. Kidshave an uncanny ability to appear to be listening to us while actually paying no attention atall. While this is something that may pass with age it is important to help children developgood listening skills early. They will do better in school and we will keep our sanity. As theSCANS report points out, good listening skills will prepare children to eventually succeed inthe workforce.1. When we tell our child to do something, ask him to repeat our instructions;2. Teach our child to maintain eye contact when talking to or listening tosomeone;3. Read out loud to our child and then engage her in a conversation about whatwe have read; and4. Engage our child in age-appropriate activities that promote good listeningskills.What is Active Listening?Imagine that we‘re just sitting down in class to take notes, when the teacherannounces that ―there will be a quiz on this lecture.‖ Suddenly, we‘re more alert. We watchattentively as our teacher speaks and we underline each and every word that is emphasizedor repeated. Each time we sit down to listen to a speaker or a class lecture, we should listen
  • 93. Advanced English93as if we‘re going to be tested on the material. After all, we might be!Here are some tips to help us learn to improve our listening skills:1. Listen for verbal clues. Our teacher will emphasize any important terms andconcepts.2. Watch for nonverbal clues. Eyebrows, hands, pauses, eyes: these features allshow expression when our teacher makes an important point.3. Be mindful of our own reactions. When our teacher says something thatsound interesting, curious, or surprising, go ahead and nod or smile. If theteacher says something boring or unpleasant, try not to have an ugly response.Why? To keep ourselves on track. As long as we‘re managing our reactions,we‘re still listening.4. Avoid making predictions. If we think we know what someone is about tosay, we stop listening and start drifting.5. Focus on the words, not the person. Don‘t get distracted by an ugly dress,weird hairstyle or goofy tie.6. Don‘t get caught up on one detail. Stay on pace.7. Don‘t let our mind wander. Put that food, person, music, or daydream out ofour head and save it for later.Some students struggle to pay attention in class and other study areas because smallbackground noises interfere with their concentration. Background noise does not affect allstudents in the same way. There are a few factors that may determine whether noisedistraction is a problem for us.Noise Distraction and Learning StylesThree of the most commonly recognized learning styles are visual learning, tactilelearning, and auditory learning. It is important to discover our own prominent learning styleto determine how to study most effectively, but its also important to know our learning stylein order to recognize potential problems. Studies have shown that auditory learners are mostdistracted by background noise. But how will we know if we are an auditory learner?
  • 94. Advanced English94Auditory learners often:1. Talk to themselves while reading or studying2. Move their lips while reading3. Are better at speaking than writing4. Spell better out loud5. Have difficulty visualizing things6. Cant follow conversations when the TV is on7. Can mimic songs and tunes well50If we feel that these traits describe our personality, we may need to pay specialattention to our study habits and the location of our study space.Noise Distraction and Personality TypeTwo personality types that we may recognize are introversion and extraversion. It isimportant to know that these types have nothing to do with ability or intelligence; theseterms merely describe the way that different people function. Some students are deepthinkers who tend to talk less than others. These are common traits of introverted students.One study has shown that noise distraction can be more harmful to introvertedstudents than to extroverted students when it comes to study time. Introverted students canexperience more difficulty understanding what they are reading in a noisy environment.Introverts typically:1. Like to work independently2. Are confident about their own opinions3. Think deeply about things4. Reflect and analyze more before acting on something5. Can focus on one thing for a long time50Anstrom, K., DiCerbo, P., Butler, F., Katz, A., Millet, J., & Rivera, C. (2010). A review of the literature on academicEnglish: Implications for K-12 English language learners. Arlington, VA: The George Washington UniversityCenter for Equity and Excellence. Education.www.ceee.gwu.edu.
  • 95. Advanced English956. Enjoy reading7. Are happy in their "own little world"8. Have a few deep friendshipsIf these traits sound familiar to us, we may want to read more about introversion. Wemay discover that you need to adjust your study habits to cut down on the potential for noisedistraction.Avoiding Noise DistractionSometimes we dont realize how much background noise can affect our performance.If we suspect that noise interference is affecting our grades, we should consider thefollowing recommendations.51Turn off the mp3 and other music when you study. We may love our music, but itsnot good for us when were reading.Stay away from the TV when doing homework. Television shows contain plots andconversations that can trick our brain into distraction when we dont even realize it! If ourfamily watches TV on one end of the house during homework time, try to move to the otherend.Buy earplugs. Small, expanding foam earplugs are available at large retail stores andauto stores. Theyre great for blocking out noise.Consider investing in some noise-blocking earphones. This is a more expensivesolution, but it might make a big difference in your homework performance if we have aserious problem with noise distraction.Listening Comprehension SkillListening comprehension is the receptive skill in the oral mode. When we speak of51For more information you may consider:"The Effects of Noise Distraction on SAT Scores," by Janice M. Chatto andLaura ODonnell. Ergonomics, Volume 45, Number 3, 2002,pp. 203-217.
  • 96. Advanced English96listening what we really mean is listening and understanding what we hear. In our firstlanguage, we have all the skills and background knowledge we need to understand what wehear, so we probably arent even aware of how complex a process it is. Here we will brieflydescribe some of what is involved in learning to understand what we hear in a secondlanguage.Listening SituationsThere are two kinds of listening situations in which we find ourselves:1. Interactive, and2. Non-interactiveInteractive listening situations include face-to-face conversations andtelephone calls, in which we are alternately listening and speaking, and in which wehave a chance to ask for clarification, repetition, or slower speech from ourconversation partner. Some non-interactive listening situations are listening to theradio, TV, films, lectures, or sermons. In such situations we usually dont have theopportunity to ask for clarification, slower speech or repetition.Micro-SkillsRichards (1983, cited in Omaggio, 1986, p. 126)52proposes that thefollowing are the micro-skills involved in understanding what someone says to us.The listener has to:1. Retain chunks of language in short-term memory2. Discriminate among the distinctive sounds in the new language3. Recognize stress and rhythm patterns, tone patterns, intonationalcontours4. Recognize reduced forms of words5. Distinguish word boundaries6. Recognize typical word-order patterns52Omaggio, Alice C. 1986. Teaching language in context : Proficiency-oriented instruction. Boston: Heinle and Heinle.479pp.
  • 97. Advanced English977. Recognize vocabulary8. Detect key words, such as those identifying topics and ideas9. Guess meaning from context10. Recognize grammatical word classes11. Recognize basic syntactic patterns12. Recognize cohesive devices13. Detect sentence constituents, such as subject, verb, object,prepositions, and the likeSpeaking SkillsSpeaking is the productive skill in the oral mode. It, like the other skills, is morecomplicated than it seems at first and involves more than just pronouncing words.Speaking SituationsThere are three kinds of speaking situations in which we find ourselves:1. Interactive,2. Partially interactive, and3. Non-Interactive53Create Idea Picture By http://www.englishclub.comInteractive speaking situations include face-to-face conversations and telephone calls,53http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/languagelearning/otherresources/gudlnsfralnggandcltrlrnngprgrm/GudlnsFrALnggAndCltrLrnngPrgrm.htm, this page is an extract from the LinguaLinks Library, Version 3.5, published on CD-ROM by SILInternational, 1999. [Ordering information.] Page content last modified: 15 September 1998.
  • 98. Advanced English98in which we are alternately listening and speaking, and in which we have a chance to ask forclarification, repetition, or slower speech from our conversation partner. Some speakingsituations are partially interactive, such as when giving a speech to a live audience, wherethe convention is that the audience does not interrupt the speech. The speaker neverthelesscan see the audience and judge from the expressions on their faces and body languagewhether or not he or she is being understood.Some few speaking situations may be totally non-interactive, such as when recordinga speech for a radio broadcast.Micro-Skills (Speaking)Here are some of the micro-skills involved in speaking. The speaker has to:1. Pronounce the distinctive sounds of a language clearly enough sothat people can distinguish them. This includes making tonaldistinctions.2. Use stress and rhythmic patterns, and intonation patterns of thelanguage clearly enough so that people can understand what issaid.3. Use the correct forms of words. This may mean, for example,changes in the tense, case, or gender.4. Put words together in correct word order.5. Use vocabulary appropriately.6. Use the register or language variety that is appropriate to thesituation and the relationship to the conversation partner.7. Make clear to the listener the main sentence constituents, such assubject, verb, object, by whatever means the language uses.8. Make the main ideas stand out from supporting ideas orinformation.9. Make the discourse hang together so that people can follow whatyou are saying.5454http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/languagelearning/otherresources/gudlnsfralnggandcltrlrnngprgrm/GudlnsFrALnggAndCltrL
  • 99. Advanced English99Why We Need Good Speaking SkillsThe first step in good communication is to listen effectively. Today‘s trend is awayfrom top-down management, where decisions and policies are proclaimed from above. Goodmanagers now consult a lot with their teams, using them as a resource for information andsuggestions. Good communication skills thus involve good PR skills. Knowing when andhow to release information is an important way of maintaining our image with our teammembers, our clients and the market in general.Basically, our skills as a communicator are felt in nearly all of our business dealings.If we and our team communicate well, we maximize efficiency. We find out about issuesearlier and can deal with them without adding further complications or misunderstandings.Having good communications skills is like having a good IT system - information flowsfaster and this saves our money.How to Speak English WellIt has been said that English is an easy language to learn, but a difficult one tomaster. Speaking functional English is something many people take for granted, butspeaking it well is a rare and powerful ability. Whether English is our native tongue or asecond or third language for us, we can improve our fluency and the power of our speech.Being familiar with the works of William Shakespeare will improve our English. Read more:How to Speak English Well/eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/how speak-english-well.How to Improve Our English SpeakingLearn the rules of English grammar, including rules for word order, sentencestructure, parts of speech, verb conjugation and spelling. Knowing these rules will make iteasier for us to form intelligible sentences in English.Take a course in English language through a school or community organization.There are English as a Second Language (ESL) courses available through a variety ofgroups; some communities even have literacy volunteers to help ESL strengthen theirrnngPrgrm.htm, this page is an extract from the LinguaLinks Library, Version 3.5, published on CD-ROM by SILInternational, 1999. [Ordering information.] Page content last modified: 15 September 1998.
  • 100. Advanced English100communication skills.Listen to native English speakers for cue about proper pronunciation, sentenceformation, slang expressions and variations in speaking etiquette. Linguists will tell us thatthe rules for proper speech lie with the native speaker, so we are likely to learn more byobserving others than to follow the strict guidelines of a textbook.Immerse ourselves in the language by surrounding yourself with native speakersand forcing ourselves to speak English as much as possible. Dont worry about makingmistakes in front of native speakers because our mistakes will only improve our speakingskills in the long run.Watch television shows, listen to radio and read books in English to learn moreabout how native speakers use and pronounce words. The more we hear the language, thebetter we will be able to use it.Watch ourselves in a mirror as we practice speaking English, and observe theshape of our mouth with each sound and word we produce. We may find that yourdifficulties with pronunciation are a result of the ways in which we open our mouth andplace our tongue.Keep a translation dictionary with us so that we can translate unfamiliar words andthen practice using them in a sentence. The best way to enlarge our vocabulary is to make aconscious effort of learning and practicing new words.What is Active Speaking?Sometimes the way we say something means more than the words we use. Here aresome ways we can demonstrate active speaking.RespondQuicklyBegin each customer interaction with an immediateindication that we are ready to help. Use our greetingas soon as we are connected to the listeners.Tone of The only way a listener knows how we feel is by the
  • 101. Advanced English101Voice way we sound. Even if we are feeling stressed andangry, we can use our tone of voice to show thecustomer that you are concerned about their needs andeager to help. Be upbeat.SpeakClearly andConciselyThe best way to represent our knowledge andprofessionalism is to be articulate. Dont assume thatEnglish is the listeners first, or best, language. Usewords that we are comfortable with, and never usejargon.AskQuestionsWe may need to use probing questions to get all of thedetails we need to satisfy the listeners needs.ProvideProgressReportsTheres nothing worse than silence during a phoneconversation. Since the listener cant see we, alwayslet them know that we are continuing to address theirconcerns.SummarizetheResolutionEnd all calls by making sure that the listenerunderstands what we are doing to resolve theirproblem. Summarize what we and the listener will donext and the time frames involved. Make sure thelistener is in agreement.End on aPositiveNoteRemember, people are much more likely to tell othersabout negative experiences. Always assure the listenerthat we will satisfy their needs, and ask if there isanything else we can help them with. Read more: Howto Improve My English Speaking | eHow.comhttp://www.ehow.com/how_7372628_improve-english-speaking.English Tips
  • 102. Advanced English102Dont be discouraged by making mistakes in front of native speakers. Even if theylaugh at our mistakes, we can rest assured that they would sound just as funny if they weretrying to speak our language.Reading SkillsReading is the receptive skill in the written mode. It can develop independently oflistening and speaking skills, but often develops along with them, especially in societies witha highly-developed literary tradition. Reading can help build vocabulary that helps listeningcomprehension at the later stages, particularly.Micro-Skills (Reading)Here are some of the micro-skills involved in reading. The reader has to:1. Decipher the script. In an alphabetic system or a syllabary, this meansestablishing a relationship between sounds and symbols. In apictograph system, it means associating the meaning of the words withwritten symbols.2. Recognize vocabulary.3. Pick out key words, such as those identifying topics and main ideas.4. Figure out the meaning of the words, including unfamiliar vocabulary,from the (written) context.5. Recognize grammatical word classes: noun, adjective, etc.6. Detect sentence constituents, such as subject, verb, object,prepositions, etc.7. Recognize basic syntactic patterns.8. Reconstruct and infer situations, goals and participants.
  • 103. Advanced English1039. Use both knowledge of the world and lexical and grammaticalcohesive devices to make the foregoing inferences, predict outcomes,and infer links and connections among the parts of the text.10. Get the main point or the most important information.11. Distinguish the main idea from supporting details.12. Adjust reading strategies to different reading purposes, such asskimming for main ideas or studying in-depth.55From time to time people have wondered why reading is important. There seem somany other things to do with ones time. Reading is important for a variety of reasons. Wewill look at some of those fundamental reasons below, but it is important to realize thatstruggling with vital reading skills in not a sign a low intelligence. For example, JohnCorcoran, who wrote the teacher who couldnt read, is a very intelligent man.56Hegraduated from high school and college, became a popular high school teacher and later asuccessful business man all without being able to read. Many highly intelligent people havestruggled with reading although, when properly taught, most people can learn to read easilyand quickly.Now, if a man like John Corcoran can succeed without reading, why is readingimportant? A person should really read Mr. Corcorans story to get the feeling of shame,loneliness and fear that he experienced before he learned to read. He was able to succeed inspite of this major handicap because he was a man of intelligence, ability and determination.But, make no mistake it was a handicap that made life harder and less enjoyable.Why Is Reading Important?1. Reading is fundamental to function in todays society. There are many adultswho cannot read well enough to understand the instructions on a medicine bottle. That is ascary thought - especially for their children. Filling out applications becomes impossiblewithout help. Reading road or warning signs is difficult. Even following a map becomes a55Noice, H., and Noice, T. 2000. Two approaches to learning a theatrical script, p. 444–455. In Memory Observed, edited byUlric Neisser and Ira Hyman, Jr. Worth Publishers, New York, N.Y.56Why is reading important, http://www.learn-to-read-prince-george.com/why-is-reading-important.html retrieved on8/9/2012.
  • 104. Advanced English104chore. Day-to-day activities that many people take for granted become a source offrustration, anger and fear.2. Reading is a vital skill in finding a good job. Many well-paying jobs requirereading as a part of job performance. There are reports and memos which must be read andresponded to. Poor reading skills increase the amount of time it takes to absorb and react inthe workplace. A person is limited in what they can accomplish without good reading andcomprehension skills.3. Reading is important because it develops the mind. The mind is a muscle. Itneeds exercise. Understanding the written word is one way the mind grows in its ability.Teaching young children to read helps them develop their language skills. It also helps themlearn to listen. Everybody wants to talk, but few can really listen. Lack of listening skills canresult in major misunderstandings which can lead to job loss, marriage breakup, and otherdisasters - small and great. Reading helps children [and adults] focus on what someone elseis communicating.4. Why is reading important? It is how we discover new things. Books, magazinesand even the Internet are great learning tools which require the ability to read and understandwhat is read. A person who knows how to read can educate themselves in any area of lifethey are interested in. We live in an age where we overflow with information, but reading isthe main way to take advantage of it.5. Reading develops the imagination. TV and computer games have their place, butthey are more like amusement. Amusement comes from two words "a" (non) and "muse"(think). Amusement is non-thinking activities. With reading, a person can go anywhere inthe world...or even out of it! They can be a king, or an adventurer, or a princess, or... Thepossibilities are endless. Non-readers never experience these joys to the same extent.6. In line with the above, reading develops the creative side of people. Whenreading to children, stop every once in awhile and ask them what they think is going tohappen next. Get them thinking about the story. When it is finished, ask if they could thinkof a better ending or anything that would have improved it. If they really liked the story,encourage them to illustrate it with their own drawings or to make up a different story withthe same characters. Get the creative juices flowing!
  • 105. Advanced English1057. Reading is fundamental in developing a good self image. Nonreaders or poorreaders often have low opinions of themselves and their abilities. Many times they feel as ifthe world is against them. They feel isolated [everybody else can read - which isnt true] andbehavior problems can surface. They can perform poorly in other subjects because theycannot read and understand the material and so tend to "give up."8. Why is reading important? Lets keep going... Good reading skills, especially in aphonics reading program, improve spelling. As students learn to sound out letters and words,spelling comes easier. Also, reading helps to expand the vocabulary. Reading new wordsputs them in their mind for later use. Seeing how words are used in different contexts cangive a better understanding of the word usage and definitions than the cold facts of adictionary.9. There is an old saying, "The pen is mightier than the sword." Ideas written downhave changed the destiny of men and nations for better or worse. The flow of ideas cannot bestopped. We need to read and research to build on the good ideas and expose the bad ideasbefore they bring destruction. Only by reading can we be armed in this never-ending, life-and-death struggle.10. The fact of the power of written ideas communicated through reading is afoundational reason why some governments oppose free and honest communication.Illiterate people are easier to control and manipulate. They cannot do their own research andthinking. They must rely on what they are told and how their emotions are swayed. There isa good possibility that this is one of the main reasons phonics was removed from the schoolsabout 100 years ago.11. Finally, why is reading important? Reading is important because words - spokenand written - are the building blocks of life. We are, right now, the result of words that wehave heard or read and believed about ourselves. What we become in the future will dependon the words we believe about ourselves now. People, families, relationships, and evennations are built from words. Think about it. According to Jonathan Kozol in "IlliterateAmerica," quoted in "the teacher who couldnt read," the three main reasons people give for
  • 106. Advanced English106wanting to read are:571. To read the Bible,2. To read books and newspapers, and3. To help their children.I think everyone can conclude that reading is a vital skill! Reading Strategies arealso a part of learning to read.How to Read Well?Before we read, think about why we are reading. Are we reading for entertainment,information or to further knowledge? If we are reading for entertainment, the last thing wewant to do is to speed read, and miss out on the wonderful imagery in that romance novel ormurder mystery. However, if we are reading for information or to further our knowledge,speed reading is the way to go since at least fifty percent of the information is not important.Three Habits Acquired When We Learned to Read1. Regression: We learned to read from left to right, one word at a time.2. Fixation: We focus on one word at a time and break down monosyllabicwords into syllables.3. Sub-vocalization: We read phonetically, breaking down the words in ourminds first before we move on to the next.We learn best when we are in a happy, relaxed environment. The AlphaBrainwave State is best for optimal learning.To Go into Alpha Brainwave State1. Sit down in a comfortable position.2. Close our eyes and let all thoughts drift away.3. Take a few deep breaths, breathing deep into our lungs by flexing ourdiaphragm (we know that we are breathing deeply when our stomach57Why is reading important, http://www.learn-to-read-prince-george.com/why-is-reading-important.html retrieved on8/9/2012.
  • 107. Advanced English107pushes out when we are inhaling).4. With our eyes still closed, look upwards as if we‘re focusing on the pointbetween our eyebrows.5. When we feel a slight pressure, start counting down slowly from ten toone.6. When we reach one, we are now in the alpha state.7. Relax for a few more minutes.8. We are now ready to focus on the task at hand.Basic Rules of Reading Faster1. Read groups of words at a time.2. Never read over what we have already read. Trust that our subconsciouswill get the gist, and later fill in the blanks.3. Move a finger or pen beneath the line we are reading, in a left to rightmanner, to force us to read faster.Go into Alpha Brainwave StatePreview1. For a magazine article – read the first and last paragraph.2. For a journal article – read the abstract, in addition to the first andlast paragraph.For a book: Read the description of the book that‘s given:1. Flip through the book several times using your index finger to movethrough the pages. If we miss a few pages, keep going until the end.And while we are flipping through the book a few times, make surethat we also do it with the book upside down a few times.2. If it‘s a textbook or one filled with diagrams, look at the chaptertitles, all the headings in the book, the words in bold, all diagrams,then flip through the entire book.
  • 108. Advanced English108Create a mind map of what we have learned so far..Overview1. For an article – read the first sentence of each paragraph, remembering toread groups of words at a time.2. For a book – read the first sentence of each chapter then glide our fingerdown the middle of the page.3. Build on the mind map that we have created.Read1. Read group of words at a time and use a pencil on our finger to force us toread faster.2. For a book, spend roughly 30 seconds on each page.3. For a two-page magazine article, spend approximately six and a halfminutes, reading 400 words per minute.4. Complete the mind map, which is a good refresher for what we have read.Summary1. Read with a purpose.2. Skim first.3. Get the reading mechanics right.4. Be judicious in highlighting and note taking.5. Think in pictures.6. Rehearse as we go along.7. Stay within our attention span and work to increase that span.8. Rehearse again soon.
  • 109. Advanced English109Happily Reading?Writing SkillsWriting is the productive skill in the written mode. It, too, is more complicated thanit seems at first, and often seems to be the hardest of the skills, even for native speakers of alanguage, since it involves not just a graphic representation of speech, but the developmentand presentation of thoughts in a structured way.I want to be the good writerMicro-Skills (Writing)Here are some of the micro-skills involved in writing. The writer needs to:1. Use the orthography correctly, including the script, and spelling andpunctuation conventions.2. Use the correct forms of words. This may mean using forms thatexpress the right tense, or case or gender.3. Put words together in correct word order.
  • 110. Advanced English1104. Use vocabulary correctly.5. Use the style appropriate to the genre and audience.6. Make the main sentence constituents, such as subject, verb, andobject, clear to the reader.7. Make the main ideas distinct from supporting ideas or information.8. Make the text coherent, so that other people can follow thedevelopment of the ideas.9. Judge how much background knowledge the audience has on thesubject and make clear what it is assumed they dont know.58Why We Need Good Writing SkillsThere are many reasons to have good writing skills. The most important one Ithink is communication. If we don‘t have good writing skills we will have a hard timecommunicating with our readers. Good writing skills can help us in life. If we‘re trying toget a job, good writing skills make us more desirable to the employer. One of the first thingsan employer looks at is our cover letter or resume. If we have an interesting cover letter itcould lead to an interview. I think even if we‘re just exchanging e-mails. E-mails that areclearly written generally make we seem more intelligent and more responsible.Good writing skills can lead to a monetary value. Lots of people make a livingwriting. I‘m not just talking about people who write books. There are technical writers,copywriters, software writers the list goes on and on. Even if we are not a professionalwriter there is ways to make money with our good writing skills. We could write a blog onthe side. There are endless ways to make some extra money on the internet with endlessamounts of content. It‘s rare to find good content on the internet and when we do sometimesit‘s worth paying for. Without good writing skills the world would be in anarchy and chaos.Bad writing skills can lead to misinformation. Bad writing skills can lead to the wrong orambiguous message. Good writing skills can lead to a much needed confidence boost. Oneof the most important considerations when writing in any style is the purpose of our writing.What is the attended goal of our writing? Is it to argue a point? Is it to describe an event? If58Anstrom, K., DiCerbo, P., Butler, F., Katz, A., Millet, J., & Rivera, C. (2010). A review of the literature on academicEnglish: Implications for K-12 English language learners. Arlington, VA: The George Washington UniversityCenter for Equity and Excellence. Education.www.ceee.gwu.edu.
  • 111. Advanced English111we have a purpose in our writing from the start we are more likely to achieve our goal.Another purpose of good writings skills is to know our audience. All audiencesrequire different styles of writing. If we do not keep this in mind we might produceineffective communication. Good writing skills must be engaging. If it is not interesting noone will want to read it. Another thing to take note of is to keep our writing focused. It iseasy to get side tracked. Always try to be direct and to the point. When people are confidentin there writing skills whether it is a business proposal or just a friendly e-mail we make animpression on people just on we‘re writing skills alone. If we want to have good writingskills read. Read good writing, read bad writing. Learn to tell the difference. One way tomake our writing skills better is to remember simplicity of style: noun, verb, and object; Itworked for Hemingway; he said that his ultimate goal in writing was to create the perfectsentence. Good writing skills are important in professional and personal lives. Don‘t let it bea thorn in our side. It‘s easy to achieve good writing skills if we set our mind to it.How to write Well?The rules of good English are simple. Use smaller and familiar words instead ofbig and unfamiliar words. Note that great writers and thinkers always use simple words. Byusing simple words in our writing, we make it easier for the reader to understand what we aretrying to express. So dont be overwhelmed by all those unknown words in the dictionary.Learn only a small fraction of them number and we will still be able to write well. Goodwriting makes us sound intelligent and look professional. As we probably know these twobenefits will significantly improve our personal and professional life.For a good writer, there is only one measure of success,and that is found in his honoring the complexity and richnessof his subject while telling his story in a lucid way.59While reading we should build up a personal ‗database‘ of special words or phrases.Get a small copy book and list down all striking and unknown words to us. Therefore, be59Joseph Epstein Compiled by Joshua Sowin January 8th, 2007 | Published in Education, Essays, Writinghttp://www.fireandknowledge.org/archives/2007/01/08/a-guide-to-writing-well.
  • 112. Advanced English112regular in breeding a medley of nice words in our special ‗note-book‗. Those precious wordsare our key to write good English. But here, the key tricks are:1) Each time and every single time we read, we should keep growing our ‗database‘of words. Keep looking for new prominent words.2) Make the English dictionary be our bosom English friend – never keep a word inour book without finding and writing down its meaning. Else, do not bother about evenwriting it down – trust me!3) We should pinpoint good critical articles/books, think about what we are readingand in this process be generous to ourselves by taking notes conscientiously of new goldenwords. This is because you are reading rarely and hence we should make those rare readingsworth 10 times the ones that we would read every day. So we have to be very selective andanalytical in what we will read.4) Now that we have a copy-book full of defined words, don‘t just sit around andsmile at it. Go and put them into practice. Start by writing good sentences with these wordsand write some essays. Writing here is pivotal. Just like a car cannot run without a battery, wecannot expect to have fluent English if we do not write English.Support Our Effort to Write Good English with ObservationGoing further in our approach, while reading decent articles, we should see howMr. Yota is using his words in his articles and how he constructs his sentences. Then, withyour analytical and critical reading, coupled with your observation and some personalinsights, you should try to emulate the fresh expressiveness of Mr. Yota. How to do this, yousay? Go and try to write a good English sentence where you can use those words better thanMr. Yota. You will once again be amazed at yourself at how well we performed and you willeven be seeing ourselves gaining momentum and hence writing good English paragraphs. Goreward ourselves after our hard work, you deserve it! I hope this article on ‘how to writegood English’ and my effort to explain it to you, has been fruitful for you. If you do like Iexplain, there is no excuse in not being able to produce good quality English writings. And Iwish you all the best.
  • 113. Advanced English113The most important sentence in any article is the first one. If itdoesn’t induce the reader to proceed to the second sentence,your article is dead. And if the second sentence doesn’t inducehim to continue to the third sentence, it’s equally dead. Of suchprogression of sentences, each tugging the reader forward untilhe is hooked, a writer constructs that fateful unit, the “lead.”60The King Of writerChapter 10Writing Essays and SummariesIntroductionIn the past, writing an essay was a thing to be feared. A dreaded assignment usuallyput off until the last possible moment. A prayer usually accompanied an essay exam…. butwhy? An essay should have a simple form used for the expression of an idea or the proof of a60William Zinsser, On Writing Well, p. 55 http://www.fireandknowledge.org/archives/2007/01/08/a-guide-towriting-well/retrieve on 1/8/2007
  • 114. Advanced English114point.61Unfortunately, until now, all the rules were too nebulous to allow the writer thefreedom found in standardized form. For example, we were told that a paragraph changedwhen the idea changed. What if the idea of my essay was my life story? Should this thenmake my essay one long paragraph?Therefore, we have developed an organized form that gives the writer the frameworkwithin which to express his or her ideas. This method shows when to start each paragraph,what goes into each paragraph, how to end the paragraph, and the order of the paragraphs. Byfollowing the form, the inclusion of extraneous material is prevented and as an eventual sidebenefit teaches the writer to think in a more logical manner. Yet, in spite of all the attention toform, it allows the writer the freedom to express him or herself with all the creativity in theworld.With the use of this writing style, the writer can spend his or her time on theformulations of ideas, not the formation of form.The Basic ParagraphA paragraph is an organized expression of a complete idea. It begins with a topicsentence.62The topic sentence informs the reader as to exactly what will be discussed in theparagraph. It limits the range of the subjects. The next part or body of the paragraph proves orclarifies the topic sentence. Only statements that directly refer to the topic sentence are usedin this section. The end of the paragraph is the clincher sentence. The clincher sentence is theconclusion and may restate the topic sentence as proven. All paragraphs must have abeginning, the middle and an end in the form of a topic sentence, body of proof, and aclincher sentence.The Short EssayTo write a short essay, one simply expands the basic paragraph. This paper beginswith a thesis statement. It is similar to the topic sentence in that it begins the first paragraph61http://www.1.aucegypt.edu/academic/writers/research_internet.htm, by Tom Johnson. tjohnson@aucegypt.edu Lastupdated May 2004.62Strunk, William, Jr. ―III. Elementary Principles of Composition: 9. Make the paragraph the unit of composition: oneparagraph to each topic.‖ The Elements of Style. (1999). see http://www.bartleby.com/141/strunk5.html
  • 115. Advanced English115and all following information must be, in some way, relate to it. A thesis statement is astatement of fact. A fact is something that can be discussed. If it can‘t be discussed, you can‘twrite about it. The thesis statement is followed by major proofs. These are used to prove orclarify the thesis statement. Then, as always, a clincher sentence is used as a conclusion forthe paragraph and restating the thesis.The next section of the essay is the body. It is similar to the body of a simpleparagraph, except that it is a group of paragraphs. Combining the thesis statement with eachof the major proofs forms the topic sentence of each paragraph. (A separate topic sentenceand paragraph is needed for each major proof.) Following the topic sentence, in each case, areminor proofs whose purpose is to directly prove the topic sentence and indirectly prove thethesis statement. Each paragraph in the body is ended with a clincher sentence.The paper is ended with a paragraph of conclusion. This paragraph begins with arestatement of the thesis statement and also restates the major proofs. Any conclusions thatthe writer has conceived are included in this paragraph. This paragraph, as with all others inthis style of writing, ends with a clincher statement. In this case, the clincher restates thethesis as proven.The Simple EssayYota is great.He is funny.He is smart. He is cute.That is why Yota is great.Yota is great because he is funny. He tells jokes. He does funny things. He makeseveryone laugh. Yota is great because he is funny.Yota is great because he is smart. He says smart things. He does smart things. He hassmart friends. Yota is great because he is smart.Yota is great because he is cute. His voice is cute. His ears are cute. He does cutethings. Yota is great because he is cute.
  • 116. Advanced English116So, Yota is great. He is funny. He is smart. He is cute. That is why Yota is great.When understanding this sentence, I believe that every article that you write a letter ordocument to fluently English and are able to communicate and meaningful better. Forexample:According to our telephone conversation regarding your previous request oftransferring your credit to your new account, we have considered all available options alongwith our department head approval per your request. your official request will now beacceptable as an addition account, which will be effective on the first day of January. Shouldthere be any question regarding this matter, please do not hesitate to contact our customerservice at your earliest convenience.This message then hang up, not sure what the author wants to convey. To be held forthe five of us really would not be writing this. But this is just an example and quoted a briefsummary that concisely that...?1. Basically in this form:a) You say it.b) You prove it.c) You say you‘ve proven it.2. Transitions—be it a word, phrase, sentence or paragraph. The use of transitionsmakes your writing more cohesive. Sample Transitions:In addition toIn contrast withAdditionallyOn the other handInterestingly enoughTo begin withFollowing thisSecondly, Thirdly etc.In conclusionConsidering this
  • 117. Advanced English117Taking this into accountAllowing for this, And so on…..Introducing:1. OrganizationParagraph FormPrewriting:Taking NoteSample questions: Sample Notes:What is your first name? YotaWhat is your family name? ChaiworamankulWhere are you from? Buriram, ThailandHow long have lived... ten yearsOrganization of Paragraph FormWhat is a paragraph? A paragraph is a group of related sentences about asingle topic. TitleThe beginning form to writing a paragraph Examples:My classmateFriendshipMy best friendHow to play footballShopping for a used car
  • 118. Advanced English118What is a sentence? S+V....End-of-sentence punctuationCapitalization five rules:1. The first word in a sentence = My name is VenerableYota Chaiworamankul.2. The pronoun I alone. = At first I appeared in Buddhist3. Name of Buddhism and their titles:King BhumipholPresident Baruck ObarmaProfessor Jumnong ThongprasertMr. Mrs. Theerasak, Malinee4. Country = ThailandNationalities = Thailanguages = Thaireligions = Buddhismand ethnic groups = Thai5. Specific places you could find on mapChaophraya River Bangkok ThailandCentral of ThailandFirst StreetSiam Square BangkokEvery time of your practicing will intellect you skillful.ExercisePlease rewrite to be the correct forms
  • 119. Advanced English119Songkran festivalof all the feasts and festivals inthailand, which are many, thesongkran festival is the most striking,for it is widely observed not only inthis country but also in burma,cambodia and the lao state.songkran is a sanskrit word in thaiform which means the entry of thesun into any sign of the zodiac. but the songkran in this particular instance is when the sunenters the sign of aries or the ram. its full name is maha songkran or major songkran todistinguish it from the other ones. but the people call it simply the songkran for it is the onlyone they know and in which they take interest. it is their traditional new year when they canenjoy their holidays to the full with no economic hindrance. songkran is a fixable feast on thesolar calender. it begins on the 13th april and ends on the 15thapril, but occasionally incertain years on the 16th april. the songkran is in fact the celebration of the vernal equinoxsimilar to those of the indian holi festival, the chinese ching ming, and the christian festival ofeaster. the beginning of spring when the sun crosses the equator is now on the 21st of marchwhich is due to the precession of the equinox. the songkran festival is in a certain sense likeapril fools day, when the maids of the village play pranks on any gallant who happens to passby their way. he will be caught and bound by the united strength of the maids and they willdaub him with blacking.information from: "essays on cultural thailand" by office of the national culture commission.……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  • 120. Advanced English120……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………History of Loy Krathonga crowd with flickering light of candles and color of flowers decorating floating object isfamiliar scene in a celebration occurring in a twelfth month in lunar calendar. it is one ofwonderful asian cultures when rivers and canals are full of water. since we have been a kid, iguess everyone must be impressed with this festive occasion in november - loy krathong.most of us are convinced that floating objects or krathongs are originated in sukhothai by taosri chulalak or nang noppamas, who was one of phra ruang‘s wives. however, some assertthat the story was written in the reign of rama iii merely to advocate women on role model of
  • 121. Advanced English121a good wife, as no evidence is found to prove the festival‘s existence. they believe that loykrathong has just been celebrated since the end of ayutthaya. despite the confusing history,this gracious culture is still alive. people still conducts this ritual not only to worship thefootprint of the buddha on a riverside in india, but also to pay respect to chulamanee chedi inheaven. another well-known purpose is to show their gratitude to the goddess of the water ontheir plentiful use of water and ask for forgiveness in the ensuing pollution. moreover, manypeople believe that floating the beautiful krathong away also refers to flying away misfortuneand bad things in the past and asking for good luck in the future.in the past, people in lanna kingdom in the north of thailand also show respect to rivers, butthey use fire instead. they float a lantern like a hot-air balloon in the sky which is called yeepeng. and now we still can find this celebration in chiang mai. interestingly, people otherthan thais have the similar tradition. not far from us, laos float pratips (or our krathong) andlai rue fai (or flowing an ablaze boat) in worship of water goddess. this rite is also used towelcome the buddha after his return from preaching to his mother in the second heaven. incambodia, this period is called Ok Ambok which means worshipping the moon. they floatpratips on a full moon night as well. another neighboring country as burma has the sameculture. they float krathong to worship the buddha and nut or household spirit. lookingupward farther, some of us may be surprised that vietnam, korea and japan have the similarrituals too. they apologize the water goddess and float away ill fortune. it is assumed that theorigin is mahayana Buddhism which was expanded from china. on the other hand, indiansclaim that they are the root of this ceremony derived from Brahmin. this festival is aimed toworship naraya god who sleeps in the milk ocean and he then will throw our sin away.in thailand, people enjoy creating their own krathong made from natural resources, such asleaves and trunks of banana adorned with flowers. some might use bread instead of syntheticmaterials showing their concern for environment. other than flowers, a candle and incensesticks, we often put some coins or betel pepper and nut in our krathongs. and that‘s why ourkrathongs can‘t drift any further as they are raided for little money. nevertheless, loykrathong festival remains the most romantic and favorite occasion for a number of people andstill best represents our gratitude.
  • 122. Advanced English122loy krathong……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………BibliographyEnglish TextsBryant, Margaret (1945). A functional English grammar. D.C. Heath and company.
  • 123. Advanced English123Carter Ronald, McCarthy, Michael (2006). Cambridge Grammar of English: AComprehensive Guide, Cambridge University Press.Cobbett, William (2003, originally 1818). A Grammar of the English Language (OxfordLanguage Classics), Oxford University Press.Cheshire, Jenny (1991). English Around The World: Sociolinguistic Perspectives.Cambridge University Press.David Crystal (2000) Language Death, Preface; viii, Cambridge University Press,Cambridge.Fries Charles, Carpenter. (1952). The structure of English; an introduction to the constructionof English sentences. New York: Harcourt, Brace.Greenbaum, Sidney (1996). Oxford English Grammar, Oxford and New York: OxfordUniversity Press.Greenbaum, Sidney (1990). A Students Grammar of the English Language. Addison WesleyPublishing CompanyHalliday M. A. K; Matthiessen, Christian M. I. M. (revised by) (2004). An Introduction toFunctional Grammar, 3rd. edition. London: Hodder Arnold.Huddleston, Rodney D. (1984) Introduction to the grammar of English. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.Huddleston, Rodney D. (1988) English grammar: An outline. Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press.Huddleston, Rodney D.; Pullum, Geoffrey K., eds (2002). The Cambridge grammar of theEnglish language.Cambridge University Press.Huddleston, Rodney D.; Pullum, Geoffrey K. (2005).A students introduction to English
  • 124. Advanced English124grammar.Cambridge University Press.Jespersen, Otto. (1909–1949). A modern English grammar on historical principles (Vols. 1-7). Heidelberg: C. Winter.Omaggio, Alice C. 1986. Teaching language in context : Proficiency-oriented instruction.Boston: Heinle and Heinle.Schibsbye, Knud (1970). A Modern English Grammar: Second Edition. London: OxfordUniversity Press.Sledd, James. (1959) A short introduction to English grammar Chicago: Scott, Foresman.Strang, Barbara M. H. (1968) Modern English structure (2nd ed.) London: Arnold.Thomson, A. J. (Audrey Jean); Martinet, A. V. (Agnes V.) (1986). A practical Englishgrammar:Fourth Edition. Oxford University Press.The New Fowlers Modern English Usage edited by R.W. Burchfield. Clarendon Press:Oxford, England. 1996. Used with the permission of Oxford University PressZandvoort, R. W. (1972) A handbook of English grammar (2nd ed.) London: Longmans.Websiteshttp://www. a b Shore, Thomas William (1906), Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race-A Study ofthe Settlement of England and the Tribal Origin of the Old England People (1nd ed.),London. Retrieved 4 April 2005http://www.a b c d David Graddol (1997). "The Future of English?" (PDF). The BritishCouncil. Retrieved 15 April 2007.http:www."FAQ – Language proficiency requirements for licence holders – In whichlanguages does a licence holder need to demonstrate proficiency?". International CivilAviation Organization – Air Navigation Bureau. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
  • 125. Advanced English125http://www."Lecture 7: World-Wide English". EHistLing. Retrieved 26 March 2007.http://www. a b c d David Graddol (1997). "The Future of English?" (PDF). The BritishCouncil. Retrieved 15 April 2007.http://www. a b c d David Graddol (1997). "The Future of English?" (PDF). The BritishCouncil. Retrieved 15 April 2007.http://www. "ICAO Promotes Aviation Safety by Endorsing English Language Testing".International Civil Aviation Organization. Retrieved 13 October 2011.http://www. "IMO Standard Marine Communication Phrases". International MaritimeOrganization. Archived from the original on 27 December 2003.http://www. a b c d David Graddol (1997). "The Future of English?" (PDF). The BritishCouncil. Retrieved 15 April 2007.http://www. a b Jambor, Paul Z. English Language Imperialism: Points of View, Journal ofEnglish as an International Language, April 2007 – Volume 1, pages 103–123(Accessed in 2007)http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/languagelearning/otherresources/gudlnsfralnggandcltrlrnngprgrm/GudlnsFrALnggAndCltrLrnngPrgrm.htm, this page is an extract from theLinguaLinks Library, Version 3.5, published on CD-ROM by SIL International, 1999.[Ordering information.] Page content last modified: 15 September 1998.http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/languagelearning/otherresources/gudlnsfralnggandcltrlrnngprgrm/GudlnsFrALnggAndCltrLrnngPrgrm.htm, this page is an extract from theLinguaLinks Library, Version 3.5, published on CD-ROM by SIL International, 1999.[Ordering information.] Page content last modified: 15 September 1998.http://www.towson.edu/ows/sentpatttrans.htmby Margaret L. Benner, benner@towson.edu.For educational purposes only. All commercial uses strictly prohibited. Copyright© 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003 Towson University.http://www."Global English: gift or curse?". Retrieved 4 April 2005.http://www.englishclub.com/learn-english/language-skills.htmhttp://careerplanning.about.com/cs/miscskills/a/listening_skill.htmhttp://www.learn-to-read-prince-george.com/why-is-reading-important.htmlhttp://theinvisiblementor.com/2010/09/27/how-to-read-faster-while-reading-well/
  • 126. Advanced English126http://www.writerscafe.org/courses/Why-do-we-need-good-writing-skills%3F/319/Why-do-we-need-good-writing-skillsAppendix 1Course SyllabusCurriculum Bachelor of Arts Programe
  • 127. Advanced English127In Political ScienceSection of Subject General EducationCode of Subject 000117, Credit Numbers 2(2-0-4)Subject Advanced EnglishGraduate School ClassCourse DescriptionTo study grammatical structure, and practicing skills in listening, speaking, reading,writing, which emphasized on reading, writing, and comprehension sentences forms that havevocabularies, and sentences structures related with document in using for studies.Objectives of Study1. Learning to know and understand the principles of language in the name ofuniversal language.2. Learning to know and understand the principles of language in the name ofuniversal language in order to able phrases building, and sentences forms in English.3. Learning to know and understand the principles of language in the name ofuniversal language in order to use listening skills, speaking, reading, and writing in English tocommunication correctly.Objectives of Virtues1. An appreciate in English learning for communication with foreigners around theworld.2. An appreciate and benefits of English using for propagation of the BuddhismCourse Objectives1. Sentences Structures2. Punctuation in English3. Clauses and Sentences structures4. Expansion of Phrases to Clauses5. Reduction of Clauses to Phrases6. Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing Proficiency7. Writing Essays SummariesCourse outline
  • 128. Advanced English1281. Sentences Structures2. Punctuation in English3. Clauses and Sentences structures4. Expansion of Phrases to Clauses5. Reduction of Clauses to Phrases6. Listening and Speaking Proficiency7. Writing Essays Summaries8. Reading Proficiency9. Practicing listening and SpeakingEducational Activities1. Explanations2. Discussions3. Personal/Group Research4. Media Using in Teaching5. Project Working6. The Four Skills PracticingInstruction Media1. Document Teaching, Power point, Movies, Books,Evaluation Qualifies1. Attention class, cooperation, manners, relationships, honesty and responsibility.10 Marks2. Skills ability(readiness, skillfully in expression) 10 Marks3. Intelligence (knowledge, comprehension, documentaryapplying, report, Midterm exam. 20 Marks4. Final exam 60 MarksTotal 100 MarksMeasure of Evaluation and Mark Levels
  • 129. Advanced English129Excellent AVery Good B +Good BVery Fair C +Fair CQuite Fair D +Poor DFailed FDocumentaries Descriptions and Suggested ReadingsDocumentaries Descriptions and Suggested Readings 000117 Advanced English.Bryant, Margaret (1945). A functional English grammar. D.C. Heath and company.Carter Ronald, McCarthy, Michael (2006). Cambridge Grammar of English: AComprehensive Guide, Cambridge University Press.Cobbett, William (2003, originally 1818). A Grammar of the English Language(Oxford Language Classics), Oxford University Press.Fries Charles, Carpenter. (1952). The structure of English; an introduction to theconstruction of English sentences. New York: Harcourt, Brace.Greenbaum, Sidney (1996). Oxford English Grammar, Oxford and New York: OxfordUniversity Press.Greenbaum, Sidney (1990). A Students Grammar of the English Language. AddisonWesley Publishing CompanyHalliday M. A. K; Matthiessen, Christian M. I. M. (revised by) (2004).AnIntroduction to Functional Grammar, 3rd. edition. London: Hodder Arnold.Huddleston, Rodney D. (1984) Introduction to the grammar of English. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.Huddleston, Rodney D. (1988) English grammar: An outline. Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press.Huddleston, Rodney D.; Pullum, Geoffrey K., eds (2002). The Cambridge grammarof the English language.Cambridge University Press.Huddleston, Rodney D.; Pullum, Geoffrey K. (2005).A students introduction toEnglish grammar.Cambridge University Press.
  • 130. Advanced English130Jespersen, Otto. (1909–1949). A modern English grammar on historical principles(Vols. 1-7). Heidelberg: C. Winter.Schibsbye, Knud (1970). A Modern English Grammar: Second Edition. London:Oxford University Press.Sledd, James. (1959) A short introduction to English grammar Chicago: Scott,Foresman.Strang, Barbara M. H. (1968) Modern English structure (2nd ed.) London: Arnold.Thomson, A. J. (Audrey Jean); Martinet, A. V. (Agnes V.) (1986). A practical Englishgrammar:Fourth Edition. Oxford University Press.The New Fowlers Modern English Usage edited by R.W. Burchfield. ClarendonPress: Oxford, England. 1996. Used with the permission of Oxford University PressZandvoort, R. W. (1972) A handbook of English grammar (2nd ed.) London:Longmans.Appendix 2BiographyBiographyAUTHORPhramaha Yota Payutto (Chaiworamankul)Date of Birth: February 13, 1987Place of Birth: Buriram Province, Kra-Sang District, SungNurn Subdistrict, 31160Residence: Wat Raikhing, Raikhing SubdistrictSamphran District, NakhornpathomProvince 73210, Mobile: 082-052-9790,034-326-912, Fax:034-326-912, Email
  • 131. Advanced English131Logic will get you from A to B.Imagination will take you everywhere.