Advanced English
1
Chapter 1
Introduction to English Language
Scope of the Study in Chapter 1
1. Background of the History...
Advanced English
2
Chapter 1
Introduction to English Language
Background of the History of English Language
In this chapte...
Advanced English
3
Language is a conventional, arbitrary system of sounds used
for communication in a human linguistic com...
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Lexical: Lexicology includes spelling, the formation
and use of words.
F. Stylistic: Linguistic choice ...
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group of dialects, reflecting the varied origins of the Anglo-Saxon
kingdoms of Britain. One of these d...
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English is a member of the Germanic family of languages.
Germanic is a branch of the Indo-European lang...
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Modern English, sometimes described as the first global
lingua franca,4
is the dominant language or in ...
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A working knowledge of English has become a requirement
in a number of fields, occupations and professi...
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the United Nations and many other international organizations,
including the International Olympic Comm...
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This increasing use of the English language globally has had
a large impact on many other languages, l...
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Exercise
1. What is the best important thing for learning English
language?
……………………………………………………………
……...
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Chapter 2
Sentence Structure
Scope of the Study in Chapter 2
1. Sentence structure
2. Basic Sentence S...
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Chapter 2
Sentence Structure
Basic Sentence Structure
According to my own experiences in learning Engl...
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Job's eating an orange.
S-V-Adj Subject-Verb-Adjective He is good.
They are lazy.
She seems angry.
S-V...
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She sleeps every afternoon. A time expression is added to
tell when she sleeps.
She is sleeping right ...
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Note: Only transitive action verbs can be used with this
sentence pattern.
The following sentences are...
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Teachers are everywhere. Plural noun and verb
used
The teachers are in the lobby. Prepositional phrase...
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sentences in many different ways.)20
For this reason, describing
how to put a sentence together isn't ...
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The monk . . .
Predicate
The predicate expresses action or being within the
sentence. The simple predi...
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The monk builds his temple a pagoda.
The monk builds it a pagoda.
Subject Complement
A subject complem...
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Subject + Verb + Complement
I am busy. Joe became a doctor. They look sick.
Subject + Verb + Indirect ...
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Past Continuous
I was sleeping. She was cooking a while ago. They
were talking.
Past Perfect
I had alr...
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They enjoy swimming.(Using verbs similar to enjoy.)
He didn't advise me to work. They often encourage
...
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Exercise
1.1 Please build the sentence following the abbreviate forms
below.
S-V
S-
V-O
S-
V-
Adj
S-V
...
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Chapter 3
Sentence Patterns
Scope of the Study in Chapter 3
1. Sentence Patterns
2. Verb of Being Patt...
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Chapter 3
Sentence Patterns
Basically in learning process of every language, the
understanding of sent...
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Linking Verb Pattern
Linking verb patterns (4, 5) use one of the linking verbs as
the main verb in the...
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Numbers in sequential order are used with each NP to
designate its difference from or similarity to ot...
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2. NP1 + V-be + ADJ
The verb of being is followed by an adjective that functions as
the subjective com...
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4. NP1 + LV + ADJ
The linking verb is followed by an adjective functioning as a
subjective complement....
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6. NP1 + V-int
The action verb takes no direct object.
Even if the action verb is followed by a prepos...
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8. NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP3
The action verb is followed by an indirect object and then a
direct object.
...
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10. NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP2
The action verb is followed by a direct object. The direct
object is follow...
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summarize, the car buyer should consider these points as well as
the obvious price difference when dec...
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.........................................................................................................
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3.2 Please write the whole kinds of verb of being or (V. to be) as
follows:
 V-be = verb of being
......
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NP1 + V-be + ADV/TP
.....................................................................................
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NP1 + V-int
.............................................................................................
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Chapter 4
Elements of Sentence Structuring
Scope of the Study in Chapter 4
1. Elements of Sentence Str...
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Chapter 4
Elements of Sentence Structuring
In this chapter that I will explain and give the example wh...
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Pronoun takes the place of a noun I, you, he, she, it,
ours, them, who
Verb identifies action or state...
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grammars more often include articles in the category of
determiners.
A noun or pronoun functions as th...
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Sometimes we use sentences in which a subject is not
actually stated, but is, nevertheless, understood...
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Sometimes the predicate will be composed of two or three verbs
that fit together - the main verb prece...
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1. does not express a complete thought
2.does not have a subject and predicate pair
One type of phrase...
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Clause #1 gives a thought or an idea that is complete, that can
stand by itself, independent of other ...
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within a sentence. This process is called "compounding."25
The
following examples show the process of ...
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When entire independent clauses (simple sentences) are
joined this way, they become compound sentences...
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Avoiding Comma Splices and Fused Sentences
Sometimes two independent clauses (simple sentences) can
be...
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2. By changing the comma to a semicolon
3. By changing the punctuation and adding an
appropriate conju...
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2. By placing a semicolon between the two clauses
3. By adding the needed punctuation and an appropria...
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A Simple Sentence has one independent clause.
Punctuation note: NO commas separate compound elements
(...
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A. Independent clause, coordinating conjunction
independent clause
B. Independent clause; conjunctive ...
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Punctuation Patterns:
Follow the rules given above for compound and complex
sentences.
A compound-comp...
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3. Relative pronoun, subordinating conjunctions, or
adverbs (Noun Clause)
Punctuations
Adverb clause:
...
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A comma is usually used if the prepositional phrase
precedes the subject and verb of the independent
c...
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Apostrophes
Colons
Commas
Dashes
Italics
Parentheses
Quotation Marks
Semicolons
Apostrophe
1. To show ...
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Example
4. To show ownership with indefinite pronouns
Examples
Note: Do not use an apostrophe to form ...
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Parentheses
1. To enclose interrupting elements that added information
or identification
Examples
2. T...
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importance of the parenthetical material, dashes emphasize
parenthetical material.
Notice the differen...
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Examples
Quotation Marks
1. To enclose titles of minor works: articles, essays,
poems, songs, chapters...
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Incorrect
Correct
If the quotation within another quotation is a question
or an exclamation, place app...
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Note: Punctuation is the system of symbols (. , ! - : etc) that
we use to separate sentences and parts...
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Table Chart of Punctuation Marks
Punctuation Mark Name Example
full stop or
period I like English.
com...
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point
(AmE)
slash,
forward
slash or
oblique
Please press your
browser's
Refresh/Reload
button.
backsla...
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two weeks.
square
brackets
The newspaper
reported that the
hostages [most of
them French] had
been rel...
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is the person, place, or thing that is performing the action of the
sentence. The subject represents w...
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12.Conjunctions
13.Interjections etc.
………………………………………………..
Exercise 1
Writing Skill in Grammar Structu...
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3. VP. Or Gerund ing. To
................................................................................
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...............................................................................................
.........
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...............................................................................................
.........
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...............................................................................................
.........
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...............................................................................................
.........
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...............................................................................................
.........
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Subject =
Predicate =
7. Her latest statement to the press was carefully worded.
Subject =
Predicate =...
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Subject = cake Predicate = had been eaten
Your answers: subject= predicate=
3. For most of his career,...
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Subject = farmers Predicate = are planting
Your answers: subject= predicate=
10. Eat your food slowly....
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Chapter 5
Expansion of Phrases to Clauses
Scope of the Study in Chapter 5
1. Expansion of Phrases to C...
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1.5. Subject/Verb expanded with a dependent relative clause
and a prepositional phrase
1.6. Subject/Ve...
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Chapter 5
Expansion of Phrases to Clauses
This chapter I would like to give you understanding the
defi...
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preposition—called “prepositional phrases”—can fulfill various
functions, particularly as adjective ph...
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An independent clause may stand alone as a complete
sentence because it contains a
subject and a verb ...
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at least one dependent clause and at least two independent
clauses is called a “compound-complex sente...
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Basic Pattern Pattern Example
1. Subject/Verb Edward laughed.
The baby crawls and coos.
Spring rain an...
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5. Subject/Verb/Direct Object/ The girl thinks herself
intelligent.
Object Complement The children mad...
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Subject/Verb/Object expanded with a participial phrase:
(Hearing a loud clap of thunder), the campers ...
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The other three basic sentence patterns can also be
expanded in the same manner.
A Guide to Phrases an...
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7. Noun absolute [noun or pronoun + five
structures] (his knees shaking)
8. Noun appositive (the reser...
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phrase does not. Understanding phrases and clauses and knowing
how to recognize them help writers crea...
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any complete sentence, you will find one or more of these basic
patterns. Sometimes the patterns are n...
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boiled cabbage.
Sample sentence #1: The house in which my teacher lived
was run down and smelled like ...
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We heard of his death. (Simple)
We heard that he had died. (Complex)
A noun phrase can also be expande...
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We didn’t go out because of the rain.
We didn’t go out because it rained.
By expanding a word or phras...
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Chapter 6
Sentence Pattern Transformations
Scope of the Study in Chapter 6
1. Sentence Pattern Transfo...
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1.6.1. Transform to Imperative
1.6.2. Transform to Exclamatory
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Chapter 6
Sentence Pattern Transformations
In this chapter I will try to give an easily example and ma...
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NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP2 The people made Olaf king.
To Create the Transformation,
1. Make the direct obj...
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Note: Do not change verb tense when transforming
sentences from active to passive.
Ate = was eaten
Gav...
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Note: Do not change verb tense when creating there is /
there are transformation.
is = there is
is = T...
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3. Create a second half for the sentence that begins
with who, whom, or that.
Examples:
In the above ...
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Method 2
1. Begin the sentence with What,
2. Follow with the subject and verb, and
3. Insert the appr...
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It was the dog who ate the bone.
It was the bone that the dog ate.
What the dog ate was the bone.
Pre...
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2. with an action or linking verb that has an auxiliary verb
(have or be): Add not to the verb
Exampl...
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Transform to Interrogative with yes-no answer
This transformation may be used with any of the sentenc...
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Example - Action verb
Example - Linking verb
Transform to Interrogative
This transformation provides ...
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Example - verb of being
Example - action verb with auxiliary verb
Example - linking verb with auxilia...
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Note: Sentences using which or whose to create the
interrogative may not require adding do/does/did o...
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replace the sentence subject with you understood and change the
verb form to its infinitive form with...
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Example - passive, negative, and interrogative yes-no
Example - cleft, emphasis, and interrogative ye...
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A cake is being baked my Susan
5. Tim washed many cars.
Many cars were washed by Tim.
Examples: Chang...
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Conclusion
According to the sentence pattern transformations it makes a
shortly explanation about the...
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4. Susan is baking a cake.
A cake is being baked my Susan
5. Tim washed many cars.
Many cars were was...
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Denis was asked a question by Kevin. (here it is changedActive
voice to bePassive voice)
3.Complete t...
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Chapter 7
Clause and Sentence Structure
Scope of Study in Chapter 7
1. Clause and Sentence Structure
...
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  1. 1. Advanced English 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to English Language Scope of the Study in Chapter 1 1. Background of the History of English Language 2. The Importance of English language Objectives of the Study 1. Learning to know and understand the background of the History of English language as the universal language. 2. Learning to know and understand the importance of English language as universal language.
  2. 2. Advanced English 2 Chapter 1 Introduction to English Language Background of the History of English Language In this chapter I have tried to conclude the historical background and the importance of English language. Here this objective for making an understanding particularly the basic knowledge about history and the importance of English language in briefly description. The history of the English language really started with the arrival of three Germanic tribes who invaded Britain during the 5th century AD. These tribes, the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes, crossed the North Sea from what today is Denmark and northern Germany. At that time the inhabitants of Britain spoke a Celtic language. But most of the Celtic speakers were pushed west and north by the invaders - mainly into what is now Wales, Scotland and Ireland. The Angles came from "Englaland" and their language was called "Englisc" - from which the words "England" and "English" are derived.1 1abShore, Thomas William (1906), Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race – A of the Settlement of England and the Tribal Origin of the English People (2nd ed.), London, pp. 3- 393. 2 All notes are loosely drawn from Pyles and Algeo's, The Origins and Development of the English Language, 5th edition, Harcourt Brace College Publishers, New York, 2005. Please see Sources, which can be accessed from the main lobby, for a complete list of references.
  3. 3. Advanced English 3 Language is a conventional, arbitrary system of sounds used for communication in a human linguistic community. Language is a system at many levels, including the following:2 Phonemic: Phonemes are the smallest meaningless components that constitute the sound system of a language. Morphemic: Morphemes are the smallest meaningful components of a language. For example, the word cats consists of two morphemes, {cat} and {-s}. Morphemes can be grammatical (having dictionary definitions) or lexical (affixes and function words). They can be free (able to stand alone) or bound (complete only when combined with other morphemes. Bound lexical morphemes (or affixes) can be either derivational (used to create new words) or inflectional (used to signal grammatical relationships). Syntactic: Syntax governs the way words come together to create sentences. The syntax of English has become less synthetic (grammatical structures are signaled primarily by inflectional endings) and more analytic (grammatical structures are signaled primarily by word order and function words). Semantic: Semantics concerns the meaning of words, including but not limited to etymologies.
  4. 4. Advanced English 4 Lexical: Lexicology includes spelling, the formation and use of words. F. Stylistic: Linguistic choice and options. Language is a human activity. Though animals can communicate in a primal way, they do not have innate language abilities that allow for an unlimited number of novel utterances. Though some apes have been taught to use sign language (a paralanguage, or parallel system of communication), the breadth of ideas that they express are limited. Language is arbitrary. Aside from echoic words, there is no intrinsic relationship between words and the objects or concepts that they represent. Language is conventional. Language is passed down from one generation to the next. It is the nature of language to change. Notions of absolute correctness are imposed by writers, linguists, scholars, etc. and may slow down but do not prevent the natural process of language evolution. Language is sound. Linguists are primarily concerned with speech. Writing is a secondary activity. The English language is one that most widely spread around the world in around the world in using as a universal language. English is a West Germanic language that originated from the Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain by Germanic invaders and/or settlers from various parts of what is now northwest Germany and the Netherlands. Initially, Old English was a diverse
  5. 5. Advanced English 5 group of dialects, reflecting the varied origins of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Britain. One of these dialects, Late West Saxon, eventually became predominant. The English language underwent extensive change in the middle Ages. Written Old English of AD 1000 is similar in vocabulary and grammar to other old Germanic languages such as Old High German and Old Norse, and completely unintelligible to modern speakers, while the modern language is already largely recognizable in written Middle English of AD 1400. The transformation was caused by two further waves of invasion: the first by speakers of the Scandinavian branch of the Germanic language family, who conquered and colonized parts of Britain in the 8th and 9th centuries; the second by the Normans in the 11th century, who spoke Old Norman and ultimately developed an English variety of this called Anglo-Norman. A large proportion of the modern English vocabulary comes directly from Anglo- Norman.
  6. 6. Advanced English 6 English is a member of the Germanic family of languages. Germanic is a branch of the Indo-European language family. Creative diagram by (http://www.englishclub.com) Close contact with the Scandinavians resulted in a significant grammatical simplification and lexical enrichment of the Anglo- Frisian core of English. However, these changes had not reached South West England by the 9th century AD, where Old English was developed into a full-fledged literary language. The Norman invasion occurred in 1066, and when literary English rose anew in the 13th century, it was based on the speech of London, much closer to the center of Scandinavian settlement. Technical and cultural vocabulary was largely derived from Old Norman, with particularly heavy influence in the church, the courts, and government. With the coming of the Renaissance, as with most other developing European languages such as German and Dutch, Latin and Ancient Greek supplanted Norman and French as the main source of new words. Thus, English developed into very much a "borrowing" language with an enormously disparate vocabulary.3 The Importance of English Language 3abShore, Thomas William (1906),Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race – A of the Settlement of England and the Tribal Origin of the English People (1nd ed.), London, pp. 3- 393.
  7. 7. Advanced English 7 Modern English, sometimes described as the first global lingua franca,4 is the dominant language or in some instances even the required international language of communications, science, information technology, business, seafaring, aviation, entertainment, radio and diplomacy.5 Its spread beyond the British Isles began with the growth of the British Empire, and by the late 19th century its reach was truly global.6 Following British colonization from the 16th to 19th centuries, it became the dominant language in the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. The growing economic and cultural influence of the US and its status as a global superpower since World War II have significantly accelerated the language's spread across the planet.7 English replaced German as the dominant language of science Nobel Prize laureates during the second half of the 20th century. English equal and may have surpassed French as the dominant language of diplomacy during the last half of the 19th century. 4 http://www."Global English: gift or curse?".Retrieved 4 April 2005.abcd David Graddol (1997). “The Future of English” (PDF). The British Council.Retrieved 15 April 2007. 5 http://www."FAQ – Language proficiency requirements for licence holders – In which languages does a licence holder need to demonstrate proficiency?".International Civil Aviation Organization – Air Navigation Bureau. Retrieved 2 June 2011. 6 McGrath, Charles (2007-05-17). "Magazine Suspends Its Run in History". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 7 http://www.abcd David Graddol (1997). "The Future of English?"(PDF).The British Council.Retrieved 15 April 2007.
  8. 8. Advanced English 8 A working knowledge of English has become a requirement in a number of fields, occupations and professions such as medicine and computing; as a consequence over a billion people speak English to at least a basic level (see English as a foreign or second language). It is one of six official languages of the United Nations.8 One impact of the growth of English is the reduction of native linguistic diversity in many parts of the world. Its influence continues to play an important role in language attrition. Conversely, the natural internal varieties of English along with creoles and pidgin shave the potential to produce new distinct languages from English over time.9 Because English is so widely spoken, it has often been referred to as a "world language", the lingua franca of the modern era,10 and while it is not an official language in most countries, it is currently the language most often taught as a foreign language. It is, by international treaty, the official language for aeronautical11 and maritime12 communications. English is an official language of 8 "UN official languages". UN.org. 9 Cheshire, Jenny (1991). English Around The World: Sociolinguistic Perspectives. Cambridge University Press.doi:10.2277/0521395658. ISBN 0-521-39565-8. 10 http://www.abcdDavid Graddol (1997). "The Future of English" (PDF).The British Council.Retrieved 15 April 2007. 11 http://www."ICAO Promotes Aviation Safety by Endorsing English Language Testing". International Civil Aviation Organization. 13 October 2011. 12 http:www."IMO Standard Marine Communication Phrases".International Maritime
  9. 9. Advanced English 9 the United Nations and many other international organizations, including the International Olympic Committee. English is the language most often studied as a foreign language in the European Union, by 89% of schoolchildren, ahead of French at 32%, while the perception of the usefulness of foreign languages among Europeans is 68% in favour of English ahead of 25% for French.13 Among some non-English-speaking EU countries, a large percentage of the adult population claims to be able to converse in English – in particular: 85% in Sweden, 83% in Denmark, 79% in the Netherlands, 66% in Luxembourg and over 50% in Finland, Slovenia, Austria, Belgium, and Germany.14 Books, magazines, and newspapers written in English are available in many countries around the world, and English is the most commonly used language in the sciences15 with Science Citation Index reporting as early as 1997 that 95% of its articles were written in English, even though only half of them came from authors in English-speaking countries. Organization.Archived from the original on 27 December 2003. 13 2006 survey by Eurobarometer, in the Official EU languages website 14 http://www."IMO Standard Marine Communication Phrases".International Maritime Organization.Archived from the original on 27 December 2003. 15 http://www.abcdDavid Graddol (1997). "The Future of English"(PDF).The British Council.Retrieved 15 April 2007.
  10. 10. Advanced English 10 This increasing use of the English language globally has had a large impact on many other languages, leading to language shift and even language death,16 and to claims of linguistic imperialism.17 English itself has become more open to language shift as multiple regional varieties feed back into the language as a whole.18 Conclusion The English history is very important for all learners, when you are learning a language we need to learn its history in order to understand the reason of grammar rules and the origin of the vocabulary, in this way, through the knowledge of the language roots, learning a new language can be easier. Along my academic life as an English learner, I have never heard about its history. I find this subject very relevant for being introduced into the teaching action, in order to make pupils aware of the functionality of managing a new language. ………………………………………… 16David Crystal (2000) Language Death, Preface; viii, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 17abJambor, Paul Z. 'English Language Imperialism: Points of View', Journal of English as an International Language, April 2007 – Volume 1, pp. 103–123 (Accessed in 2007) 18 Ibid.p.115.
  11. 11. Advanced English 11 Exercise 1. What is the best important thing for learning English language? …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………… 2. Please summarize note about history of English language as well as you can according to this chapter. …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………….
  12. 12. Advanced English 12 Chapter 2 Sentence Structure Scope of the Study in Chapter 2 1. Sentence structure 2. Basic Sentence Structure 3. Subjects and Predicates 4. Direct Object and Indirect Object 5. Subject Complement 6. Basic Sentence Patterns and Tenses 7. Summing Up Sentence Pattern and Structure Objectives of the Study 1. Learning to know and understand the Sentence structure and Basic Sentence Structure 2. Learning to know and understand Subjects and Predicates 3. Learning to know and understand Direct Object, Indirect Object and Subject Complement 4. Learning to know and understand Basic Sentence Patterns and Tenses 5. Summing Up Sentence Pattern and Structure
  13. 13. Advanced English 13 Chapter 2 Sentence Structure Basic Sentence Structure According to my own experiences in learning English grammar mostly it is not difficult as many learners feared or worried about. Every word in a sentence serves a specific purpose within the structure of that particular sentence. According to rules of grammar, sentence structure can sometimes be quite complicated. For the sake of simplicity, however, the basic parts of sentences will discussed here can be made easier to all learner English grammar as follows: Sentence Structure There are five basic patterns around which most English sentences are built. They are as follows:19 S-V Subject-Verb Yota sleeps. Joy is eating. Job will arrive next week. S-V-O Subject-Verb- Object I like rice. Joy loves her job. 19 Omaggio, Alice C. 1986. Teaching Language in Context: Proficiency-oriented instruction. Boston: Heinle and Heinle. p.479.
  14. 14. Advanced English 14 Job's eating an orange. S-V-Adj Subject-Verb-Adjective He is good. They are lazy. She seems angry. S-V-Adv Subject-Verb-Adverb Jay is here. Plants are everywhere. Nothing was there. S-V-N Subject-Verb-Noun She is my girlfriend. These women are doctors. Mr. Yota is the teacher. Note: At the heart of every English sentence is the Subject-Verb relationship. Other elements can be added to make a sentence more interesting, but they are not essential to its formation. The following sentences are examples of the S-V pattern. She sleeps. Core sentence She sleeps soundly. An adverb is added to describe how she sleeps. She sleeps on the sofa. A prepositional phrase is added to tell where she sleeps.
  15. 15. Advanced English 15 She sleeps every afternoon. A time expression is added to tell when she sleeps. She is sleeping right now. Verb tense is changed, but S-V relationship remains the same. Mary will sleep later. Subject is named and another tense is used. The dogs are sleeping in the garage. New subject may require a different form of the verb. Note: Any action verb can be used with this sentence pattern. The following sentences are examples of the S-V-O pattern. They like rice. Core sentence The people like rice. Specific subject The friendly people like rice. Subject modified with an adjective The people in the restaurant like rice. Subject modified with an adjective The people like boiled rice. Object modified with an adjective The people like hot, white rice. Object modified with more than one adjective
  16. 16. Advanced English 16 Note: Only transitive action verbs can be used with this sentence pattern. The following sentences are examples of the S-V-Adj. pattern. He is fine. Basic sentence with "be" verb He seems happy. Basic sentence with another linking verb Yota is tall, black & white and handsome. Series of adjectives He appears very comfortable. Adverb or intensifier added George became sick last night. Different tense and linking verb Note: Only linking verbs can be used with this sentence pattern. The following sentences are examples of the S-V-Adv pattern. The teacher is here. Basic sentence The teacher is over there. Using an adverb phrase
  17. 17. Advanced English 17 Teachers are everywhere. Plural noun and verb used The teachers are in the lobby. Prepositional phrase functioning as adverb Note: Only linking verbs can be used with this sentence pattern. The following sentences are examples of the S-V-N pattern. The man is a doctor. Basic sentence The women are doctors. Using plural noun and verb My father is a nice guy. Modified subject and complement My grandparents are senior citizens. Modified plural subject and complement Note: Only linking verbs can be used with this sentence pattern. Other, less common structures are dealt with in another unit. See also: parts of sentences: subject, predicate, direct object, indirect object, complements. There are many different ways of organizing words into sentences. (Or we might say, Words can be organized into
  18. 18. Advanced English 18 sentences in many different ways.)20 For this reason, describing how to put a sentence together isn't as easy as explaining how to bake a cake or assemble a model plane. There are no easy recipes, no step-by-step instructions. But that doesn't mean that crafting an effective sentence depends on magic or good luck. Experienced writers understand that the basic parts of a sentence can be combined and arranged in countless ways. So as we work to improve our writing, it's important to understand what these basic structures are and how to use them effectively. We'll begin by introducing the traditional parts of speech and the most common sentence structures. For practice in shaping these words and structures into strong sentences, follow examples, and expanded discussions. The two most basic parts of a sentence are the subject and predicate Subjects and Predicates Subject The subject of a sentence is the person, place, or thing that is performing the action of the sentence. The subject represents what or whom the sentence is about. The simple subject usually contains a noun or pronoun and can include modifying words, phrases, or clauses. 20 Cheshire, Jenny (1991). English around the World: Sociolinguistic Perspectives,Cambridge University Press.
  19. 19. Advanced English 19 The monk . . . Predicate The predicate expresses action or being within the sentence. The simple predicate contains the verb and can also contain modifying words, phrases, or clauses. The monk / builds a pagoda. The subject and predicate make up the two basic structural parts of any complete sentence. In addition, there are other elements, contained within the subject or predicate, added meaning or detail. These elements include the direct object, indirect object, and subject complement. All of these elements can be expanded and further combined into simple, compound, complex, or compound/complex sentences. Direct Object The direct object receives the action of the sentence. The direct object is usually a noun or pronoun. The monk builds a pagoda. The monk builds it. Indirect Object The indirect object indicates to whom or for whom the action of the sentence is being done. The indirect object is usually a noun or pronoun.
  20. 20. Advanced English 20 The monk builds his temple a pagoda. The monk builds it a pagoda. Subject Complement A subject complement either renames or describes the subject, and therefore is usually a noun, pronoun, or adjective. Subject complements occur when there is a linking verb within the sentence (often a linking verb is a form of the verb to be). The monk is a good person.( person = noun which renames the subject) The monk seems kind.(kind = adjective which describes the subject) Note: As an example of the difference between parts of speech and parts of a sentence, a noun can function within a sentence as subject, direct object, indirect object, object of a preposition, or subject complement. Summary of Sentence Pattern 1. Basic Sentence Patterns Subject + Verb I swim. Joe swims. They swam. Subject + Verb + Object I drive a car. Joe plays the guitar. They ate dinner.
  21. 21. Advanced English 21 Subject + Verb + Complement I am busy. Joe became a doctor. They look sick. Subject + Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object I gave her a gift. She teaches us English. Subject + Verb + Object + Complement I left the door open. We elected him president. They named her Jane. 2. Tenses Present Continuous I am swimming. Joe is sleeping. They are jogging. Present Simple I play tennis. He swims every day. I usually swim for two hours. Present Perfect I have eaten. He has just come home. They've already gone. Past Simple I rested. He played tennis yesterday. They drove to Boston.
  22. 22. Advanced English 22 Past Continuous I was sleeping. She was cooking a while ago. They were talking. Past Perfect I had already seen it. He had played tennis. 3. Other Possession I have a camera. He owns a car. This house belongs to them. Location I am here. He swims in the river. They live in the mountains. It's fun to swim.(Using adjectives similar to fun.) It isn't healthy to smoke. Smoking is dangerous. They agreed to swim.(Using verbs similar to agree.) He didn't desire to work. They like to play. They asked him to swim.(Using verbs similar to ask.) He didn't advise me to work. They often encourage me to work harder.
  23. 23. Advanced English 23 They enjoy swimming.(Using verbs similar to enjoy.) He didn't advise me to work. They often encourage me to work harder. Conclusion Learning English grammar mostly it is not difficult as many learners feared or worried about. Every word in a sentence serves a specific purpose within the structure of that particular sentence. According to rules of grammar, sentence structure can sometimes be quite complicated. For the sake of simplicity, however, the basic parts of sentences will discussed here can be made easier to all learners English grammar. All sentences have a structure. Structure means the shape of the sentence. A simple sentence structure often looks like this: Ø The dog (subject) ate (verb) the ping-pong ball. (object) That’s a simple sentence. No problem. Simple structure But any group of words which begins with a capital letter and ends with a full stop is a sort of sentence – only it may not be a grammatical sentence (subject + verb). It could be a fragment or a command e.g. ………………………………………….
  24. 24. Advanced English 24 Exercise 1.1 Please build the sentence following the abbreviate forms below. S-V S- V-O S- V- Adj S-V Adv S- V-N 1.2 Please write these sentences to be abbreviate forms He is fine. He seems happy. Jordan is tall, dark and handsome. He appears very comfortable. George became sick last night.
  25. 25. Advanced English 25 Chapter 3 Sentence Patterns Scope of the Study in Chapter 3 1. Sentence Patterns 2. Verb of Being Patterns 3. Linking Verb Pattern 4. Action Verb Pattern 5. The Ten Sentence Patterns Objectives of the Study 1. Learning to know and understand Sentence Patterns 2. Learning to know and understand Verb of Being Patterns and Linking Verb Pattern 3. Learning to know and understand Action Verb Pattern 4. Learning to know and understand The Ten Sentence Patterns
  26. 26. Advanced English 26 Chapter 3 Sentence Patterns Basically in learning process of every language, the understanding of sentence patterns is one of important thing that all learner need for. The knowledge of how groups of words function to convey units of thought further enhances our ability to communicate clearly. This is why we need to know about sentence patterns, the fundamentals of how those units of thought that we call sentences are constructed. Just about all sentences in the English language fall into ten patterns determined by the presence and functions of nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs.21 Verb of Being Patterns The patterns are most easily classified according to the type of verb used:22 Verb of being patterns (1, 2, 3) use a form of the verb to be as the main verb in the sentence. is are was were has been have been had been 21 http://www.englishmistakeswelcome.com/sentence_patterns.htm retrieved on 12/2/2012 22 http://www.lovekraw.blogspot.com/2012/09/sentence-patterns-1.html retrieved on 4/9/2012
  27. 27. Advanced English 27 Linking Verb Pattern Linking verb patterns (4, 5) use one of the linking verbs as the main verb in the sentence. The linking verb is followed by a noun or adjective functioning as a subjective complement. Smell, taste, look, feel, seem, become, appear, grow etc. Action Verb Pattern Action verb patterns (6, 7, 8, 9,10) use one of the many action verbs as the main verb in the sentence. The action verb may be either transitive (take a direct object) or intransitive (not take a direct object). See, jump, embrace, write, imagine, buy, plummet, think etc. Terms used to identify various parts of each sentence pattern include the following:  NP = noun phrase This abbreviation refers to a headword noun and its modifiers ("noun phrase") functioning as a subject, direct object, indirect object, subjective complement, or objective complement.  NP1, NP2, NP3, etc. = designations for different noun phrase functions
  28. 28. Advanced English 28 Numbers in sequential order are used with each NP to designate its difference from or similarity to other NPs before and after it.  V-be = verb of being  LV = linking verb  V-int = intransitive verb  V-tr = transitive verb  ADV/TP = adverbial of time or place  ADJ = adjective The Ten Sentence Patterns 1. NP1 + V-be + ADV/TP The verb of being is followed by an adverb indicating where or when. See more information on subjects form The adverbial indicating where or when may be a prepositional phrase.
  29. 29. Advanced English 29 2. NP1 + V-be + ADJ The verb of being is followed by an adjective that functions as the subjective complement. See more information on subjective complements form The adjectival functioning as the subjective complement may be a prepositional phrase. 3. NP1 + V-be + NP1 The verb of being is followed by a noun that functions as the subjective complement. Note: The second NP receives the same numerical designation as the first NP because the second NP, the subjective complement, is the same as the subject (Mr. James = teacher).
  30. 30. Advanced English 30 4. NP1 + LV + ADJ The linking verb is followed by an adjective functioning as a subjective complement. The adjectival functioning as the subjective complement may be a prepositional phrase. 5. NP1 + LV + NP1 The linking verb is followed by a noun functioning as a subjective complement. Note: The second NP receives the same numerical designation as the first NP because the second NP, the subjective complement, is the same as the subject (Joan = Buddhist).
  31. 31. Advanced English 31 6. NP1 + V-int The action verb takes no direct object. Even if the action verb is followed by a prepositional phrase, the verb is still intransitive as long as it does not take a direct object. 7. NP1 + V-tr + NP2 The action verb is followed by a direct object. See more-information on direct objects form Note: The second NP, the direct object, receives a different numerical designation (NP2) because it is not the same as the subject (NP1).
  32. 32. Advanced English 32 8. NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP3 The action verb is followed by an indirect object and then a direct object. See more information on indirect objects Note: The indirect object and the direct object each receive a new numerical designation because each is different from the other and both are different from the subject. 9. NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + ADJ The action verb is followed by a direct object. The direct object is followed by an adjective functioning as an objective complement. See more information on objective complements form Note: The second NP, the direct object, receives a different numerical designation (NP2) because it is not the same as the subject (NP1).
  33. 33. Advanced English 33 10. NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP2 The action verb is followed by a direct object. The direct object is followed by a noun functioning as an objective complement. Note: The second NP, the direct object, receives a different numerical designation (NP2) because it is not the same as the subject (NP1). The third NP, the objective complement, receives the same numerical designation as the direct object (NP2) because it is the same as the direct object (Jacobsen = friend). Conclusion Sentence patterns usually describe what part of speech goes first, second, third. For example, the most common sentence pattern in English is Subject-Verb-Object, often shortened to S-V- O, as in "She saw the movie." Another common sentence pattern is Subject-Verb-Complement, S-V-C, as in "He is cute." Questions in English are usually V-S, as in "Did they?" Concluding Sentence Patterns—Compare and Contrast Paragraph The concluding sentence restates the items that were compared and contrasted in the paragraph. Examples to
  34. 34. Advanced English 34 summarize, the car buyer should consider these points as well as the obvious price difference when deciding which of these cars to purchase. Now that you know something about the similarities and differences between souqs and shopping malls, you can decide where you want to shop. In conclusion, Ali and Fuad are similar and different in many ways. However, it would seem the differences outweigh the similarities. Type the sentence that would make the better concluding sentence for that paragraph and indicate which function that concluding sentence serves. ……………………………………………….. Exercise 3.1. Please build the sentences by use the whole kinds of verb as follows: is are was were has been have been had been ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... ...........................................................................................................
  35. 35. Advanced English 35 ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... smell taste look feel seem become appear grow ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... see jump embrace write imagine buy think ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... ...........................................................................................................
  36. 36. Advanced English 36 3.2 Please write the whole kinds of verb of being or (V. to be) as follows:  V-be = verb of being ............................................................................................... ...............................................................................................  LV = linking verb ............................................................................................... ...............................................................................................  V-int = intransitive verb ............................................................................................... ...............................................................................................  V-tr = transitive verb ............................................................................................... ...............................................................................................  ADV/TP = adverbial of time or place ............................................................................................... ...............................................................................................  ADJ = adjective ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... 3.3 Please build the sentences following the structural forms below:
  37. 37. Advanced English 37 NP1 + V-be + ADV/TP ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... .............................................................................................. NP1 + V-be + ADJ ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... NP1 + V-be + NP1 ............................................................................................... .............................................................................................. NP1 + LV + ADJ ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... NP1 + LV + NP1 ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ...............................................................................................
  38. 38. Advanced English 38 NP1 + V-int ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... NP1 + V-tr + NP2 ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... .............................................................................................. NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP3 ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... .............................................................................................. NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + ADJ ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP2 ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ...............................................................................................
  39. 39. Advanced English 39 Chapter 4 Elements of Sentence Structuring Scope of the Study in Chapter 4 1. Elements of Sentence Structuring 2. Independent Clauses and Dependent Clauses 3. Compounding Sentence Elements and Avoiding Fragments 4. Avoiding Comma Splices and Fused Sentences 5. Sentence Types and Punctuation 6. The Value of Punctuation 7. Table Chart of Punctuation Marks Objectives of the Study 1. Learning to know and understand Elements of Sentence Structuring 2. Independent Clauses and Dependent Clauses 3. Learning to know and understand Compounding Sentence Elements and Avoiding Fragments 4. Learning to know and understand Avoiding Comma Splices and Fused Sentences 5. Learning to know and understand Sentence Types and Punctuation and the Value of Punctuation 6. Learning to know and understand Table Chart of Punctuation Marks
  40. 40. Advanced English 40 Chapter 4 Elements of Sentence Structuring In this chapter that I will explain and give the example which it concerned with elements of sentence structuring, there are eight components to consist of each sentence. Part of speech is the common name for a word class--a category into which words are placed according to the work they do in a sentence.23 Here we'll be introduced to the eight traditional parts of speech. Parts of speech have specific tasks to perform when they are put together in a sentence. See an example below: Table Chart of Parts of Speech Part of Speech Basic Function Examples Noun names a person, place, or thing pirate, Caribbean, ship 23 http://www.towson.edu/ows/sentpatttrans.html by Margaret L. Benner, benner@towson.edu.For educational purposes only. All commercial uses strictly prohibited. Copyright © 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003 Towson University. All rights reserved. Retrieved on 8/4/2012.
  41. 41. Advanced English 41 Pronoun takes the place of a noun I, you, he, she, it, ours, them, who Verb identifies action or state of being sing, dance, believe, be Adjective Adverb modifies a noun hot, lazy, funny modifies a verb, adjective, or other adverb softly, lazily, often Preposition shows a relationship between a noun (or pronoun) and other words in a sentence up, over, against, by, for Conjunction joins words, phrases, and clauses and, but, or, yet Interjection expresses emotion ah, whoops, ouch (See more details about English grammar in part of speech) Note: Though some traditional grammars have treated articles (the, a[n]) as a distinct part of speech, contemporary
  42. 42. Advanced English 42 grammars more often include articles in the category of determiners. A noun or pronoun functions as the sentence subject when it is paired with a verb functioning as the sentence predicate. Every sentence has a subject and predicate.24 Subject A subject can be a noun or pronoun that is partnered with an action verb. Example: Sometimes a verb will express being or existence instead of action. Example: 24 Learn English Network. “English Grammar – Simple Sentence Construction.”Learn English: LEO Network. (2007). See more details: http://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/sentencetext.htm#Object.
  43. 43. Advanced English 43 Sometimes we use sentences in which a subject is not actually stated, but is, nevertheless, understood in the meaning. Example: A sentence like this gives an order or a request to someone. Because we use such statements when we are talking directly to someone, we omit the word you. It is understood in the sentence. Therefore, in statements like this one, we say the subject is You (understood). This kind of sentence is an imperative sentence. Predicate A predicate is a verb that expresses the subject's action or state of being. Example:
  44. 44. Advanced English 44 Sometimes the predicate will be composed of two or three verbs that fit together - the main verb preceded by one or more auxiliary (helping) verbs. Note: To be a predicate, a verb that ends in -ing must always have a helping verb with it. An -ing verb without a helping verb cannot be a predicate in a sentence. A subject and predicate may not always appear together or in the normal order, as the following examples show: Phrases A phrase is a group of related words that
  45. 45. Advanced English 45 1. does not express a complete thought 2.does not have a subject and predicate pair One type of phrase is a prepositional phrase. Examples: Another kind of phrase is a verbal phrase. Examples: Even though these phrases contain nouns (pronouns) and/or verb forms, none of the nouns/pronouns/verbs are subjects or predicates. None of them work as a partnership. Also, these phrases do not express complete thoughts. Clauses Words and phrases can be put together to make clauses. A clause is a group of related words that contain a subject and predicate.Note the difference between phrases and clauses in the following examples: Only one of the clauses is a sentence.
  46. 46. Advanced English 46 Clause #1 gives a thought or an idea that is complete, that can stand by itself, independent of other words. However, clause #2 gives an incomplete thought or idea, one that cannot stand by itself, one that needs some more words to make it whole. The word after changes the meaning, making the thought incomplete, after reading this clause, we are left hanging. These two clauses illustrate the two kinds of clauses: Independent Clauses and Dependent Clauses An independent clause is a group of words that contains a subject, a predicate, and a complete thought. A dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a predicate, but does not express a complete thought. Compounding Sentence Elements Words, phrases, and clauses may be joined to one another inside a sentence with a conjunction. The coordinating conjunctions and, but, or, and nor may join subjects, predicates, adjectives, adverbs, prepositional phrases or dependent clauses
  47. 47. Advanced English 47 within a sentence. This process is called "compounding."25 The following examples show the process of compounding Words Phrases Clauses 25 http://www.towson.edu/ows/sentpatttrans.htmby Margaret L. Benner, benner@towson.edu.For educational purposes only. All commercial uses strictly prohibited. Copyright © 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003 Towson University. All rights reserved, Retrieved on 8/4/2012.
  48. 48. Advanced English 48 When entire independent clauses (simple sentences) are joined this way, they become compound sentences. Avoiding Fragments A complete sentence needs only two elements: a subject - predicate unit and a complete thought In other words, a simple sentence is actually the same thing as an independent clause. Dependent clauses or phrases are called fragments because they are missing one or more parts needed to make a sentence. Therefore, they are only pieces or fragments of complete sentences. Look at these examples:
  49. 49. Advanced English 49 Avoiding Comma Splices and Fused Sentences Sometimes two independent clauses (simple sentences) can be joined to form another kind of sentence: the compound sentence.26 Two major errors can occur when constructing compound sentences. Error #1: The Comma Splice Writers make this error when they try to separate the two independent clauses in a compound sentence with a comma alone. A comma is not a strong enough punctuation mark to separate the two independent clauses by itself; thus, using it causes the clauses to be spliced together. Example of a comma splice:27 This sentence can be repaired in three ways: 1. By adding an appropriate coordinating conjunction 26 The New Fowler's Modern English Usage edited by R.W. Burchfield. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. 1996. Used with the permission of Oxford University Press. 27 Longman Guide to English Usage,Practical English Usage the Oxford Companion to the English Language,This message has been edited. Last edited by: PromegaX, March 09, 2005.
  50. 50. Advanced English 50 2. By changing the comma to a semicolon 3. By changing the punctuation and adding an appropriate conjunctive adverb Error #2: The Fused Sentence Writers make this error by joining two independent clauses into a compound sentence without using any punctuation between them. No punctuation between the two independent clauses causes them to "fuse" into an incorrect compound sentence. Example of a fused sentence:28 This sentence is also repaired in three ways: 1. By adding a comma and an appropriate coordinating conjunction 28 http://www.grammar.about.com/od/fh/g/fusedsentenceterm.htm, fused sentence By Richard Nordquist, retrieved 5/29/2012. For more guiding: http://www.americanheritage.yourdictionary.com/fused-sentence, The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th edition Copyright © 2010 Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.
  51. 51. Advanced English 51 2. By placing a semicolon between the two clauses 3. By adding the needed punctuation and an appropriate conjunctive adverb Another way to repair a comma splice or fused sentence is to make each independent clause into a simple sentence. Sentence Types and Punctuation A sentence may be one of four kinds, depending upon the number and type(s) of clauses it contains. An independent clause contains a subject, a verb, and a complete thought. A dependent clause contains a subject and a verb, but no complete thought.
  52. 52. Advanced English 52 A Simple Sentence has one independent clause. Punctuation note: NO commas separate compound elements (subject, verb, direct object, indirect object, subjective complement, etc.) in a simple sentence.29 A Compound Sentence A Compound Sentence has two independent clauses joined by A. a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so), B. a conjunctive adverb (e.g. however, therefore), or C. a semi colon alone. Punctuation patterns (to match A, B, and C above): 29 Fries Charles, Carpenter. (1952). The Structure of English; an introduction to the construction of English sentences, New York: Harcourt, Brace.
  53. 53. Advanced English 53 A. Independent clause, coordinating conjunction independent clause B. Independent clause; conjunctive adverb, independent clause. C. Independent clause; independent clause. A Complex Sentence A Complex Sentence has one dependent clause (headed by a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronouns) joined to an independent clause. Punctuation patterns (to match A, B, C and D above): A. Dependent clause, independent clause B. Independent clause dependent clause C. Independent, nonessential dependent clause, clause. D. Independent essential dependent clause clause. A Compound-Complex Sentence A Compound-Complex Sentence has two independent clauses joined to one or more dependent clauses.
  54. 54. Advanced English 54 Punctuation Patterns: Follow the rules given above for compound and complex sentences. A compound-complex sentence is merely a combination of the two. Connectors-Compound and Complex Sentences Two independent clauses may be joined by 1. Coordinating conjunctions (Fan boys) Ic, and ic 2. Conjunctive adverbs Ic; therefore, ic. A dependent (subordinate) Clause may be Introduced by 1. Subordinating conjunctions (Adverb Clause) Dc, ic. Or Ic dc. 2. Relative pronouns (Adjective Clause) I, dc, c. or I dc c.
  55. 55. Advanced English 55 3. Relative pronoun, subordinating conjunctions, or adverbs (Noun Clause) Punctuations Adverb clause: Examples: Because she was sick, she didn’t come to attend the speech. She didn’t come to attend the speech because she was sick. An adverb clause may precede or follow an independent clause. A comma is used if the adverb clause comes first. Preposition Because of her sickness, she didn’t come to attend the speech. She didn’t come to attend the speech because of her sickness. A preposition is followed by a noun, not by a subject and verb.
  56. 56. Advanced English 56 A comma is usually used if the prepositional phrase precedes the subject and verb of the independent clause. Conjunction She was sick, so she didn’t come to attend the speech. A conjunction comes between two independent clauses. Usually a comma is used immediately in front of a conjunction. Transition He worked very hard. (;) Therefore, he passed his exams. He worked very hard. (;) He, therefore, he passed his exams. He worked very hard. (;) He passed his exams, therefore. Either a period or a semicolon may be used between the two dependent clauses. A comma may not be used to separate the clauses. Commas are usually used to set the transition off from the rest of the sentence. Review: Punctuation Marks
  57. 57. Advanced English 57 Apostrophes Colons Commas Dashes Italics Parentheses Quotation Marks Semicolons Apostrophe 1. To show ownership (to form the possessive case of nouns) Examples 2. To show joint ownership with nouns Example 3. To show individual ownership with nouns
  58. 58. Advanced English 58 Example 4. To show ownership with indefinite pronouns Examples Note: Do not use an apostrophe to form the possessive case of the personal possessive pronoun its. Example Do use an apostrophe with its to mean it is or it has Correct 5. To form the plural of letters, numbers, and signs, and of words referred to as words. Examples
  59. 59. Advanced English 59 Parentheses 1. To enclose interrupting elements that added information or identification Examples 2. To enclose figures or letters when used for enumeration within a sentence Example Dash To set off parenthetical matter Example Note: Unlike parentheses, which minimize the
  60. 60. Advanced English 60 importance of the parenthetical material, dashes emphasize parenthetical material. Notice the different emphasis in each sentence. Italics (underlining) 1. For words, letters, and figures referred to as such Examples 2. For foreign, technical (including mathematical expressions), or unusual words and phrases. Examples 3. For titles of books, newspapers, magazines, journals, plays, movies, radio programs, TV programs, long musical works, long poems, works of art, names of ships and airplanes.
  61. 61. Advanced English 61 Examples Quotation Marks 1. To enclose titles of minor works: articles, essays, poems, songs, chapters of books, short stories, episodes of radio/TV programs. Examples 2. To enclose words used ironically or where the term so-called could be inserted. Examples 3. To enclose a direct quotation: a person's exact words Example Note: Do not use quotation marks to enclose indirect quotations.
  62. 62. Advanced English 62 Incorrect Correct If the quotation within another quotation is a question or an exclamation, place appropriate punctuation next to the item concerned. Examples Question quotation inside statement Quotation: Statement quotation inside question quotation Question quotation inside question quotation Exclamation quotation inside question quotation or Question quotation inside exclamation quotation
  63. 63. Advanced English 63 Note: Punctuation is the system of symbols (. , ! - : etc) that we use to separate sentences and parts of sentences, and to make their meaning clear. Each symbol is called a "punctuation mark".30 The Value of Punctuation An English teacher wrote these words on the board: 31 Woman without her man is nothing. The teacher then asked the students to punctuate the words correctly. The men wrote the top line. The women wrote the bottom line. 30 Robbins, Sonia Jaffe. “Punctuation: A Brief History.” Editing Workshop, Journalism Department. New York University, Journalism Department, NYU Web (2005, January 16) See more http://www.englishclub.com/writing/punctuation.htm retrieved on 5/18/2012. 31 Robbins, Sonia Jaffe. “Punctuation: A Brief History.” Editing Workshop, Journalism Department. New York University,Journalism Department, NYU Web (2005, January 16). http://www.nyu.edu/classes/copyXediting/Punctuation.html#history,“A Grammar Toolkit (10.).” The American Heritage Book of English Usage: A Practical and Authoritative Guide to Contemporary English [Electronic version]. (1996). http://www.bartleby.com/64/10.html
  64. 64. Advanced English 64 Table Chart of Punctuation Marks Punctuation Mark Name Example full stop or period I like English. comma I speak English, French and Thai. semi-colon I don't often go swimming; I prefer to play tennis. colon You have two choices: finish the work today or lose the contract. hyphen This is a rather out-of- date book. dash In each town— London, Paris and Rome—we stayed in youth hostels. question mark Where is Shangri-La? exclamation mark exclamation "Help!" she cried. "I'm drowning!"
  65. 65. Advanced English 65 point (AmE) slash, forward slash or oblique Please press your browser's Refresh/Reload button. backslash C:UsersFilesjse.doc double quotation marks "I love you," she said. single quotation marks 'I love you,' she said. apostrophe This is John's car. underline Have you read War and Peace? underscore bin_lad@cia.gov round brackets I went to Bangkok (my favourite city) and stayed there for
  66. 66. Advanced English 66 two weeks. square brackets The newspaper reported that the hostages [most of them French] had been released. ellipsis mark One happy customer wrote: "This is the best program...that I have ever seen." (The Table of Summary of Punctuation Marks By http://www.englishclub.com) English Tips Although there are general rules for English punctuation, there are differences of style between, for example, British and American English, some publishers and some writers. Anyone seeking guidance at an advanced level is recommended to consult a style guide (often included in good dictionaries) for their particular variety of English or editorial style. Conclusion Every word in a sentence serves a specific purpose within the structure of that particular sentence. According to rules of grammar, sentence structure can sometimes be quite complicated. For the sake of simplicity, however, the basic parts of a sentence are discussed here. The two most basic parts of a sentence are the subject and predicate. The subject of a sentence
  67. 67. Advanced English 67 is the person, place, or thing that is performing the action of the sentence. The subject represents what or whom the sentence is about. The simple subject usually contains a noun or pronoun and can include modifying words, phrases, or clauses. The man ....The predicate expresses action or being within the sentence. The simple predicate contains the verb and can also contain modifying words, phrases, or clauses. For more information on the structure and formation of sentences, see the following TIP Sheets: Sentence Types and Purposes32 1. Sentence Fragments 2. Independent and Dependent Clauses: Coordination and Subordination 3. Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases 4.Other Phrases: Verbal, Appositive, Absolute 5. Comma Splices and Run-on Sentences 6.The Eight Parts of Speech 7.Nouns 8.Pronouns 9.Verbs 10.Adjectives 11.Adverbes 32 Fries Charles, Carpenter. (1952). The Structure of English; an introduction to the construction of English sentences, New York: Harcourt, Brace
  68. 68. Advanced English 68 12.Conjunctions 13.Interjections etc. ……………………………………………….. Exercise 1 Writing Skill in Grammar Structures Directions: Please write these abbreviate of alphabets / words to be full word and give two examples by writing the full sentence Ex. S. = Subject = I, You, We, They, He, She, It etc. 1. N. ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... .............................................................................................. 2. NP. ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ...............................................................................................
  69. 69. Advanced English 69 3. VP. Or Gerund ing. To ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... .............................................................................................. 4. Nprop. Obarma ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... 5. Ncom. bird ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... .............................................................................................. 6. Ncount. ............................................................................................... ...............................................................................................
  70. 70. Advanced English 70 ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... 7. Nuncount. ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... 8. Nsing. ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ..................................................... 9. Npl. ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ...............................................................................................
  71. 71. Advanced English 71 ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... 10. Art. ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... 11. Art Def. ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... 12. Art Indef. ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... 13. Num.
  72. 72. Advanced English 72 ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... 14. NumC. ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... 15. NumO. ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... 16. Aux. ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ...............................................................................................
  73. 73. Advanced English 73 ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... 17. Adj. ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... 18. Adv. ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... 19. V. ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ...............................................................................................
  74. 74. Advanced English 74 ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... Exercise 2 Directions: In the text boxes provided below each item, identify the sentence's simple subject and simple predicate. 1. Four young soldiers led the troops into battle. Subject = Predicate = 2. In less than two hours, the entire cake had been eaten. Subject = Predicate = 3. For most of his career, Jim has ridden his bicycle to his office. Subject = Predicate = 4. Two beautiful goldfish in the pond were eating the insects on the top of the water. Subject = Predicate = 5. Until that last telephone call, I was having a wonderful day. Subject = Predicate = 6. Last week's fire was started by an arsonist from a nearby town.
  75. 75. Advanced English 75 Subject = Predicate = 7. Her latest statement to the press was carefully worded. Subject = Predicate = 8. Novels by E. L. Doctorow are my favorite. Subject = Predicate = 9. The farmers in that part of the county are planting their fields this week. Subject = Predicate = 10. You eat your food slowly. Subject = Predicate = Answer Key Identifying Subjects and Predicates - Exercise 1 The correct answers are given below. For help with subjects and predicates, 1. Four young soldiers led the troops into battle. Subject = soldiers Predicate = led Your answers: subject= predicate= 2. In less than two hours, the entire cake had been eaten.
  76. 76. Advanced English 76 Subject = cake Predicate = had been eaten Your answers: subject= predicate= 3. For most of his career, Jim has ridden his bicycle to his office. Subject = Jim Predicate = has ridden Your answers: subject= predicate= 4. Two beautiful goldfish in the pond were eating the insects on the top of the water. Subject = goldfish Predicate = were eating Your answers: subject= predicate= 5. Until that last telephone call, I was having a wonderful day. Subject = I Predicate = was having Your answers: subject= predicate= 6. Last week's fire was started by an arsonist from a nearby town. Subject = fire Predicate = was started Your answers: subject= predicate= 7. Her latest statement to the press was carefully worded. Subject = statement Predicate = was worded Your answers: subject= predicate= 8. Novels by E. L. Doctorow are my favorite. Subject = novels Predicate = are Your answers: subject= predicate= 9. The farmers in that part of the county are planting their fields this week.
  77. 77. Advanced English 77 Subject = farmers Predicate = are planting Your answers: subject= predicate= 10. Eat your food slowly. Subject = "you" understood Predicate = eat Your answers: subject= predicate=
  78. 78. Advanced English 78 Chapter 5 Expansion of Phrases to Clauses Scope of the Study in Chapter 5 1. Expansion of Phrases to Clauses 1.1. What are Phrases and Clauses? 1.2. How Can We Identify Phrases and Clauses? 1.3. Five Basic Structures of Simple Sentences 1.4. Samples of Patterns Expanded with Clauses and Phrases 1.5. Subject/Verb expanded with a dependent relative clause and a prepositional phrase 1.6. Subject/Verb/Object expanded with a participial phrase and Subject/Verb/Object expanded with a dependent adverbial clause 1.7. Subject/Verb/Object expanded with a dependent relative clause 1.8. A Guide to Phrases and Clauses Objectives of the Study 1. Learning to Know and Understand Expansion of Phrases to Clauses 1.1. What are Phrases and Clauses? 1.2. How Can We Identify Phrases and Clauses? 1.3. Five Basic Structures of Simple Sentences 1.4. Samples of Patterns Expanded with Clauses and Phras
  79. 79. Advanced English 79 1.5. Subject/Verb expanded with a dependent relative clause and a prepositional phrase 1.6. Subject/Verb/Object expanded with a participial phrase and Subject/Verb/Object expanded with a dependent adverbial clause 1.7. Subject/Verb/Object expanded with a dependent relative clause 1.8. A Guide to Phrases and Clauses
  80. 80. Advanced English 80 Chapter 5 Expansion of Phrases to Clauses This chapter I would like to give you understanding the definition of phrases and clauses, how can we identify phrases and clauses included with explaining and giving the example about the structure of simple sentences throughout guiding to phrases and clauses, here we’ll continue what are phrases and clauses. What are Phrases and Clauses? Phrases and clauses are groups of related words that serve as building blocks of sentences on a larger scale than parts of speech. A clause contains both a subject and a verb whereas a phrase does not. Understanding phrases and clauses and knowing how to recognize them help writers create varied sentences and avoid problems such as run-on sentences, fragments, and punctuation errors.33 How Can We Identify Phrases and Clauses? A phrase, which generally consists of multiple parts of speech, behaves as a unit like a single part of speech. In the following examples, note how phrases take on the roles of nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. (Phrases that begin with a 33 http://web.cn.edu/kwheeler/gram_clauses_n_phrases.htmlCopyright Dr. L. Kip Wheeler 1998-2012. Permission is granted for non-profit, educational, and student reproduction. Last updated 2 January, 2013
  81. 81. Advanced English 81 preposition—called “prepositional phrases”—can fulfill various functions, particularly as adjective phrases, adverb phrases, or part of noun phrases.34 ) Noun phrases name a person, place, thing, or idea. Buying a home can be a stressful ordeal. My elegant Aunt Ida adores that mangy one-eyed mutt of hers. Verb phrases express action or state of being. We may have been mistaken about the car’s reliability. The Sampson twins will be traveling in Belize all next month. Adjective phrases describe nouns. The bird, a beautiful yellow grosbeak, is chirping gleefully. The tree on your left is a popular haven for such species. Adverb phrases describe verbs, adjectives, other adverbs, or even whole sentences. Because of the recent rainfall, our vegetable garden is thriving. I wish all people could live with music in their hearts. Clauses fit into two main categories: independent and dependent. 34 http://www.eslgold.com/grammar/clauses_phrases.html/Last updated: 15 February, 2010.
  82. 82. Advanced English 82 An independent clause may stand alone as a complete sentence because it contains a subject and a verb and forms a complete idea. A sentence made of one independent clause is called a “simple sentence.”35 A sentence made of two or more independent clauses is called a “compound sentence.”36 Note that these distinctions rely on the particular combination of subject (underlined) and verb (double-underlined) rather than the length of the sentence. (Uncle Jay’s two Siamese kittens kept me awake all night long with their constant mewing and wrestling.) (I sing,] and [she dances.) A dependent clause contains a subject and a verb but does not form a complete idea. (When Laney scratched off the final number on the lottery ticket) Do you feel the suspense? A dependent clause needs an independent clause to finish the thought and become a complete sentence. This type of sentence is called a “complex sentence.”37 A sentence with 35 Omaggio, Alice C. 1986. Teaching language in context : Proficiency-oriented instruction. Boston: Heinle and Heinle. p.479. 36 http://www.orl.devry.edu/tutoring/Phrase,%20Clause,%20Sentence.html retrieved on 3/3/2012. 37 http://www.englishpractice.com/improve/phrases-clauses/ EnglishPractice.com © 2013 – All rights Reserved. Posted on 18.3.12.24.30
  83. 83. Advanced English 83 at least one dependent clause and at least two independent clauses is called a “compound-complex sentence.”38 (When Laney scratched off the final number on the lottery ticket,) she remembered the reason for her nickname, Luckless Laney. The movie (that I saw last weekend) wasn’t nearly as good as the popcorn. Mr. Wu will not visit tomorrow (unless he can get his car repaired this afternoon). Five Basic Structures of Simple Sentences Recognizing the five basic structures of simple sentences can be helpful as you later begin to identify subordinate structures that expand these simple structures. At the heart of any complete sentence, you will find one or more of these basic patterns. Sometimes the patterns are not obvious as they appear when listed together. However, as you become familiar with these structures, you will become skilled in recognizing and expanding them with subordinate structures. 38 http://www.englishpractice.com/improve/phrases-clauses/ EnglishPractice.com © 2013 – All rights Reserved. Posted on 18.3.12.24.30
  84. 84. Advanced English 84 Basic Pattern Pattern Example 1. Subject/Verb Edward laughed. The baby crawls and coos. Spring rain and flowers abound. 2. Subject/Verb/Direct Object Margaret recalled a memory. Susan shovels snow. President Obama gave a speech. 3. Subject/Verb/Complement The consultant seemed pleasant. All applicants were UM graduates. Our house is sturdy. 4. Subject/Verb/Indirect Object/ The new candidate give me hope. Direct Object I offered the candidate my support. He gave the child a stern look.
  85. 85. Advanced English 85 5. Subject/Verb/Direct Object/ The girl thinks herself intelligent. Object Complement The children made David “it.” Squirrels drove the dogs mad. You will notice that these basic sentence types can be expanded by dependent (subordinate) structures like dependent adverbial clauses, dependent relative clauses, and the variety of phrases made up of dependent prepositional, participial, appositive, and absolute phrases. These are all strategies of sentence expansion. Samples of Patterns Expanded with Clauses and Phrases Subject/Verb expanded with a prepositional phrase: A herd of elk gathered (beside the stream.) New students arrive (at the end of August). Subject/Verb expanded with a dependent relative clause and a prepositional phrase: The house, (which was originally built in the 1920s), stood (next to an old mill). Her computer, (which was donated by a colleague), crashed (during a data analysis).
  86. 86. Advanced English 86 Subject/Verb/Object expanded with a participial phrase: (Hearing a loud clap of thunder), the campers gathered their gear. (Intending to garner support for his campaign), the politician delivered his speech. Subject/Verb/Object expanded with a dependent adverbial clause: The campers packed their gear (while rain soaked the ground). (Although the forecast calls for freezing temperatures), she planted her garden. Subject/Verb/Object expanded with a dependent relative clause: The athlete, (who knew her own prowess), scored a goal. Her father, (who could hardly contain his excitement), let loose a cheer. Subject/Verb/Object expanded with all of the above: (Using all her strength), the athlete, (who knew her own prowess), scored a goal (while her father cheered from the stands).
  87. 87. Advanced English 87 The other three basic sentence patterns can also be expanded in the same manner. A Guide to Phrases and Clauses Phrases 1.Prepositional phrases (over the rainbow) a. as adjectives b. as adverbs 2. Adjectival phrases (free from government control) 3. Verbal –ing phrase [present participle] (running five miles each day) a. as adjective b. as noun c. as adverb (sometimes) 4. Verbal –ed phrase [past participle] (written in 2001) a. as adjective 5. Verbal to phrase [infinitive] (to win the game) 6. Truncated clause [subordinating conjunction + five structures {adj phrase, -ing phrase, -ed phrase, prepositional phrase, noun} ] (when in Rome)
  88. 88. Advanced English 88 7. Noun absolute [noun or pronoun + five structures] (his knees shaking) 8. Noun appositive (the reserve catcher) Clauses 9. Dependent adjectival clause (she slept in the barn) a. as a restrictive that clause b. as a nonrestrictive which clause c. as a restrictive and nonrestrictive who/whom/whose clause 10. Dependent adverbial clause (because he enjoyed the special effects) 11. Dependent noun clause (that he would prevail) (See more concerned details in chapter 4 pp.19-25) Conclusion The definition of phrases and clauses, how can we identify phrases and clauses included with explaining and giving the example about the structure of simple sentences throughout guiding to phrases and clauses, by continue what are phrases and clauses. Phrases and clauses are groups of related words that serve as building blocks of sentences on a larger scale than parts of speech. A clause contains both a subject and a verb whereas a
  89. 89. Advanced English 89 phrase does not. Understanding phrases and clauses and knowing how to recognize them help writers create varied sentences and avoid problems such as run-on sentences, fragments, and punctuation errors. How Can We Identify Phrases and Clauses? A phrase, which generally consists of multiple parts of speech, behaves as a unit like a single part of speech. In the following examples, note how phrases take on the roles of nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. (Phrases that begin with a preposition— called “prepositional phrases”—can fulfill various functions, particularly as adjective phrases, adverb phrases, or part of noun phrases.Clauses fit into two main categories: independent and dependent. A dependent clause needs an independent clause to finish the thought and become a complete sentence. This type of sentence is called a “complex sentence.”39 A sentence with at least one dependent clause and at least two independent clauses is called a “compound-complex sentence.”40 And “Five Basic Structures of Simple Sentences” Recognizing the five basic structures of simple sentences can be helpful as you later begin to identify subordinate structures that expand these simple structures.41 At the heart of 39 Omaggio, Alice C. 1986. Teaching language in context : Proficiency-oriented instruction. Boston: Heinle and Heinle. p.479. 40 http://www.englishpractice.com/improve/phrases-clauses/ EnglishPractice.com © 2013 – All rights Reserved. Posted on 18.3.12.24.30. 41 http://www.englishpractice.com/improve/phrases-clauses/ EnglishPractice.com © 2013 – All rights Reserved. Posted on 18.3.12.24.30.
  90. 90. Advanced English 90 any complete sentence, you will find one or more of these basic patterns. Sometimes the patterns are not obvious as they appear when listed together. However, as you become familiar with these structures, you will become skilled in recognizing and expanding them with subordinate structures. You will notice that these basic sentence types can be expanded by dependent (subordinate) structures like dependent adverbial clauses, dependent relative clauses, and the variety of phrases made up of dependent prepositional, participial, appositive, and absolute phrases. These are all strategies of sentence expansion. ……………………………………………………………. Exercise Using the examples as a guide, expand each sentence or word group below by adding an appropriate adjective clause. Examples: (1) I admire the person who _____. Sample sentence #1: I admire the person who first dared to eat a tomato. Sample sentence #2: I admire the person who has the courage to speak her mind. (2) The house in which _____ was run down and smelled like
  91. 91. Advanced English 91 boiled cabbage. Sample sentence #1: The house in which my teacher lived was run down and smelled like boiled cabbage. Sample sentence #2: The house in which the body was found was run down and smelled like boiled cabbage. A simple sentence may be converted into a complex sentence by expanding a word or phrase into a subordinate noun clause, adjective clause or adverb clause. Study the following examples By expanding a noun into a noun clause A noun may be expanded into a noun clause. He admitted his mistake. He admitted that he had made a mistake. (Here the noun mistake is expanded into the noun clause ‘that he had made a mistake’.)
  92. 92. Advanced English 92 We heard of his death. (Simple) We heard that he had died. (Complex) A noun phrase can also be expanded into a noun clause. He seems to be a fool. (Simple) It seems that he is a fool. (Complex. Here we expand the phrase ‘a fool’ into the clause ‘that he is a fool’.) I would like to know the secret of your success. (Simple) I would like to know how you succeed. (Complex) By expanding a word or phrase into an adverb clause A word or phrase can be expanded into an adverb clause. It is too hot to go out without an umbrella. (Simple) It is so hot that we cannot go out without an umbrella. (Complex) Seeing the snake, the boy shouted. When the boy saw the snake, he shouted.
  93. 93. Advanced English 93 We didn’t go out because of the rain. We didn’t go out because it rained. By expanding a word or phrase into an adjective clause A simple sentence may be converted into a complex sentence by expanding a word or phrase into an adjective clause. Prudent boys work hard. (Simple) Boys who are prudent work hard. (Complex)
  94. 94. Advanced English 94 Chapter 6 Sentence Pattern Transformations Scope of the Study in Chapter 6 1. Sentence Pattern Transformations 1.1. Transform to Passive Voice 1.2. To Create the Transformation 1.3. Transform to the Expletive there is / there are 1.4. Transform to Negative and Transform to Interrogative with yes-no Answer 1.5. Transform to Interrogative 1.6. Transform to Emphasis / Emphatic 1.6.1. Transform to Imperative 1.6.2. Transform to Exclamatory Objectives of the Study 1. Learning to know and Understand Sentence Pattern Transformations 1.1. Transform to Passive Voice 1.2. To Create the Transformation 1.3. Transform to the Expletive there is / there are 1.4. Transform to Negative and Transform to Interrogative with yes-no Answer 1.5. Transform to Interrogative 1.6. Transform to Emphasis / Emphatic
  95. 95. Advanced English 95 1.6.1. Transform to Imperative 1.6.2. Transform to Exclamatory
  96. 96. Advanced English 96 Chapter 6 Sentence Pattern Transformations In this chapter I will try to give an easily example and make a shortly explanation about the sentence pattern transformation show to write a sentence or clause, by changing the form of the sentence, the other forms, by trying to preserve the original meaning or may change the meaning some what, depending on the purpose of the author himself. Is there a way to convert the sentence with a collection of them? The ideas presented are not well enough. The basic sentence patterns in the English language may be transformed in the following ways: Transform to Passive Voice This transformation requires using a sentence with an action verb and a direct object. The sentence may be any of the following patterns:42 NP1 + V-tr + NP2 The dog ate the bone. NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP3 Joe gave Mary a ring. NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + Adj We consider Joe intelligent. 42 http://www.towson.edu/ows/sentpatttrans.htmby Margaret L. Benner, benner@towson.edu. For educational purposes only. All commercial uses strictly prohibited. Copyright © 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003 Towson University. All rights reserved, Retrieved on 8/4/2012.
  97. 97. Advanced English 97 NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP2 The people made Olaf king. To Create the Transformation, 1. Make the direct object into the subject, 2. Add the "be" auxiliary and the -en ending to the main verb, and 3. Place the original doer of the action into a prepositional phrase beginning with by. Examples:
  98. 98. Advanced English 98 Note: Do not change verb tense when transforming sentences from active to passive. Ate = was eaten Gave = was given Consider = is considered Made = was made Transform to the Expletive there is / there are This transformation requires using a sentence with a verb of being as the main verb. The sentence pattern must be NP1 + V-be + ADV/TP. A fly is on the wall. Two dogs were at the park. To Create the Transformation, 1. Place there at the beginning of the sentence and 2. Reverse positions of the subject and verb. Examples:
  99. 99. Advanced English 99 Note: Do not change verb tense when creating there is / there are transformation. is = there is is = There was are = there were = there were Transform to Cleft/Divide This transformation allows the writer to emphasize the sentence subject or object. This transformation may be used with any of the sentence patterns. There are two ways to create this transformation. Method 1 1. Begin the sentence with It and the appropriate number and tense of the verb of being, 2. Focus on either the subject or direct object, and
  100. 100. Advanced English 100 3. Create a second half for the sentence that begins with who, whom, or that. Examples: In the above example, the first cleft transformation emphasizes the subject, dog, using three words to refer to the dog: it, dog, and that. The second cleft transformation emphasizes the direct object, bone, using three words to refer to the bone: it, bone, and that. In the above example, the first cleft transformation emphasizes the direct object, Joe, using three words to refer to Joe: it, Joe, and whom. The second cleft transformation emphasizes the subject we, using three words to refer to us it, we, and who.
  101. 101. Advanced English 101 Method 2 1. Begin the sentence with What, 2. Follow with the subject and verb, and 3. Insert the appropriate tense of the verb of being and follow with the direct object. Examples: In the above example, the cleft transformation emphasizes the direct object, bone, using two words to refer to bone: what and bone. This cleft transformation emphasizes the direct object, ring, using two words to refer to the ring: what and ring. Note: Do not change verb tense when creating the cleft transformation. Past Tense: The dog ate the bone.
  102. 102. Advanced English 102 It was the dog who ate the bone. It was the bone that the dog ate. What the dog ate was the bone. Present Tense: We consider Joe intelligent. It is Joe whom we consider Intelligent. Past Tense: Joe gave Mary a ring. What Joe gave Mary was a ring. Transform to Negative This transformation may be used with any of the sentence patterns. To Create the Negative Transformation 1. with a verb of being as the main verb: Add not to the verb. Example
  103. 103. Advanced English 103 2. with an action or linking verb that has an auxiliary verb (have or be): Add not to the verb Example - action verb Example - linking verb 3. With an action or linking verb that does not have an auxiliary verb: Add not and the appropriate number and tense of do. Example - action verb Example - linking verb
  104. 104. Advanced English 104 Transform to Interrogative with yes-no answer This transformation may be used with any of the sentence patterns. To transform sentences into the interrogative with yes-no answer, 1. with a verb of being as the main verb: Transpose the position of the subject and the verb 2. with an action or linking verb that has an auxiliary verb (have or be): Transpose the position of the subject and the auxiliary verb Example - action verb Example - linking verb 3. With an action or linking verb that does not have an auxiliary verb: Add the appropriate number and tense of do
  105. 105. Advanced English 105 Example - Action verb Example - Linking verb Transform to Interrogative This transformation provides questions that will produce more than a yes/no answer. It may be used with any of the sentence patterns. To create the transformation, 1. Place an interrogative word at the beginning of the sentence, 2. Reverse positions of the subject and verb, and 3. Add do/does/did if needed (action or linking verb without auxiliary verb). Interrogative Words: how when where why what which who whom
  106. 106. Advanced English 106 Example - verb of being Example - action verb with auxiliary verb Example - linking verb with auxiliary verb Example - action verb without auxiliary verb Example - linking verb without auxiliary verb
  107. 107. Advanced English 107 Note: Sentences using which or whose to create the interrogative may not require adding do/does/did or transposing the positions of the subject and verb. Transform to Emphasis / Emphatic This transformation may be used  With all sentence patterns except the verb-of-being patterns.  With action or linking verbs that do not have auxiliary verbs. To make the emphatic transformation, place do, does, or did in front of the verb, as tense and number dictate. Examples Transform to Imperative This transformation creates a command. It may be used with all sentence patterns. To make the imperative transformation,
  108. 108. Advanced English 108 replace the sentence subject with you understood and change the verb form to its infinitive form without to Examples: Note: There is only one tense, simple present, for the imperative transformation. Transform to Exclamatory This transformation creates a surprise statement. It may be used with all sentence patterns. To make the exclamatory transformation,  place what or how at the beginning of the sentence  rearrange words in the sentence as needed  place an exclamation point at the end of the sentence Examples: In many cases, more than one transformation may be performed at a time on a given sentence. Example - passive and interrogative
  109. 109. Advanced English 109 Example - passive, negative, and interrogative yes-no Example - cleft, emphasis, and interrogative yes-no Answer the Question Active and Passive Examples: Change the following active sentences into passive form. She wrote a letter. A letter was written by her. 2. Julia rescued three cats. Three cats were rescued by Julia. 2. Steven has forgotten the books. The books have been forgotten by Steven. 3. The teacher will not open the window. The window will not (won’t) be opened by the teacher. 4. Susan is baking a cake.
  110. 110. Advanced English 110 A cake is being baked my Susan 5. Tim washed many cars. Many cars were washed by Tim. Examples: Change the following passive sentences into active form. Pasta is being cooked by Jim. Jim is cooking Pasta. 1. The words were explained by the teacher yesterday. The teacher explained the words yesterday. 2. Many dishes were not washed by my little brother. My little brother didn’t wash many dishes. 3. Photos are taken by me. I take photos. 4. Housework is done by her. She does housework. 5. Kevin asked Dennis a question. Denis was asked a question by Kevin.(here change Active to be Passive)
  111. 111. Advanced English 111 Conclusion According to the sentence pattern transformations it makes a shortly explanation about the sentence pattern transformation show to write a sentence or clause, by changing the form of the sentence, the other forms, by trying to preserve the original meaning. Or may change the meaning some what, Depending on the purpose of the author himself. Is there a way to convert the sentence with a collection of them? The ideas presented are not well enough. ………………………………………………………….. Exercise The Answer keys of Active and Passive 1. Exercise: Change the following active sentences into passive form. 0. She wrote a letter. A letter was written by her. 1. Julia rescued three cats. Three cats were rescued by Julia. 2. Steven has forgotten the books. The books have been forgotten by Steven. 3. The teacher will not open the window. The window will not (won’t) be opened by the teacher.
  112. 112. Advanced English 112 4. Susan is baking a cake. A cake is being baked my Susan 5. Tim washed many cars. Many cars were washed by Tim. 2. Exercise: Change the following passive sentences into active form. 0. Pasta is being cooked by Jim. Jim is cooking Pasta. 1. The words were explained by the teacher yesterday. The teacher explained the words yesterday. 2. Many dishes were not washed by my little brother. My little brother didn’t wash many dishes. 3. Photos are taken by me. I take photos. 4. Housework is done by her. She does housework. 5. Kevin asked Dennis a question.
  113. 113. Advanced English 113 Denis was asked a question by Kevin. (here it is changedActive voice to bePassive voice) 3.Complete the correct verb form with the passive. 1. A song ..(sing)..........................by Ann now. 2. Rice (usually eat) .............................by Thai people nationwide. 3. English (teach).......................................by me for more than 20 years. 4. Two snakes (kill).................................by my dog yesterday. 5. My birthday party (hold) ...............................next Saturday. …………………………………………………
  114. 114. Advanced English 114 Chapter 7 Clause and Sentence Structure Scope of Study in Chapter 7 1. Clause and Sentence Structure 1.1. The Simple Sentence 1.2. The Compound Sentence 2. Special Cases of Compound Sentences 2.1. Compound-Complex 2.2. The Complex Sentence Objectives of the Study 1. Learning to know and understand the Clause and Sentence Structure 2. Learning to know and understand Special Cases of Compound Sentences

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