The basic sentence patterns in the English language maybe transformed in the following ways:1. Transform to passive voiceThis transformation requires using a sentence with anaction verb and a direct object.
THE SENTENCE MAY BE ANY OFTHE FOLLOWING PATTERNS:NP1 + V-tr + NP2 The dog ate the bone.NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP3 Joe gave Mary a ring.NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + Adj We consider Joe intelligent.NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP2 The people made Olafking.
TO CREATE THETRANSFORMATION,1. make the direct object into the subject,2. add the "be" auxiliary and the -en ending to themain verb, and3. place the original doer of the action into aprepositional phrase beginning with by.
NOTE: Do not change verb tense when transformingsentences from active to passive.ate = was eaten gave = was given consider = isconsidered made = was made
2. TRANSFORM TO THE E X PL E TIVETHE RE IS / THE RE AREThis transformation requires using a sentence with a verbof being as the main verb. The sentence pattern must be NP1 + V-be + ADV/TP. A fly is on the wall. Two dogs were at the park.
TO CREATE THETRANSFORMATION,1. place there at the beginning ofthe sentence and2. reverse positions of the subjectand verb.
NOTE: Do not change verb tense when creating the there is / there aretransformation.is = there is were = there were
3. TRANSFORM TO CLEFTThis transformation allows the writer to emphasize a thesentence subject or object.This transformation may be used with any of thesentence patterns.There are two ways to create this transformation.
METHOD 11. Begin the sentence with It and the appropriate numberand tense of the verb of being,2. focus on either the subject or direct object, and3. create a second half for the sentence that beginswith who, whom, or that.
In the above example, the first cleft transformationemphasizes the subject, dog, using three words to referto the dog: it, dog, and that.The second cleft transformation emphasizes thedirect object, bone, using three words to refer to thebone: it, bone, and that.
In the above example, the first cleft transformationemphasizes the direct object, Joe, using three words to referto Joe: it, Joe, and whom.The second cleft transformation emphasizes the subjectwe, using three words to refer to us it, we, and who.
METHOD 21. Begin the sentence with What,2. follow with the subject and verb, and3. insert the appropriate tense of the verb ofbeing and follow with the direct object.
EXAMPLESIn the above example, the cleft transformationemphasizes the direct object, bone, using twowords to refer to bone: what and bone.
This cleft transformation emphasizes the directobject, ring, , using two words to refer to the ring: what andring.NOTE: Do not change verb tense when creating the clefttransformation.
PAST TENSE: The dog ate the bone.It was the dog who ate the bone.It was the bone that the dog ate.What the dog ate was the bone.
PRESENT TENSE: We consider Joe intelligent.It is Joe whom we consider intelligent.PAST TENSE: Joe gave Mary a ring.What Joe gave Mary was a ring.
4. TRANSFORM TO NEGATIVEThis transformation may be used with any of the sentence patterns.To create the negative transformationA. with a verb of being as the main verb: Add not to the verb.
6. TRANSFORM TOINTERROGATIVEThis transformation provides questions that will produce more than a yes/noanswer.It may be used with any of the sentence patterns.To create the transformation,1. place an interrogative word at the beginning of the sentence,2. reverse positions of the subject and verb, and3. add do/does/did if needed (action or linking verb without auxiliaryverb).
Interrogative words:how when where whywhat which who whom
NOTE: Sentences using which or whose tocreate the interrogative may not require addingdo/does/did or transposing the positions of thesubject and verb.
7. Transform to emphasis / emphaticThis transformation may be used• with all sentence patterns except the verb-of-being patterns.• with action or linking verbs that do not have auxiliary verbsTo make the emphatic transformation, place do, does, or did infront of the verb, as tense and number dictate.
8. Transform to imperative This transformation creates a command. It may be used with all sentence patterns. To make the imperative transformation, replace thesentence subject with you UNDERSTOOD and change theverb form to its infinitive form without to.