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Knowledge Management Toolkit, The                  By Amrit Tiwana                  .........................................
Business and Knowledge     Knowledge-Friendly Companies     Knowledge-Sharing Companies     Is Your Company Ready for Know...
Team Life Span and Sizing Issues    The Knowledge Management Project Leader    The KM Teams Project Space    Points of Fai...
Alternative Metrics          Lessons Learned          Endnotes         Chapter 15. Case Studies          Some Background  ...
HD30.2.T59 2000658.4038--dc21 99-049321CIP© 2000 Prentice Hall PTRPrentice-Hall, Inc.Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458All right...
Prentice-Hall of Japan, Inc., TokyoPearson Education Asia Pte. Ltd., SingaporeEditora Prentice-Hall do Brasil, Ltda., Rio ...
knowledge that lies in your companys people, processes, and experience that the hope forsurvival rests. Peter Drucker warn...
thinking. Special thanks are also due to Herbert Simon for his insightful comments. It ison the shoulders of these giants ...
Most importantly, I would like to acknowledge the support and encouragement that myfamily has provided me. Without them, t...
Knowledge management might be "hot" as of today, but successful managers havealways realized its value. Long before terms ...
applied in the minds of knowers. In organizations, it often becomes embedded not only indocuments or repositories but also...
[b]     Drucker also points out that unlike in the production economy, quality of work, decisions, and   processes is at l...
4. Only the knowledgeable survive. "The survival of the fittest firm" is an   outmoded thought in the knowledge-based econ...
threats or opportunities in other countries is a tedious, time-consuming, and        difficult process. Knowledge manageme...
In a global economy, Davenport and Prusak suggest, "Knowledge many be yourcompanys greatest competitive advantage." Having...
Two types of companies should be pursuing knowledge management. The first type isone that has realized the need to keep up...
Knowledge management is much more than mere technology: It is a potent competitivetool for an ever more brutally competiti...
•   Knowledge management is not about a one-time investment. Knowledge       management, like any other future-oriented in...
business interest in knowledge management. Ever since the Japanese scholar IkujiroNonaka popularized the idea in his 1995 ...
information management and knowledge management, guides you through the process ofidentifying knowledge that is critical t...
through a series of diagnostic iterations. We will also analyze the appropriate choice ofcollaborative platform based on y...
Why Not the "M" Word?The following chapters provide a roadmap that I will refrain from calling a methodology.The term meth...
appear throughout this book. Every chapter but Chapter 1 ends with a "Lessons Learned"section that summarizes the key poin...
Table 1-1. How this book is organizedChapter      What is coveredChapter 8 Audit, analyze, and identify existing knowledge...
Assumptions About Your CompanyThere are certain assumptions that I make about you as a reader of this book. I wouldhope th...
destination. Figuratively speaking, its like taking a flight (that flies all its 300 passengersin exactly the same way) ra...
[i]         Government and nonprofit organizations are not excluded by this characterization: The U.S.       Postal Servic...
6. Klasson, Kirk, Managing Knowledge for Advantage: Content and Collaboration   Technologies, The Cambridge Information Ne...
21. Dempsey, Michael, Buzzword Has Already Made a Lot of Enemies: The Role of    the Chief Knowledge Officer, Financial Ti...
35. This characterization is inspired by Shapiro, C., and H. Varian, Information Rules:          A Strategic Guide to the ...
With an incredible $155 billion in sales, Ford Motor Company (www.ford.com) camesecond to General Motors (www.gm.com) on t...
However, if you take a closer look at how the value of a company is determined, you willnotice another measure called mark...
At first these observations seem quite contradictory and out of the ordinary. But considerthe businesses that these compan...
Table 2-3. Market Valuation of Some Recently Founded CompaniesCompany                                                  Mar...
Intellectual CapitalCompanies with high levels of market valuation are often companies with high levels ofintangible asset...
[d]   The three-part PBS (www.pbs.org) documentary, Triumph of the Nerds, provides an interesting storyabout Apples financ...
Even though there is no publicized KM agenda within Microsoft, it has beenessentially managing knowledge all along. The cr...
their flexibility and agility. Even with seemingly labor, and raw-material-intensiveproducts, Fords major cost drivers are...
7. The death of technology as a viable long-term differentiator.   8. Compression of product and process life cycles.   9....
Table 2-4. KM Wagons, Their Contents, and Their HorsesWagons                   Contents (factors)                         ...
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system
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The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system. In the quest for sustainable competitive advantage, companies have finally come to realize that technology alone is not that. What sustains is knowledge. It is in unchaining knowledge that lies in your company's people, processes, and experience that the hope for survival rests. Peter Drucker warned us years ago, but it's only now that companies have finally woken up to the value of managing their knowledge and bringing it to bear upon decisions that drive them up or out of existence. If your organization is confused by vendor buzz and consultant pitches about how they and their products can solve all your knowledge problems, be forewarned: It's not that easy. Knowledge management (KM) is just about 35 percent technology. While technology is the easy part, it's the people and processes part that is hard. The Knowledge Management Toolkit will provide you with a strategic roadmap for knowledge management and teach you how to implement KM in your company, step by step.

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Transcript of "The knowledge management toolkit practical techniques for building a knowledge management system"

  1. 1. Knowledge Management Toolkit, The By Amrit Tiwana ............................................... Publisher: Prentice Hall Pub Date: December 06, 1999 Print ISBN-10: 0-13-012853-8 Print ISBN-13: 978-0-13-012853-9 Pages: 608Table of Contents Copyright Preface Acknowledgments Part I: The Rubber Meets the Road Chapter 1. Introduction Knowledge Management: A Goldmine or an Empty Piggy-bank? What This Book Is About What This Book Will Do How to Use This Book What This Book Is Not About Endnotes Chapter 2. The Knowledge Edge Getting to Why: The New World The Missing Pieces Accounting for Abnormal Differences A Common Theme Intellectual Capital The 24 Drivers of KM Knowledge-Centric Drivers Technology Drivers Organizational Structure-Based Drivers Personnel-Focused Drivers Process Drivers Economic Drivers Creating the Knowledge Edge Lessons Learned Endnotes Chapter 3. From Information to Knowledge From Data to Information to Knowledge From Data to Knowledge Classifying Knowledge The Three Fundamental Steps Knowledge Management Systems and Existing Technology Taming the Tigers Tail
  2. 2. Business and Knowledge Knowledge-Friendly Companies Knowledge-Sharing Companies Is Your Company Ready for Knowledge Management? Lessons Learned EndnotesPart II: The Road Ahead: Implementing Knowledge Management Chapter 4. The 10-Step KM Roadmap The 10-Step Knowledge Management Road map Phase 1: Infrastructural Evaluation Phase 2: Knowledge Management System Analysis, Design, and Development Phase 3: Deployment Phase 4: Metrics for Performance Evaluation Lessons LearnedPart IIA: The First Phase: Infrastructural Evaluation and Leverage Chapter 5. The Leveraged Infrastructure The Approach: Leverage, Leverage, Leverage Leveraging the Internet Enabling Technologies for the Knowledge Management Technology Framework Knowledge Servers Lessons Learned Endnotes Chapter 6. Aligning Knowledge Management and Business Strategy From Strategic Programming to Strategic Planning Knowledge Maps to Link Knowledge to Strategy Strategic Imperatives for a Successful KM System Assessing Focus Lessons Learned EndnotesPart IIB: The Second Phase: KM System Analysis, Design, and Development Chapter 7. Infrastructural Foundations Technology Components of the KM Architecture The Seven-Layer KM System Architecture Foundation for the Interface Layer The Web or Notes? Collaborative Intelligence and Filtering Layer Lessons Learned Endnotes Chapter 8. Knowledge Audit and Analysis Hindsight + Insight = Foresight Measuring Knowledge Growth The Knowledge Audit Team Choosing Your Companys K-Spots Lessons Learned Endnotes Chapter 9. Designing the KM Team Sources of Expertise Team Composition and Selection Criteria
  3. 3. Team Life Span and Sizing Issues The Knowledge Management Project Leader The KM Teams Project Space Points of Failure Lessons Learned Endnotes Chapter 10. Creating the KM System Blueprint Analyzing Lost Opportunities The Knowledge Management Architecture Components of a Knowledge Management System Designing Integrative and Interactive Knowledge Applications Build or Buy? User Interface Design Considerations A Network View of the KM Architecture Future-Proofing the Knowledge Management System Lessons Learned Endnotes Chapter 11. Developing the KM System The Building Blocks: Seven Layers The Interface Layer The Access and Authentication Layer The Collaborative Filtering and Intelligence Layer The Application Layer The Transport Layer The Middleware and Legacy Integration Layer The Repositories Layer Lessons Learned EndnotesPart IIC: The Third Phase: KMS Deployment Chapter 12. Prototyping and Deployment Moving From Firefighting to Systems Deployment? Prototyping Pre-RDI Deployment Methods The Results Driven Incremental Methodology Lessons Learned Endnotes Chapter 13. The CKO and Reward Structures From the CIO to the CKO The Successful CKO Reward Structures to Ensure Knowledge Management Success Lessons Learned EndnotesPart IID: The Final Phase and Beyond: Measuring ROI and Performance Chapter 14. Metrics for Knowledge Work Traditional Metrics Common Pitfalls in Choosing Metrics Three Ways to Measure Classifying and Evaluating Processes
  4. 4. Alternative Metrics Lessons Learned Endnotes Chapter 15. Case Studies Some Background Knowledge Management in the Aerospace Industry: The Case of Rolls Royce Knowledge Management in Sales and Marketing: The Case of Platinum Technology KM in Customer Support: The Case of Nortel KM in the Semiconductor Industry: GaSonics International The Goal: Three Months to Target KM Pilot Case: Monsanto Nutrition and Consumer Products Lessons Learned Part III: Side Roads: Appendices Appendix A. The Knowledge Management Assessment Kit The 10-Step Populated Roadmap Phase 1: Infrastructural Evaluation Phase 2: Analysis, Design, and Development Putting It All Together Appendix B. Alternative Schemes for Structuring the KM System Front End Alternative Structures Appendix C. Software Tools Software Tools Appendix D. Resources on the Web Knowledge Management: Web Pointers Intellectually Rich Companies SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Bibliographic References and Further Reading GlossaryCopyrightLibrary of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataTiwana, Amrit, —The knowledge management toolkit: practical techniques for building a knowledgemanagement system/Amrit Tiwana.p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 0-13-012853-81. Knowledge management. I. Title.
  5. 5. HD30.2.T59 2000658.4038--dc21 99-049321CIP© 2000 Prentice Hall PTRPrentice-Hall, Inc.Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, in any form or by any means,without permission in writing from the publisherPrentice Hall books are widely used by corporation and government agencies for training,marketing, and resale.The publisher offers discounts on this book when ordered in bulk quantities. For moreinformation, contactCorporate Sales Department,Prentice Hall PTROne Lake StreetUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458Phone: 800-382-3419; FAX: 201-236-7141E-mail (Internet): corpsales@prenhall.comPrinted in the United States of America10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1Prentice-Hall International (UK) Limited, LondonPrentice-Hall of Australia Pty. Limited, SydneyPrentice-Hall Canada Inc., TorontoPrentice-Hall Hispanoamericana, S.A., MexicoPrentice-Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi
  6. 6. Prentice-Hall of Japan, Inc., TokyoPearson Education Asia Pte. Ltd., SingaporeEditora Prentice-Hall do Brasil, Ltda., Rio de JaneiroCredits for Chapter-opening QuotesChapter 3: Simon, H.A. (1988). "Managing in an information-rich world." In Y.K.Sketty and V.M. Buehler (eds.), Competing Through Productivity and Quality.Cambridge, MA: Productivity Press.Chapter 5:Foreword by Arthur C. Clarke, "Intelligent Software Agents" by RichardMurch, Tony Johnson, Prentice Hall (1998).Chapter 6:"What Life Means to Einstein: An Interview by George Sylvester Viereck,"for the October 26, 1929 issue of The Saturday Evening Post.Chapter 8: "The Speakers Electonic Reference Collection," AApex Software, 1994.Chapter 9: Rita Mae Brown.Chapter 11: From THE ART OF WAR by Sun Tzu, translated by Samuel B. Griffith.Translation copyright ©1963 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Used by permission ofOxford University Press, Inc.Chapter 12: As quoted by Richard Murch and Tony Johnson in "Intelligent SoftwareAgents: Prentice Hall (1998)."Chapter14: L. Lodish, "Vaguely Right Approach to Sales Force Automation," HarvardBusiness Review, 52, 119–124 (1979).DedicationTo SherryPrefaceReal knowledge is to know the extent of ones ignorance—ConfuciusIn the quest for sustainable competitive advantage, companies have finally come torealize that technology alone is not that. What sustains is knowledge. It is in unchaining
  7. 7. knowledge that lies in your companys people, processes, and experience that the hope forsurvival rests. Peter Drucker warned us years ago, but its only now that companies havefinally woken up to the value of managing their knowledge and bringing it to bear upondecisions that drive them up or out of existence.If your organization is confused by vendor buzz and consultant pitches about how theyand their products can solve all your knowledge problems, be forewarned: Its not thateasy. Knowledge management (KM) is just about 35 percent technology. Whiletechnology is the easy part, its the people and processes part that is hard.The Knowledge Management Toolkit will provide you with a strategic roadmap forknowledge management and teach you how to implement KM in your company, step bystep. Technology should not always be mistaken for computing technology; the two arenot synonymous. Chapter 1, rather than this preface, introduces you to KM and to thisbook. Before you begin, a notational warning would be in order. Youll find a lot ofcitations because of the cumulative tradition that this book follows by choice. However,do not let this distract you; all that you need to comprehend a topic being discussed isfootnoted on the same page. You can safely ignore all endnotes without losing anyinformation (unless you want to trace bibliographic history). When a URL is mentionedin the text, you will likely find further information on it in Appendix D.Youll hear about the silver bullet, a term rooted in folklore of the American Civil War. Itsupposedly emerged from the practice of encouraging a patient who was to undergo fieldsurgery to bite down hard on a lead bullet "to divert the mind from pain and screaming"(American Slang, Harper & Row, New York, 1986). Youll soon realize that youve foundthe silver bullet of business competitiveness.Think of this book as a conversation between you and me. Remember to visit thecompanion site at http://www.kmtoolkit.com. I would love to hear your comments,suggestions, questions, criticisms, and reactions. Feel free to email me atatiwana@acm.org.Amrit TiwanaAtlantaAcknowledgmentsRobert Dubin pointed out as early as 1976 (Theory Building in Applied Areas, RandMcNally College Publishing Co., Chicago, 17-26) that there is probably a five- to ten-year lag between the time a theoretical model—which KM for a large part is—becomesfashionable in the real world. Its the thinkers who prepare the revolution and the banditswho carry it out. I could not even begin to truly acknowledge the intellectual debt that Iowe to thinkers like Ikujiro Nonaka, Karl Wiig, Tom Davenport, Bob Buckman, PeterDrucker, Michael Zack, Andrew Inkpen, Wanda Orlikowski, Marco Iansiti, and JamesBrian Quinn, who prepared the knowledge revolution and have long influenced my own
  8. 8. thinking. Special thanks are also due to Herbert Simon for his insightful comments. It ison the shoulders of these giants that this book stands.I would like to thank the people from the industry who made that initial leap of faith andembraced the value of knowledge management in their work, products, services, and as acenterpiece of their businesses. Among the many people I wish to thank for their supportare Elaine Viscosi at Intranetics Inc. for permission to use a sample Intranet deploymentdescribed as Urban Motors in Chapter 9; Michael Zack of Northeastern University;Chuck Sieloff of Hewlett Packard; Johanna Rothman of Rothman Consulting; JoniSchlender of Plumtree Corporation; Steve Shattuck of Alpha Microsystems; JeanHeminway of Xerox Corporation for her zealous support for the DMA/WebDAVstandards and the inputs that she provided; Susan Hanley at AMS Inc; Michael Davis ofOSIS; Ray Edwards of Lighthouse Consulting; Joni Schlender of Plumtree Software;Harry Collier of Infornotics, England; Jim Eup of Powerway; Mark Turner of the NaturalLanguage Processing Lab at Thomson; Jeff Barton of Texas Instruments for his insightfulanalysis of this book; Glenn Shimkus of Platinum Technology, Inc.; Rick Dove ofParadigmShift International; Thomas Davenport of Andersen Consulting and BostonUniversity; Mark Montgomery of GWIN; Fanuel Dewever of Newcom, Belgium; SteveSinger of CIO; Gord Podolski of Nortel Networks; Bettina Jetter of MindJet LLC forextensive information on mind mapping; Simon Tussler of the Boston Consulting Group;Mark Kawakami and others who I have inadvertently left out.I would also like to acknowledge the invaluable suggestions and unfailing support that Ihave received from my colleagues including Arjan Raven; Bala Ramesh, my mentor; andespecially Ashley Bush, who "lived through" several drafts of this book and helped methrough the many software crashes that come exactly in the middle of your best ideas in aWindows world. Thanks are also due to my close associates, Smiley and Tommy, withoutwhose help this book would have been a more formidable task.I would also like to thank Mark Keil, Daniel Robey, Richard Baskerville, and VijayVaishnavi at the J. Mack Robinson College of Business, from whom I have much learnedto strike the balance between rigor and relevance in research. Built upon the shoulders ofthe giants in information systems research, this book is my humble attempt at provingthat there is more relevance in the cumulative body of research that comes out of theivory towers than we usually get credit for.This book would have been an impossible task without the enthusiasm of my editor,Miles Williams, his able assistant Noreen Regina, and my initial contact at PHPTR, MarkTaub. The quality of this book also owes a lot to my technical reviewers includingCorinne Gregory of Data Dimensions, Chuck Fay of FileNet Corporation, and to myanonymous initial reviewers, for their suggestions. The credit for the readability of thisbook goes largely to my development editor, Mary Lou Nohr, whose insights, arguments,and suggestions helped me see the forest when all I could see were the trees. The visualappeal of this book owes much to the skills of Kerry Reardon.
  9. 9. Most importantly, I would like to acknowledge the support and encouragement that myfamily has provided me. Without them, this book would have been far from possible.Part I: The Rubber Meets the RoadChapter 1. IntroductionAs we gain more knowledge, we do not become certain, we become certain of more.—Ayn RandIN THIS CHAPTER • Define knowledge management (KM). • Understand the noise about knowledge management. Understand why now. • Evaluate knowledge managements value proposition • Look beyond the buzz to see if there is anything "real" behind KM. • Define what knowledge management is not. • Understand if your company is ready for knowledge management.Data. At first we had too little. We asked for more and we got it. Now we have more thanwe want. Data led to information, but what we were looking for in the first place wasknowledge.As an increasing number of companies now realize that knowledge is their key asset, theywant to turn to managing this asset to deliver business results. Maybe you want tointroduce knowledge management (KM) in your own company.But where and how do you begin? What is behind the buzz? What is KMs valueproposition? What types of companies can actually begin knowledge management? Is it atechnology problem or a management problem? What happens to the millions that yourcompany has invested in information technology (IT) if it is replaced by yet anotherhyped "fix-it-all" technology? Can you build upon existing IT investments? What kindsof people, skills, and organizational structures are necessary to pull it off? How can KMbe aligned with your businesss strategy? Is there an architecture that you can use? Howcan you deploy KM in your own company? Are there any business metrics for it? Howcan you maximize payoff if you implement KM? Can your small business without deeppockets afford it? How do you know if your business is even ready for it? These are someof the questions that this book will help you answer.Knowledge Management: A Goldmine or anEmpty Piggy-bank?
  10. 10. Knowledge management might be "hot" as of today, but successful managers havealways realized its value. Long before terms such as expert systems, core competencies,best practices, learning organizations, and corporate memory were in vogue, thesemanagers knew that their companys key asset was not its buildings, its market share, orits products, but it lay in its people, their knowledge, and skills. After having triedeverything else—from the greatest products and the best technology to virtualmonopolies—in their respective markets, more businesses have finally come to therealization that the only sustainable source of competitive advantage is their knowledge.As Drucker fittingly warns us, "those who wait until this challenge indeed becomes a hotissue are likely to fall behind, perhaps never to recover."[1]Why Knowledge?Far from vendor sales pitches, a crying need for knowledge management is evident. Thisneed is a growing reality, worldwide: from Antigua to Zaire. The Scotsman reports that98 percent of senior managers in a KPMG survey believe that knowledge managementwas more than just a passing fad.[2] The London Times calls it the "fifth discipline" afterbusiness strategy, accounting, marketing, and human resources and called upon Britishcompanies to harness it to improve their performance and profitability.[3] The need isevident in Singapore, where The Strait Times reports that "organizations lack a strategy tomanage knowledge sharing among their staff." [4] Some organizations there, The StraitTimes reports, are not even sure what a knowledge management strategy is or how todevelop one. Of 75 senior managers interviewed in Singapore, only 3 of whom felt thattheir companies were even moderately effective at knowledge sharing, unequivocallyvoice their intent to make knowledge management their number one priority.[5]This sounds very much like the opinion that weve been hearing in the United States. Forgood reason: forty percent of the U.S. economy is directly attributable to the creation ofintellectual capital.[6] As companies fail to solve KM problems by plugging in "fix-it-all"technology solutions, echoes of the cultural complement needed to make these solutionsactually work are resounding far beyond the United States. David Hewson writes in theSunday Times, "the problem is cultural…where the idea of making information availableto all, at every level throughout the company, frequently is anathema to managers." [7]Whats Knowledge?Knowledge and knowledge management are lofty concepts—debated by academics andmanagers and even doubted by some analysts—one that only a few businesses havemastered.[8] The few big businesses that have are the ones that now top the Fortune 500list and the few small ones top the Inc. 100 hot companies to watch list. Before wecontinue, here is a working definition of knowledge suggested by Thomas Davenport andLaurence Prusak, which we will refine as we proceed:Knowledge is a fluid mix of framed experience, values, contextual information, expertinsight and grounded intuition that provides an environment and framework forevaluating and incorporating new experiences and information. It originates and is
  11. 11. applied in the minds of knowers. In organizations, it often becomes embedded not only indocuments or repositories but also in organizational routines, processes, practices, andnorms.[9]So Whats Knowledge Management?Next, lets try getting a temporary handle on what knowledge management means. In thesimplest terms it means exactly that: management of knowledge. In the context of ourdiscussion, it can be extended to "management of organizational knowledge for creatingbusiness value and generating a competitive advantage." Knowledge managementenables the creation, communication, and application of knowledge of all kinds toachieve business goals.[10] Kirk Klasson elucidates, "Knowledge management is theability to create and retain greater value from core business competencies." Knowledgemanagement addresses business problems particular to your business—whether itscreating and delivering innovative products or services; managing and enhancingrelationships with existing and new customers, partners, and suppliers; or administeringand improving work practices and processes.KMs Value PropositionThe ability of companies to exploit their intangible assets has become far more decisivethan their ability to invest and manage their physical assets.[11] As markets shift,uncertainty dominates, technologies proliferate, competitors multiply, and products andservices become obsolete rapidly, successful companies are characterized by their abilityto consistently create new knowledge, quickly disseminate it, and embody it in their newproducts and services.[12] In the postindustrial era, the success of a corporation lies deeplyembedded in its intellectual systems, as knowledge-based activities of developing newproducts, services, and processes become the primary internal function of firmsattempting to create the greatest promise for a long-term competitive advantage. KirkKlasson suggests that companies can reap an immense payoff when a knowledgemanagement solution makes it easier for practitioners to reach out to other practitionerswho share common problems or have experience to share. Why all this noise aboutknowledge management and why now? There are nine reasons for this: 1. Companies are becoming knowledge intensive, not capital intensive. Knowledge is rapidly displacing capital, monetary prowess, natural resources, and labor as the quintessential economic resource.[13] Knowledge is the only input that can help your company cope with radical change and ask the right questions before you attempt to find the answers,[a] for without this knowledge you might never even realize how your industrys competitive environment is changing until its a little too late. It is this knowledge that brings quality into any companys product and service offerings.[b] Further, product life cycles and service time-to- market can be accelerated in unprecedented ways through knowledge. Knowledge management is the only way to reach and apply this knowledge in time. [a] Asking the right questions and taking action based on such knowledge, Peter Drucker adds, usually double or triple knowledge worker productivity, and usually fast.
  12. 12. [b] Drucker also points out that unlike in the production economy, quality of work, decisions, and processes is at least as important as their quantity. eBay (market value, $22 billion), eFax ($200 million), CISCO ($190 billion), Pfizer ($150 billion), and Microsoft ($400 billion) are a few of several hundred thousand examples.2. Unstable markets necessitate "organized abandonment." Your target markets might undergo radical shifts, leaving your company in a disastrous position of being with the wrong product, at the wrong time, and in the wrong place. The impact of these forces is witnessed most prominently in high-technology environments[c] and financial markets, and increasingly in other markets as well. KM lets you undertake what Drucker calls organized abandonment: [14] reshape products, get out of projects and product lines that can pull your business down, and get into others that maximize growth potential. [c] Just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing, the driver of Toyotas success, for example, is more knowledge based than it is resource based. Also see B. Ramesh and A. Tiwana, Supporting Collaborative Process Knowledge Management in New Product Development Teams, Decision Support Systems (forthcoming), for an analysis of KMs role in high-technology businesses. National Semiconductors, an excellent example, closed down its division Cyrix Corporation, the well-known manufacturer of low-end Intel-clone microprocessors in 1999 when it realized that it was pulling the entire company down as it tried to withstand price-based assaults from mighty Intel, which had pockets deeper than those of National.3. KM lets you lead change so change does not lead you. KM is no longer needed by service-based businesses and consultants alone. Even conventional retailers like Wal-Mart consider their competence in logistics management—a knowledge- intensive activity—to be their primary driver of business success. Drucker warns that no industry or company has a natural advantage or disadvantage; the only advantage it can possess is the ability to exploit universally available knowledge. He describes knowledge as "the window of opportunity." [d] After all, the next critical piece of critical information could take any form—an evolving social trend affecting customer preferences, a new management practice, a nascent technology, or a political or economic development in a remote manufacturing location.[15] You cannot manage this change, Drucker reminds. You can only lead change, and stay ahead of it. [d] Drucker (1999, page 84) also indicates that many such opportunities arise from unexpected failure of competitors (such as in a sales pitch) and unexpected successes on your companys side. In a data-obsessed business environment where only 2 percent of grocery store scanner data collected is ever analyzed,[16] knowledge management can help you determine those points and see opportunities through these "windows" in processes where change needs to be led, before your competitors do.
  13. 13. 4. Only the knowledgeable survive. "The survival of the fittest firm" is an outmoded thought in the knowledge-based economy. The ability to survive and thrive comes only from a firms ability to create, acquire, process, maintain, and retain old and new knowledge in the face of complexity, uncertainty, and rapid change.[17] It becomes deterministic in the firms long-term survival. Drucker points out that knowledge is productive only if it is applied to make a difference (rather than simply exist) and suggests that it is this productivity that is going to be the deterministic factor in the competitive position of any company, or industry.[18] Knowledge management can make that a reality. When your company can apply its past experience for accelerating future work, why should you start every project with a blank sheet and then work feverishly, sometimes even desperately, to make the deadline on budget? Yet companies do it all the time, Connie Moore notes in CIO, [19] and in that mass stupidity lies the opportunity to differentiate your companys processes.5. Cross-industry amalgamation is breeding complexity. Drucker warns us that complexity, uncertainty, and ambiguity are the hallmarks of todays production and business systems irrespective of the nature of business or type of industry. Knowledge management has allowed many companies such as Bay Networks to turn this complexity to their advantage.[20]6. Knowledge can drive decision support like no other. Providing effective decision support by making knowledge about past projects, initiatives, failures, successes, and efforts readily available and accessible can make a significant contribution toward convalescing this process. Drucker lists four diagnostic tools for decision making that we will focus on: foundation, productivity, competence, and resource allocation knowledge. KM solutions that are capable of effectively supporting collaboration and knowledge sharing enable individual knowledge workers, teams, and communities to collaboratively make better decisions faster—and act on those decisions to create more economic value for their company.7. Knowledge requires sharing; IT barely supports sharing. KM requires a strong culture of sharing that information systems do not inherently support. In the United States, Tom Davenport has been feverishly supporting the idea of figuratively creating "water cooler cultures" in the same way as the Europeans have been demanding "coffee machine cultures":[21] environments that allow and systems that support social informality. Knowledge, as any witness to artificial intelligence research knows, "is not about machines, but about culture." [22] Principles that have traditionally driven IT design, though with moderate success, no longer apply in designing KM systems.8. Tacit knowledge is mobile. Too often when someone leaves your firm, his or her experience leaves too. This knowledge, skills, competencies, understanding, and insight then often go to work for a competitor. Knowledge management can save your company from losing critical capabilities when that happens.9. Your competitors are no longer just on the West Coast. We are becoming increasingly global, Drucker notes. Keeping up with developments and ensuing
  14. 14. threats or opportunities in other countries is a tedious, time-consuming, and difficult process. Knowledge management technology, when given the right source feeds, can deliver relevant and timely knowledge.As companies shift from a product-centric form to a knowledge-centric form, it becomesessential to support various dimensions of this knowledge as a critical asset.Companies—big or small—cannot afford to underinvest in using, reusing, and not losingknowledge that they already have. Knowledge management is therefore an imperative forcompanies that do not operate in purely cost-driven markets anymore.Why Now?Strategy driven by knowledge can help your company be what Drucker calls"purposefully opportunistic." Peter Drucker rightly points out that the most valuableassets of the twenty-first-century company are its knowledge and knowledge workers.[e]Drucker, like many others saw this coming for over 50 years. The recognition that thevalue of complex products rests not in the factories and buildings used for fabrication, butin the minds of people who created them, has been pronounced in the business world wellbefore Thorstein Veblen wrote about it in The Engineers and the Price System.[e] Drucker also compares these to production equipment and capital that were key to business success inthe twentieth century.Figure 1-1 shows the darling tools of managers as they evolved from the 1950s to the2000s. Some of these died much anticipated deaths as fads, and some live till this day.Notably, one consistent and pervasive thread runs through all these—about leveragingknowledge, experience, intellectual assets, and their management. And this consistentthread has led businesses to what we now call knowledge management. Figure 1-1. Managers tools through the decades: Knowledge management has been coming since the 1950s.
  15. 15. In a global economy, Davenport and Prusak suggest, "Knowledge many be yourcompanys greatest competitive advantage." Having exhausted all other sources ofcompetitive advantage such as technology and market dominance—none of which havesustained their promises—companies are befittingly placing all hopes in knowledge andits effective management. The value proposition of knowledge management is nowstronger than ever, as it is no longer a rare competitive differentiator but the onlydifferentiator.Who Should Be Pursuing Knowledge Management?
  16. 16. Two types of companies should be pursuing knowledge management. The first type isone that has realized the need to keep up with its competitors and remain a legitimateplayer through the process of maintaining knowledge that is core to its line of business.Core knowledge is the basic