Body temerature (3)


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Body temerature (3)

  1. 1. By: Dr.Yosreah Mohamed Lecturer of Medical –Surgical Nursing Department Part (I(
  2. 2. Definition of body temperature Body temperature is the balance between the heat produced by the body and theheat lost from thebody.
  3. 3. The measuring unit of body temperature Normal range of body temperature is 36 Co → 37.4 Co “oral”. Body temperature measured in units called “degrees”. It may be Fahrenheit or Centigrade.
  4. 4. Kinds of body temperature 1-Core temperature: Isthetemperatureof thedeep tissuessuch asthorax, abdominal cavity,…………… it remains relatively constant, about 37Co . .
  5. 5. Kinds of body temperature 2-Surface temperature: Isthetemperatureof theskin, and thesubcutaneoustissues and fats; it risesand fallsin responseto theenvironment
  6. 6. Heat Production Factors that affect the body’s heat production are : 1. Basalmetabolic rate“BMR” 2. Muscularactivity 3. Epinephrine, Norepinephrine, and sympathetic stimulation 4. Thyroxinoutput 5. Fever
  7. 7. Heat loss 1. Radiation 2. Conduction 3. Convection 4. Vaporization RadiationRadiation ConductionConduction Convection
  8. 8. Regulation of body temperature A. PhysiologicalA. Physiological controlcontrol B. Behavioral controlB. Behavioral control
  9. 9. Factors affecting body temperature 1. Age 2. Emotional states 3. Exercise 4. Hormonal influences 5. Diurnal variations 6. Environment 7. Ingestion of hot/cold liquids 8. Smoking
  10. 10. Alterations in body temperature Fever Definition A body temperatureabovethenormal rangeiscalled pyrexia, hyperthermia, or fever. A very high fever, such as41 Cº iscalled hyperpyrexia. Fever isusually caused by pyrogenssuch asbacteria.
  11. 11. Types of fever 1. Low gradefever : 37.5 CCoo – 38CCoo 2. Pyrexia : 38.1CCoo – 41CCoo 3. Hyperpyrexia : above41CCoo Body temperature aboveBody temperature above 4343CCoo is fatal.
  12. 12. Clinical signs of fever Onset (cold or chill stage(: 1. Increased heart rate. 2. Increased respiratory rate. 3. Shivering. 4. Pall, cold skin .
  13. 13. Onset (cold or chill stage(: 5. Complaintsof feeling cold. 6. Cyanotic nail beds. 7. Risein body temperature.
  14. 14. Clinical signs of fever Courseof fever Absenceof chills. Warm Skin. Feelingsof being neither hot nor cold. Increased pulseand respiratory rates. Increased thirst.
  15. 15. Courseof fever Mild to severedehydration. Simpledrowsiness, restlessness, and convulsions Herpetic lesionsof themouth. Lossof appetite. Malaise, weakness, and aching muscles.
  16. 16. Defervescence (fever abatement ( Skin flushed Feelswarm. Sweating. Decreased shivering. Possibledehydration.
  17. 17. Nursing interventions forclients with fever Monitor vital signs. Assessskin color and temperature. Monitor whiteblood cell count, Remove excess blankets when the client feels warm, but provide extra warmth when the client feels chilled.
  18. 18. Nursing interventions for clients with fever Provide adequate food and fluids (e.g., 2500-3000mL per day) Measureintakeand output. Maintain prescribed intravenous fluids. Reduce physical activity to limit heat production,
  19. 19. Nursing interventions for clients with fever Administer antipyreticsas ordered. Provideoral hygieneto keep themucousmembranemoist. Provideatepid spongebath Providedry clothing and bed linens
  20. 20. Heat stroke Definition: It isadangerousheat emergency which occur dueto prolonged exposureto thesun or high environmental temperature, this can depressthehypothalamic function.
  21. 21. Signs and symptoms of heat stroke Confusion,. Excessthirst. Nausea. Musclecramps. Visual disturbances. Hot, dry skin. Incontinencemay occur.
  22. 22. First aid forvictims with heat stroke Moving theclient to acooler environment. Reducing theclothing. Placing wet towelsover theskin. Using oscillating fansto increaseheat loss.
  23. 23. Hypothermia Definition: Decreasebody temperaturebelow the normal range, thiscondition occur when thebody exposed to cold, which usually develop gradually. (corebody temperaturelessthan [35]. CCoo
  24. 24. Types of hypothermia 1.Mild hypothermia:34- 35Co 2.Moderate hypothermia:30-33.8Co 3.Severhypothermia:>30Co
  25. 25. Signs and symptoms of hypothermia Uncontrolled shivering. Depression and poor judgment. Cold, paleskin. Decreased heart rateand respiration. Cyanotic skin. If thehypothermiaprogress, cardiac dysrhythmias, lossof consciousness and becomeunresponsiveto painful stimuli.
  26. 26. First aid forpatients with hypothermia If thepatient iswet, removethewet clothsand replacethem with dry ones. Warp theclient in blankets. Givehim hot fluidsto drink. Placetheclient near afireor in awarm room. Placeheating padsnext to areaof the body.
  27. 27. Assessment of body temperature Sites Thesitesused for taking temperatureshould be: Closed to prevent air currents. Haveabundant blood supply.
  28. 28. Sites formeasuring body temp 1-Oral temperature 2-Rectal temperature ** Rectal=-0.5 Co 3-Axillary temperature **Axillary= +0.5 Co 4-Aural temperature
  29. 29. Types of thermometers 1- Electronic thermometer
  30. 30. Types of thermometers 2.Mercury Glass thermometer
  31. 31. Types of thermometers 3. Tympanic membrane thermometer
  32. 32. Types of thermometers 44--ChemicalChemical thermometerthermometer
  33. 33. Contraindications foruse of the four sites of temperature measurement Oral site: Children under 6 years. Confused or convulsiveclients. Drinking or eating very hot or cold fluid or food “for 15 minutes”. Patientswith oral or nasal surgery.
  34. 34. Rectal site Rectal surgery: or inflammations. Constipation: or diarrhea. In newbornsand infants“it may causeulcerationsand rectal perfusions”.
  35. 35. Axillary site Surgery or inflammation in the axilla. Injury or fractureto thechest or thearm.
  36. 36. Tympanic membrane “aural site” Ear and tympanic membrane inflammation or surgery.