Acupuncture Neuromodulation 10.27.09 Power Point

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Presented to the Univ of Chicago Medical Center Pain Clinic. Medical doctors are finding great interest in alternative therapies for pain relief.

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  • Acupuncture Neuromodulation 10.27.09 Power Point

    1. 1. ACUPUNCTUREandNEUROMODULATION<br />~ BRIDGING ~<br />EASTERN & WESTERN <br />MEDICAL PARADIGMS<br />
    2. 2. ACUPUNCTURE ~ NEUROMODULATIONBRIDGINGEASTER & WESTERNMEDICAL PARADIGMS<br />ACUPUNCTURE<br />“Ancient Body & Modern Brain MAPPING”<br />
    3. 3. The Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Internal Medicine<br />
    4. 4. Yin Yang &Five PhaseRhythms<br />Stages of transformation that define all processes in nature <br />can be similarly described by the <br />two interpenetrating paradigms of <br />Yin Yang&Five Phases<br />Yin Yang<br />Describes the alternation between shade &suncold &heatwet &dry<br />Five Phases<br />Represent the seasons of the earth, <br />the stages of human life, the waxing and waning of YinandYang, <br />Just as day is Yangand night is Yin<br />dawn is Wood,middayFire, afternoonEarth,eveningMetal,nighttimeWater<br />Five PhaseandYin Yang<br />Concepts always illuminate and cast shadows upon each other…<br />
    5. 5. The ancient Chinese scholars discovered certain <br />Principles of energy and correlation’s to 5 basic elements <br />FIVE ELEMENT THEORY<br />It relates all energy and substance to one of the elements Fire~Earth~Metal~ Water~ Wood<br />Each element has a particular association with a color, season, taste, two body organs, an emotion, a sound, a temperature, a tissue it governs, and a direction on the compass, as well as some others.  <br />Five Element/Phase theoryis process-oriented: it runs through birth, growth, maturation, harvest and storage, and death. It was very clear to the Chinese that life was a reflection of this natural process. This model may seem foreign to us, and in modern China it is a basic part of their classical education.<br />
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    9. 9. Categories of body acupuncture points<br />Certain acupuncture points are ascribed different functions according to different systems within the TCM framework<br /><ul><li>Five TransportingPoints system describes the flow of qi in the channels using a river analogy, and ascribes functions to points along this flow-line according to their location. This system describes qi bubbling up from a spring and gradually growing in depth and breadth like a river flowing down from a mountain to the sea.
    10. 10. Jing-wellpoints represent the place where the qi "bubbles" up. These points are always the first points on the yang channels or last points on the yin channels and with exception of Kid-1 YongQuan all points are located on the tips of fingers and toes. The Nan Jing and Nei Jing described jing-well points as indicated for "fullness below the heart" (feeling of fullness in the epigastric or hypochondrium regions) and disorders of the zang organs (yin organs).
    11. 11. Ying-springpoints are where the qi "glides" down the channel. The Nan Jing and Nei Jing described ying-spring points as indicated for heat in the body and change in complexion.
    12. 12. Shu-streampoints are where the qi "pours" down the channel. Shu-stream points are indicated for heaviness in the body and pain in the joints, and for intermittent diseases.
    13. 13. Jing-riverpoints are where the qi "flows" down the channel. Jing-river points are indicated for cough and dyspnoea, chills and fever, diseases manifesting as changes in voice, and for diseases of the sinews and bones.
    14. 14. He-seapoints are where the qi collects and begins to head deeper into the body. He-sea points are indicated for counterflow qi and diarrhea, and for disorders resulting from irregular eating and drinking.
    15. 15. Five Phase Pointsascribe each of the five phases - wood, fire, earth, metal and water - to one of the Five Transporting points. On the yin channels, the jing-well points are wood points, the ying-spring points are fire, shu-stream points are earth, jing-river points are metal, he-sea points are water points. On the yang channels, the jing-well points are metal, ying-spring are water, shu-stream are wood, jing-river points are fire and he-sea points are earth points. These point categories are then implemented according to Five Phase theory in order to approach the treatment of disease.
    16. 16. Xi-cleftpoints are the point on the channel where the qi and blood gather and plunge more deeply. These points are indicated in acute situations and for painful conditions.
    17. 17. Yuan-sourcepoints are points on the channel from where the yuan qi can be accessed.
    18. 18. Luo-connectingpoints are located at the point on the channel where the luo meridian diverges. Each of the twelve meridians have a luo point that diverges from the main meridian. There are also three extra luo channels that diverge at Sp-21, Ren-15 and Du-1. Like the pith of a tangerine.
    19. 19. Back-shupoints lie on the paraspinal muscles either side of the spine. Theory says that the qi of each organ is transported to and from these points, and can be influenced by them.
    20. 20. Front-mupoints are located in close proximity to the respective organ. They have a direct effect on the organ itself but not on the associated channel. </li></li></ul><li>All the organs, sense organs and tissues are nourished, energized and warmed by the qi and blood circulating through the channel network. Using the analogy of a plant, the zangfu (yin yang organs) may be perceived as the roots of the channel, the channels themselves as the stems, and the different body tissues, and especially the sense organs, as the flowers. Thus the Heart, for example, is said to ‘flower into the tongue.<br />The theory of the channels underlies on the most significant discoveries of Chinese medicine; they form the physiological interconnections that render the body an integrated whole rather than a series of independent units.<br />Protecting the body<br />“When the pathogen comes to dwell as a guest, first it resides in the skin and body hair. If it remains and does not leave it will enter the minute connecting channels. If it remains and does not leave it will enter the luo-connecting channels. If it remains and does not leave it will enter the channels, reaching the five zang and spreading into the intestines and Stomach” Su wen/Essential Questions<br />To summarize, the entire channel network serves as a series of barriers to prevent the deeper penetration of pathogenic factors from the exterior. When contained at the exterior, the disease is relatively less serious and easier to eliminate. When your body’s resistance is lowered, or the pathogenic factor is exceptionally strong or prolonged, and the channels cannot contain the pathogenic factors at the exterior, the disease is relatively more serious and harder to cure.<br />
    21. 21. Ancient Body & Modern Brain SURFACE MAPPING<br />Researchers at the University of Utah have developed a new, more precise way of placing microelectrodes on the surface of the brain to enable patients to turn thoughts into action. Led by Bradley Greger, a professor of bioengineering, the “Brain Carpet” as it is called, represents a “modest advance” in techniques already in use. The method involves sawing off the skull of the patient, then placing 32 electrodes about 2mm apart on the surface of the brain. Though they have conducted tests on just a handful of patients — all epileptics — the technique, they believe could also be used to help people control their prosthetic limbs much more effectively. The electrodes allow detection of the electric signals in the brain which control arm and hand movements. In the tests, patients have successfully controlled a cursor on a computer screen following the operation, and they see applications for brain-machine interface devices in the future. <br />
    22. 22. Doctors placed these 40-micron-wide electrodes onto the brains of patients <br />who were already having part of their skulls removed to study epilepsy.<br />Courtesy Kelly Johnson/University of Utah Department of Neurosurgery<br /> THINKING CAP Tiny surface electrodes could help paralyzed people move<br />Bundles of microelectrode wires fan out over a small area of a human brain. These electrodes were placed by neurosurgeons at the University of Utah to see if they could detect precise brain activity associated with motor movements. To their surprise, the hair’s-width microelectrodes, originally designed to study epilepsy, picked up the firings of small groups of neurons despite being merely set on the surface of the brain. Previously, this fine tracking was possible only by inserting wire probes directly into brain tissue, a potentially risky maneuver because, though thin, the probes can still damage nerve cells during insertion. Now the researchers are testing designs that cover more of the brain’s surface.<br /> “Our goal is to develop something [that sends signals to a robotic arm] that will be implanted into paralyzed patients and gives them some control to interact with their environment,” <br />says Bradley Greger, a professor of bioengineering who oversaw the work. <br />
    23. 23. Ötzi the Iceman<br />Ötzi the Iceman (also spelled Oetzi and known also as Frozen Fritz) is the modern nickname of a well-preserved natural mummy of a man from about 3300 BC, found in 1991 in a glacier of the Ötztal Alps, near the border between Austria and Italy.<br />Ötzi the Iceman - Scientific analysis<br />He had 57 tattoos, some of which were located on or near acupuncture points that coincide with the modern points that would be used to treat symptoms of diseases that Ötzi seems to have suffered from, such as digestive parasites and osteoarthritis. Some scientists believe that these tattoos indicate an early type of acupuncture [1].<br />
    24. 24. It’s claimed that Oetzi’s many tattoos are evidence of a therapeutic medicine using the same points as Chinese acupuncture and acupressure. The evidence for this is a supposedly close correlation (around 80%) between his tattoos and acupuncture points. From this we now have the claim becoming established outside academic circles (and probably within them too) that Oetzi “received acupuncture treatments“.<br />The Tyrolian Iceman, the oldest European mummified human body with tattoos, shows some 15 groups of tattoo-lines on the back and legs. They do not seem to have decorative importance because they have a simple linear geometric shape and are located on the less visible parts of the body. The question arises as to whether they also have medical significance.<br />
    25. 25. During the last decades of this century several prehistoric human mummies with well-preserved tattoos have been found in Siberia, Peru, and Chile.<br />
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    27. 27. The Yao people say the best form of Qigong is Dancing…<br />
    28. 28. Interest in investigating acupuncture with various imaging techniqueshave been growing since the mid 1990s.<br />The development of imagingtechniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and functionalmagnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have opened a ‘window’into the brain that allows us to gain an appreciation of theanatomy and physiological function involved during acupuncturein humans and animals non-invasively. Researchers such as Alavi(1) and Cho (2) were among the first to publish in this area.<br />  Traditional Chinese Medicine Revalidated: The Effect of Specific Acupuncture Points <br />Cho et al.'s (2) work was the first to identify that specificareas of the visual cortex appeared to be activated in responseto acupuncture points in the foot in the same way as it wouldrespond to a stimulation from a light source shone into theeyes.<br />Acupuncture Division: Application of contemporary medical acupuncture as a neuromodulation technique in pain management<br /> ~ Dr. Angelica Fargas-Babjak<br />

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