Assessing facilities


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Assessing facilities

  1. 1. Assessing Facilities for Safety and Health Mechanical  Fall-related  Lifting  Heat and Temperature  Ergonomics  Fire  Noise and Vibration  Automation
  2. 2. Mechanical Hazards <ul><li>Mechanical hazards are those associated with power-driven machines, whether automated or manually operated or it is a type of general confined space hazard that exists when electrical or mechanical equipment may be accidentally activated. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Where do Mechanical Hazards Occur <ul><li>Three Basic Areas: </li></ul><ul><li>Point of Operation – cutting, shaping, boring or forming of stock </li></ul><ul><li>Power Transmission Apparatus – flywheels, pulleys, belts, connecting rods, couplings </li></ul><ul><li>Other Moving Parts – auxiliary parts of machine </li></ul>
  4. 4. Common Mechanical Injuries <ul><li>Cutting and Tearing </li></ul><ul><li>Shearing </li></ul><ul><li>Crushing </li></ul><ul><li>Breaking </li></ul><ul><li>Straining and Spraining </li></ul><ul><li>Puncturing </li></ul>
  5. 5. Common Mechanical Injuries <ul><li>Cutting and Tearing - A cut occurs when a body part comes in contact with a sharp edge. Examples of mechanisms involving cutting hazards include bandsaws, circular saws, boring or drilling machines, turning machines (lathes), or milling machines. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Common Mechanical Injuries <ul><li>Shearing - Examples of machines used for shearing operations are mechanically, hydraulically, or pneumatically powered shears. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Common Mechanical Injuries <ul><li>Crushing - They occur when a part of the body is caught between two hard surfaces that progressively move together, thereby crushing anything between them </li></ul><ul><li>Categories: </li></ul><ul><li>Squeeze-point - exist where two hard surfaces, at least one of which must be in motion, push close enough together to crush any object that may be between them. </li></ul><ul><li>Run-in point - exist where two objects, at least one of which is rotating, come progressively close together </li></ul>
  8. 8. Common Mechanical Injuries
  9. 9. Common Mechanical Injuries <ul><li>Breaking - A break in a bone is known as fracture. Fractures are classified as simple, compound, complete, and incomplete. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Common Mechanical Injuries <ul><li>Straining and Spraining - A strain results when muscles are overstretched or torn. A sprain is the result of torn ligaments in a joint. Strains and sprains can cause swelling and intense pain. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Common Mechanical Injuries <ul><li>Puncturing - results when power is applied to a slide (ram) for the purpose of blanking, drawing, or stamping metal or other materials. Typical machines used for punching operations are power presses and iron workers. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Hazardous Mechanical Motions <ul><li>Basic Types: </li></ul><ul><li>Rotating </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocating </li></ul><ul><li>Transversing </li></ul>
  13. 13. Hazardous Mechanical Motions <ul><li>Rotating - Collars, couplings, cams, clutches, flywheels, shaft ends, spindles, meshing gears, and horizontal or vertical shafting are some examples of common rotating mechanisms which may be hazardous. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Hazardous Mechanical Motions
  15. 15. Hazardous Mechanical Motions
  16. 16. Hazardous Mechanical Motions <ul><li>Reciprocating - hazardous because, during the back-and-forth or up-and-down motion, a worker may be struck by or caught between a moving and a stationary part. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Hazardous Mechanical Motions <ul><li>Transversing - (movement in a straight, continuous line) creates a hazard because a worker may be struck or caught in a pinch or shear point by the moving part. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Safeguarding Defined <ul><li>The National Safety Council defines safeguarding as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>… machine safeguarding is to minimize the risk of accidents of machine-operator contact. The contact can be: </li></ul><ul><li>An individual making the contact with the machine – usually the moving part – because of inattention caused by fatigue, distraction, curiosity, or deliberate chance taking; </li></ul><ul><li>From the machine via flying metal chips, chemical and hot metal splashes, and circular saw kickback, to name a few; </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by the direct result of a machine malfunction, including mechanical and electrical failure. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Requirements for all Safeguards <ul><li>Prevent contact </li></ul><ul><li>Secure </li></ul><ul><li>Protect from falling objects </li></ul><ul><li>Create no new hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Create no interference </li></ul><ul><li>Allow safe lubrication </li></ul>
  20. 20. Methods of Machine Safeguarding <ul><li>General Classifications: </li></ul><ul><li>Guards </li></ul><ul><li>Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding and Ejection Systems </li></ul>
  21. 21. Methods of Machine Safeguarding Guards <ul><li>Fixed Guards - a permanent barrier between workers and the point of operation. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Methods of Machine Safeguarding Guards <ul><li>Interlocked Guards – shut down the machine when the guard is not securely in place or is disengaged. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Methods of Machine Safeguarding Guards <ul><li>Adjustable Guards – provide a barrier against a variety of different hazards associated with different production operations. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Methods of Machine Safeguarding Devices <ul><li>Presence – Sensing </li></ul><ul><li>Pullback </li></ul><ul><li>Restraint </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Trip Controls </li></ul><ul><li>Two – Hand Control </li></ul><ul><li>Gate </li></ul>
  25. 25. Methods of Machine Safeguarding Devices <ul><li>Presence – Sensing </li></ul><ul><li>The photoelectric (optical) presence-sensing device uses a system of light sources and controls which can interrupt the machine's operating cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>The radiofrequency (capacitance) presence-sending device uses a radio beam that is part of the machine control circuit. </li></ul><ul><li>The electromechanical sensing device has a probe or contact bar which descends to a predetermined distance when the operator initiates the machine cycle. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Methods of Machine Safeguarding Devices <ul><li>Pullback - devices utilize a series of cables attached to the operator's hands, wrists, and/or arms. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Methods of Machine Safeguarding Devices <ul><li>Restraint - The restraint (holdout) device cables or straps that are attached to the operator's hands at a fixed point. The cables or straps must be adjusted to let the operator's hands travel within a predetermined safe area. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Methods of Machine Safeguarding Devices <ul><li>Safety Trip Controls - a quick means for deactivating the machine in an emergency situation. A pressure-sensitive body bar, when depressed, will deactivate the machine. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Methods of Machine Safeguarding Devices <ul><li>Two – Hand Control - requires constant, concurrent pressure by the operator to activate the machine. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Methods of Machine Safeguarding Devices <ul><li>Gate - movable barrier that protects the operator at the point of operation before the machine cycle can be started. Gates are, in many instances, designed to be operated with each machine cycle. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Methods of Machine Safeguarding Devices
  32. 32. Methods of Machine Safeguarding Feeding and Ejections Systems <ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic Feed </li></ul><ul><li>Semiautomatic feed </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic Ejection </li></ul><ul><li>Semiautomatic Ejection </li></ul>
  33. 33. Robot Safeguarding <ul><li>The main hazards associated with robots are: (1) entrapment of a worker between a robot and a solid surface; (2) impact with a moving robot arm; and (3) impact with objects ejected or dropped by the robot. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Robot Safeguarding <ul><li>The best guard against these hazards is to erect a physical barrier around the entire perimeter of a robot’s work envelope (the three-dimensional area established by the robot’s full range of motion). This physical barrier should be able to withstand the force of the heaviest object the robot could eject. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Lockout/Tagout Systems <ul><li>In a lockout system a padlock is placed through a gate covering the activating mechanism or is applied in some other manner to prevent machine from being turned on until the lock is removed. </li></ul><ul><li>A tagout system is exactly like a lockout system except a tag is substituted for the lock. Tags should be used only in cases where a lock is not feasible. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Causes of falls: </li></ul><ul><li>A foreign object on the walking surface Ex: hoses, cords, cables, debris </li></ul><ul><li>A design flaw in the walking surface Ex: poorly designed floor covering, ladders that do not seat properly, uneven walking surfaces and steps/thresholds </li></ul>Falling and Lifting Hazards
  37. 37. <ul><li>Slippery surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>An individual’s impaired physical condition </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: visual distractions, aging employees </li></ul>Causes of Falls
  38. 38. <ul><li>Trip and fall - employee’s foot strikes unseen foreign objects then trips and falls </li></ul><ul><li>Stump and fall - worker’s foot meets sticky surface or defect in the walking surface </li></ul><ul><li>Step and fall - unexpected step down or holes in the floor </li></ul><ul><li>Slip and fall - center of gravity is suddenly thrown out of balance (usually caused by slippery surfaces) </li></ul>Kinds of Falls
  39. 39. <ul><li>stable platform </li></ul><ul><li>“ a walking surface with high degree of traction, free from obstructions and therefore safe” </li></ul>Walking and Slipping
  40. 40. <ul><li>coefficient of friction </li></ul><ul><li>- “a numerical correlation of the resistance of one surface (a shoe) against another surface (the floor)” </li></ul>Measuring Surface Traction
  41. 41. <ul><li>A huge factor in reducing slips and falls is good housekeeping . </li></ul><ul><li> Water, soap, oil, coolant, and cleaning solvents left on the floor can decrease traction and become a hazardous zone for workers. </li></ul>Factors that Decreases Traction
  42. 42. <ul><li>Choose the right material from the outset - selection of materials that have the highest possible coefficient of friction </li></ul><ul><li>Practice good housekeeping - keep floors clean and dry, placing warning signs </li></ul><ul><li>Require nonskid footwear </li></ul><ul><li>Inspect surfaces frequently – regular inspections and act immediately when hazards are identified </li></ul>Strategies for Preventing Slips
  43. 43. <ul><li>Retrofit an existing surface - enhancing the friction of surface instead of replacing Ex: runners, skid strips, grooves, abrasive coatings, grills, and textured coverings. </li></ul>Strategies for Preventing Slips
  44. 44. <ul><li>A policy statement/commitment - management’s intent, scope of activity, responsibility, accountability, the safety professional’s role, authority, standards </li></ul><ul><li>Review and acceptance of walkways – contains criteria used for reviewing all walking surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Reconditioning and retrofitting - recommendations and timetable for reconditioning or retrofitting </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance standards and procedures - meet the maintenance standards for walking surfaces </li></ul>Slip and Fall Prevention Program
  45. 45. <ul><li>Inspection, audits, tests, and records - list of inspections, audits, tests, and result records </li></ul><ul><li>Employee footwear program - s pecify the type of footwear </li></ul><ul><li>Defense methods for legal claims – outline company’s legal defenses against lawsuits </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement of results - explanation of how program will be evaluated </li></ul>Slip and Fall Prevention Program
  46. 46. <ul><li>begin from the fall, and then the worker’s rate of fall accelerates until striking a surface, which is the impact </li></ul><ul><li>objects slung from machines or the grips of other coworkers, becoming hazardous to the heads, faces, feet, and eyes of the employees </li></ul>Impact and Acceleration Hazards
  47. 47. <ul><li>OSHA adopted ANSI standard Z89-1986 </li></ul><ul><li>Hard hats are tested and designed: </li></ul><ul><li>For impact penetration and resistance to electrical insulation </li></ul><ul><li>To withstand a 40-foot-pound impact </li></ul><ul><li>To limit penetration of sharp objects and provide some lateral penetration protection </li></ul>Head Protection
  48. 48. <ul><li>OSHA adopted ANSI standard Z87.1-1989 </li></ul><ul><li>Eye and face protective devices should pass two impact tests: </li></ul><ul><li>A high mass, low-speed test </li></ul><ul><li>A low mass, high-speed test </li></ul>Eye and Face Protection
  49. 49. <ul><li>Falls/impact from sharp and/or heavy objects </li></ul><ul><li>Compression when rolled over by or pressed between heavy objects </li></ul><ul><li>Punctures through the sole of the foot </li></ul><ul><li>Conductivity of electricity or heat </li></ul><ul><li>Electrocution from contact with an energized, conducting material </li></ul><ul><li>Slips on unstable walking surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Hot liquid or metal splashed into shoes </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature extremes </li></ul><ul><li>* steel toe cap should withstand 75 foot lbs of impact and 2500 pounds of compression </li></ul>Foot Protection
  50. 50. Lifting Hazards <ul><li>Improper lifting can cause all sorts of back injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Other causes: improper reaching, sitting, and bending </li></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>Display poster illustrations - placed strategically throughout the workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-employment screening - initial screenings </li></ul><ul><li>Regular safety inspections - periodic inspections </li></ul><ul><li>Education and training </li></ul><ul><li>Use external services - external health care agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Map out the prevention program – policies incorporated and updated in company’s overall health and safety program </li></ul>Back Safety/Lifting Program
  52. 52. NIOSH Lifting Guidelines <ul><li>National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) developed guidelines for lifting and lowering in 1981 </li></ul><ul><li>Revised in 1993 - addition of multi-task analysis strategy  method for considering a variety of related lifting variables and how they interact </li></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>Are foreign objects present on the walking surface or in walking paths? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there design flaws in the walking surface? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there slippery areas on the walking surface? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there raised or lowered sections of the walking surface that might trip a worker? </li></ul><ul><li>Is good housekeeping being practiced? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the walking surface made of or covered with a nonskid material? </li></ul><ul><li>Are employees wearing nonskid footwear as appropriate? </li></ul>Assessing Fall Related Hazards
  54. 54. Assessing Lifting Hazards <ul><li>Are posters that illustrate proper lifting techniques displayed strategically throughout the workplace? </li></ul><ul><li>Are machines and other lifting aids available to assist employees in situations where loads to be lifted are too heavy and/or bulky? </li></ul><ul><li>Are employees who are involved in lifting using personal protective devices? </li></ul>
  55. 55. Thermal Hazards <ul><li>Comfort depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humidity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air Distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Preference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acclimatization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The physiological adaptation to changes in climate or environment, such as light, temperature, or altitude. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Basic Concepts of Thermal Energy <ul><li>Conduction – transfer of heat between two bodies that are touching, or from another location to another within a body. </li></ul><ul><li>Convection – transfer of heat from one location to another by way of a moving medium (a gas or a liquid). </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic heat – is produced within a body as a result of activity that burns energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental heat – is produced by external sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Radiant heat – is the result of electromagnetic non-ionizing energy that is transmitted through space without the movement of matter within that space. </li></ul>
  57. 57. The Body’s Response to Heat <ul><li>Human body balances between metabolic heat and environmental heat through sweating and subsequent evaporation of sweat </li></ul><ul><li>Alpaugh: </li></ul><ul><li>where: </li></ul><ul><li>H = body heat </li></ul><ul><li>M = internal heat gain (metabolic) </li></ul><ul><li>R = radiant heat gain </li></ul><ul><li>C = convection heat gain </li></ul><ul><li>E = evaporation (cooling) </li></ul>Heat stress occurs when heat gain from any source or sources is more than the body can compensate for by sweating H = M ± R ± C – E
  58. 58. Heat Stroke <ul><li>Factors that make an individual susceptible to heat stroke: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor physical condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol intake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prolonged exertion in a hot environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immerse in chilled water if possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrap in wet thin sheets, fan </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Heat Stroke <ul><li>Prevention: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical screening as part of employment process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradual acclimatization to hot working conditions spread over at least a full week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotating workers out of the hot environment at specified intervals during the day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of personal protective clothing that is cooled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light fitting ice vest with 60 small pockets of ice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vinyl one-piece coverall with a built-in air distribution system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring employees carefully and continually </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Heat Exhaustion <ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea and or vomiting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Headache </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lightheadedness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clammy, moist skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pale or flushed complexion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fainting when trying to stand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid pulse </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Heat Exhaustion <ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Move to cool area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rest lying down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take fluids by mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replenish electrolytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>*Electrolytes are minerals that are needed in order for the body to maintain the proper metabolism and in order for cells to produce energy. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevention: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradual acclimatization over at least a week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees working in the heat should have such fluids readily available and drink them frequently </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Heat Cramps <ul><li>A type of heat stress that occur as a result of salt and potassium depletion. </li></ul><ul><li>Water without salt exacerbates the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle spasms in arms, legs and abdomen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replenish the body’s salt and potassium supply orally </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevention: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acclimatize workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drink appropriate fluids </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. Heat Rash <ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Move the victim to cooler, less humid environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean the affected area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change wet clothes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply special lotions to affected areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevention: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cool, non humid environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodically changing into dry clothing </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Heat Fatigue <ul><li>Transient Heat Fatigue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manifest itself in temporary impaired performance (mental or physical) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention: acclimatization and physical conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chronic Heat Fatigue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t abate after an appropriate rest period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment: victims should be moved into positions that do not involve working in a hot environment </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. Burns and their Effects <ul><li>Functions of the human skin </li></ul>Respiration Excretion Secretion Heat regulation Sensation Protection
  66. 66. Burns and their Effects <ul><li>SEVERITY OF BURNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depth to which the burn penetrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location of the burn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age of the victim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of burned area </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. Severity of Burns <ul><li>First Degree Burns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mild inflammation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. sunburn </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second degree </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blisters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>210 °F, 15 seconds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Third degree </li></ul><ul><ul><li>damage to epidermis and dermis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can be caused by moist and dry hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moist: steam and hot liquids -> white burns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dry: fire and hot objects or surfaces -> black and charred </li></ul></ul></ul>
  68. 68. Severity of Burns <ul><li>Estimating % of body surface area (BSA) </li></ul>1% of BSA Perineum 18% of BSA Chest/stomach 18% of BSA Back 18% of BSA Light leg 18% of BSA Right leg 9% of BSA Head/neck 9% of BSA Left arm 9% of BSA Right arm
  69. 69. Severity of Burns <ul><li>Minor Burns </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate Burns </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Burns </li></ul>
  70. 70. Chemical Burns <ul><li>Destroy body tissue until washed away </li></ul><ul><li>Severity of burn depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrosive capability of chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature of chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration of contact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid Loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shock </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First Aid: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flood the area with lots of water as quickly as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove employee’s clothes </li></ul></ul>
  71. 71. Harmful effects of widely used chemical Tissue damage Trichloracetic acid Ignites with moisture causing thermal burns Soduim (metal) Corrosive/caustic effect in the skin Silver nitrate Ignites in air causing thermal burns White phosphorus Ulceration and tissue damage Oxalic acid Severe burns and tissue damage Nitric/sulfuric adic mixture Blisters Methylbromide Dermatits and eye burns Lime Tissue hardening Formaldehyde Corrosive effect on the respiratory system and tissue damage Liquid bromide Tissue damage Acetic acid Potential Harmful Effect Chemical
  72. 72. Cold Hazards <ul><li>Windchill Factor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is the cooling effect produced by a combination of temperature, wind velocity and or air movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypothermia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the condition that results when the body’s core temperature drops to dangerously low levels. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A person’s susceptibility to hypothermia is increased by sedative drugs and alcohol </li></ul></ul>
  73. 73. Cold Hazards <ul><li>Observable symptoms of hypothermia: </li></ul><ul><li>Uncontrollable shivering </li></ul><ul><li>Sensation of cold </li></ul><ul><li>Weakened pulse </li></ul><ul><li>Slow or irregular heartbeat </li></ul><ul><li>Slow, slurred speech </li></ul><ul><li>Incoherence and confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Memory lapses </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue or listlessness </li></ul><ul><li>Exhaustion </li></ul>
  74. 74. Cold Hazards <ul><li>Frostbite </li></ul><ul><li>Frostnip </li></ul><ul><li>Trenchfoot </li></ul>
  75. 75. Cold Stress Prevention <ul><li>Medical supervision and screening </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation and training </li></ul><ul><li>Work practices </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering and administrative controls </li></ul>
  76. 76. Ergonomic Hazards <ul><li>The elements of work design include the design of the work station , tools and equipment , the physical environment and general work organization . </li></ul><ul><li>Work design affects those who work in a wide variety of occupations and workplaces. </li></ul><ul><li>musculoskeletal injury </li></ul>
  77. 77. Common Musculoskeletal Injuries – Arms and Legs <ul><li>Bursitis </li></ul><ul><li>Epicondylitis - “tennis elbow” </li></ul><ul><li>Carpal Tunnel Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Ganglion Cyst </li></ul><ul><li>Tendinitis </li></ul><ul><li>Tenosynovitis - Trigger Finger </li></ul><ul><li>Sprains and Strains </li></ul><ul><li>White Finger Disease </li></ul>
  78. 78. Musculoskeletal Injuries - Back <ul><li>Degenerative Disc Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Herniated Disc </li></ul><ul><li>Pinched nerve </li></ul><ul><li>Strains and sprains </li></ul>
  79. 79. Common Causes of Musculoskeletal Injuries <ul><li>Posture </li></ul><ul><li>Exertion </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Vibration </li></ul><ul><li>Work Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Work Enviornment </li></ul>
  80. 80. Workplace Assessment/Inspection <ul><li>Four Stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review and Reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow up </li></ul></ul>
  81. 81. Preparation – Important Data <ul><li>Workplace Layout : What goes on where and when, and what materials are used? </li></ul><ul><li>Standards : What legal regulations, industry standards and employer rules apply to the processes and equipment used in the work area? </li></ul><ul><li>Controls : What controls, emergency procedures and protective equipment are used there? </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Indicators : What concerns have been reported about this area that may indicate potential hazards? </li></ul>
  82. 82. Inspection <ul><li>talk with workers and supervisors and consider expressed concerns and points of view; </li></ul><ul><li>use human senses, including common sense supported by adequate knowledge and training. </li></ul>
  83. 83. Review and Reporting <ul><li>The written report should state the place, date and time of the inspection and name the person who conducted it. </li></ul><ul><li>The findings of the report should describe the potential hazards identified, classify them by priority categories and provide any other relevant information. </li></ul><ul><li>The inspection report becomes a permanent record and should be posted in the workplace for the information of workers and supervisors. It also becomes part of the pre-inspection information for the next inspection of that work area </li></ul>
  84. 84. Follow-up <ul><li>“Preventive maintenance” </li></ul><ul><li>makes sure that the information provided in the inspection report is acted upon in a timely manner </li></ul>
  85. 85. Fire Hazards <ul><li>conditions that favor fire development or growth </li></ul>FIRE
  86. 86. Life Cycle of Fire <ul><li>Source of ignition </li></ul><ul><li>(spark, open flame or high temperature) </li></ul><ul><li>Source of fuel or oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>(fuels: solid, liquid, gas) </li></ul><ul><li>Source of death </li></ul><ul><li>(the broken triangle) </li></ul>
  87. 87. The broken triangle
  88. 88. Types of Fuel Extremely active oxidizers or mixtures, flammables containing oxygen, nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, solid missile propellants. Special Categories Combustible, easily oxidized metals such as aluminum, magnesium, titanium and zirconium D Electrical (live electricity situations excluding fires in other materials started by electricity) C Flammable liquids and gasses B Solid Materials: wood, plastics, textiles and their products: paper, housing, clothing A Type of Fuel Class Table 13-1 Classes of Fire
  89. 89. Liquid Fuel Flash point at or above 200F Class 2-B Flash point at or above 140F, but below 200F Class 2-A Flash point at or above 100F, but below 140F Class 2 Combustible Liquids Flash point at or above 73F, but below 100F Class 1-C Flash point below 73F, boiling point at or above 100F Class 1-B Flash point below 73F, boiling point below 100F Class 1-A Flammable Liquids Table 13-2 Classes of Flammable and Combustible Liquids
  90. 90. Classification of Fire Hazard Substances <ul><li>National Fire Protection Association </li></ul><ul><li>Colored Labels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red : Flammability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue: Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow: Reactivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White: Special Information </li></ul></ul>
  91. 91. this area is used to note any special hazards presented by the material SPECIAL INFORMATION = white background and bottom quarter of the diamond constant extreme hazard 4 extreme hazard 3 moderate hazard 2 slight hazard 1 no hazard 0 REACTIVE = yellow background and right quarter of the diamond imminent danger to health 4 extremely dangerous to health 3 moderate health hazard 2 slight health hazard 1 no threat to health 0 HEALTH = blue background and left quarter of the diamond extremely flammable gasses 4 extreme fire hazard 3 moderate hazard 2 slight hazard 1 no hazard 0 FLAMMABILITY = red background and top quarter of the diamond Table 13-3 Identification of Fire Hazards
  92. 92. Fire Dangers to Humans <ul><li>Flesh burns </li></ul><ul><li>Suffocation </li></ul>
  93. 93. Detection of Fire Hazards <ul><ul><li>Thermal expansion detectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>uses a heat sensitive metal link that melts at a predetermined temperature to make contact and ultimately sound an alarm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photoelectric fire sensors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>detect changes in infrared energy that is radiated by smoke, often by the smoke particles obscuring the photoelectric beam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ionization or radiation sensors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>uses the tendency of a radioactive substance to ionize when exposed to smoke </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultraviolet or infrared detectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sounds an alarm when the radiation from fire flames are detected. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  94. 94. Reducing Fire Hazards <ul><li>Proper storage of flammable liquids </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminating source of ignition </li></ul><ul><li>Proper fire extinguishing equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul>
  95. 95. Storage of Flammable Liquids <ul><ul><li>In flame-resistant buildings that are isolated from places where people work. Proper drainage and venting should be provided for such buildings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In tanks below ground level. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On the first floor of multistory buildings. </li></ul></ul>
  96. 96. Eliminating Source of Ignition <ul><li>Smoking should be prohibited near any possible fuels. </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical sparks from equipment, wiring, or lightning should not be close to fuels. </li></ul><ul><li>Open flames should be kept separate from fuels. These may include welding torches, heating elements, or furnaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Tools or equipment that may produce mechanical or static sparks must also be isolated from fuels. </li></ul>
  97. 97. Fire Extinguishing System <ul><li>Stand Pipe and hose systems </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provides the hose and pressurized water for fire fighting. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Automatic sprinkler system </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>this is an example of a fixed extinguishing system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>water in sprinkler flows to the heads and is released upon the detection of fire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Portable Fire Extinguishers </li></ul>
  98. 98. Portable Fire Extinguisher expensive cover of powder may be broken with resultant reignition cooling, smothering specialized powders such as graphite, sand D halogenated compounds are toxic; fires may ignite after CO2 dissipates chain-breaking smothering, cooling, shielding bromotrifluoromethane, CO2, dry chemical C halogenated compounds are toxic chain-breaking smothering, cooling, shielding dry chemical, bromotrifluoromethane, and other haloganted compounds, foam, CO2, dry chemical B freezing if not kept heated cooling smothering dilution, breaks the fire, reaction chain foam, water, dry chemical A Disadvantages Mechanism Extinguisher Contents Fire Class Table 13-4 Fire Extinguisher Classes
  99. 99. Training <ul><li>Train employees </li></ul>Prevention <ul><li>Prevent office fires </li></ul>
  100. 100. Prevention of Office Fire <ul><li>Confine smoking to designated areas that are equipped with nontip ashtrays and fire-resistant furnishings. </li></ul><ul><li>Periodically check electrical circuits and connections. Replace frayed or worn cords immediately. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure that extension cords and other accessories are approved by UL (Underwriter’s Laboratory) and used only as recommended. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure there is plenty of air space left around copying machines and other office machines that might overheat. </li></ul><ul><li>Locate heat-producing appliances away from the wall or anything else that could ignite. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently inspect personal appliances such as hot plates, coffee pots, and cup warmers. Assign a specific person responsible for turning off such appliances everyday. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep aisles, stairwells and exits clear of paper, boxes and other combustible products. </li></ul>
  101. 101. OSHA Fire Standards <ul><li>29 C.F.R. (Subpart L) </li></ul><ul><li>monthly and annual inspection and recording of the condition of fire extinguishers in industrial setting </li></ul>
  102. 102. Subpart L:OSHA Fire Standards <ul><li>Fire Protection </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scope, application and definitions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fire brigades </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Portable Fire Suppression Equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Portable fire extinguishers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standpipe and hose systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Fixed Fe Suppression Equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic sprinkler system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed extinguishing systems, general </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Fire Protection System </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fire detection systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>employee alarm systems </li></ul></ul></ul>
  103. 103. <ul><li>Sound-a change in pressure that can be detected by an ear. </li></ul><ul><li>It can also be a change in water pressure and other pressure-sensitive medium </li></ul><ul><li>Noise is an unwanted sound </li></ul><ul><li>Unit of measurement is decibel </li></ul>Noise and Vibration Hazards
  104. 104. <ul><li>Vibration is a nonaudible sensation that can be perceived through touch </li></ul><ul><li>Sound is perceived through inner ear as hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Threshold for hearing-weakest sound (10 dBA) </li></ul><ul><li>Threshold of pain-max sound level without experiencing pain (140 dBA) </li></ul>Vibration
  105. 105. Three Broad Types of Industrial Noise <ul><li>Wide band noise-wide range of frequencies like in manufacturing machines </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow band noise- narrow range of frequencies like power tools </li></ul><ul><li>Impulse noise- transient pulses that occurs repetitively or nonrepetitively like jack hammer </li></ul>
  106. 106. Hazard Levels and Risks <ul><li>Intensity of the noise (sound pressure level) </li></ul><ul><li>Type of noise </li></ul><ul><li>Duration of daily exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Total duration of exposure (no of years) </li></ul><ul><li>Age of the individual </li></ul><ul><li>Coexisting hearing disease </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of environment in which exposure occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Distance of the individual from the source of the noise </li></ul><ul><li>Position of the ears relative to the sound waves </li></ul>
  107. 107. McDonald’s General Rule for Dealing Noise in the Workplace <ul><li>Exposures of less than 80 dBA is considered safe </li></ul><ul><li>A level of 90 dBA should be considered as maximum limit of continuous exposure over 8-hr days without protection </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous level of exposure of 115 dBA or higher should not be allowed </li></ul><ul><li>Impulse noises should be limited to 140 dBA per 8-hr day for continuous exposure </li></ul>
  108. 108. OSHA Regulation <ul><li>OSHA adopted Hearing Conservation Amendment to OSHA 29 CFR 1910.95 that requires employers to implement hearing conservation programs </li></ul>
  109. 109. OSHA Requirement <ul><li>Monitoring noise levels </li></ul><ul><li>Medical surveillance </li></ul><ul><li>Noise controls </li></ul><ul><li>Personal protection </li></ul><ul><li>Education and training </li></ul>
  110. 110. Identifying Noise and Assessing Hazardous Noise Conditions <ul><li>Noise surveys-measuring of noise levels in different locations using sound level meter or dosimeter </li></ul><ul><li>Audiometric testing-measures the hearing threshold of employees which can detect changes in the hearing threshold of the employee using audiogram </li></ul><ul><li>Record keeping-record tests result of employees for future comparissons </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up-to verify hearing loss, change or improve type of protection used, conduct noise survey, testing other employees </li></ul>
  111. 111. Noise can be reduced through: <ul><li>Engineering controls-attempts to reduce noise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance, substitution of machines and processes, reduce vibrating surfaces, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Administrative noise- controls the limit of human exposure to noise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change of production schedules, job rotations, etc </li></ul></ul>
  112. 112. Vibration Hazards <ul><li>Tools that produces vibration also produce excessive levels of noise </li></ul><ul><li>Can cause physical problems ranging from motion sickness to spinal injury to hand-arm vibration syndrome which may be irreversible </li></ul>
  113. 113. Automation Hazards
  114. 114. Automation Risk Assessment <ul><li>assemble a team to conduct the assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Review the operation of the equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Identify specific tasks that can affect workers who come into contact with the equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Assess each hazard and assign a level of risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>expected severity of the injury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>probability of occurrence </li></ul></ul>
  115. 115. <ul><li>To determine the probability of occurrence, the following factors must be taken into account: </li></ul><ul><li>• Frequency and duration of exposure to a hazard. </li></ul><ul><li>• Hazard avoidability. </li></ul>Automation Risk Assessment